Only Four Parts of Speech – Part 5 – लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः
Words of this category have no visible suffix. No visible suffix is not to be understood as there being no suffix. There is पाणिनि सूत्रम् – अदर्शनं लोपः (१-१-६०) which wants us to understand that if something is not visible does not mean that it does not exist. Not being visible is to be understood that it has gone out of sight, means that it got dropped off. It is like a dolphin to have dived below the water surface.
लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः are (1) Interjections and exclamatory words (2) conjunctions (3) adverbs (4) verbal auxiliaries (5) लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः in figures of speech
(1) Interjections and exclamatory words
In English grammar Interjections are words used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion. They are included in a sentence (usually at the start) to express a sentiment such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement, or enthusiasm.
Following information is given at http://www.grammar-monster.com/lessons/interjections.htm about interjections
- An interjection is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.
Examples of interjections (shaded):
- Hey! Get off that floor!
- Oh, that is a surprise.
- Good! Now we can move on.
- Jeepers, that was close.
Yes and No – Introductory expressions such as yes, no, indeed, and well are also classed as interjections.
- Indeed, this is not the first time the stand has collapsed.
- Yes, I do intend to cover the bet.
- I’m sure I don’t know half the people who come to my house. Indeed, for all I hear, I shouldn’t like to. (Oscar Wilde)
- Well, it’s 1 a.m. Better go home and spend some quality time with the kids. (Homer Simpson)
Some interjections are sounds. See these examples:
- Phew! I am not trying that again.
- Humph! I knew that last week.
- Um ! my compliments to the chef.
- Ah! Don’t say you agree with me. When people agree with me, I always feel that I must be wrong. (Oscar Wilde)
In human speech all over the world, hence in all languages, there are interjections. Some sounds are in fact universal.
It would often be difficult to write every sound. In Sanskrit grammar it has been analyzed that a vowel may be uttered in 18 different ways. It may not be possible, rather it would be impossible to write in 18 different ways.
The analysis of 18 different ways of uttering is as follows –
- Utterance may be nasal अनुनासिक or plain अननुनासिक (2 main categories)
- Whether nasal or not nasal, in both of these, the pronunciation may be short ह्रस्व, long दीर्घ or extended (2×3 = 6 ways)
- In each of these six, the pronunciation could be stressed, light or average (6 x 3 = 18)
And many of these 18 different ways could be meaningful. For example,
- a short nasal अ (अङ्) with an interrogative tone would often mean, “Excuse me, did you say something ? I was not listening.”
- a long nasal अ (अङ् ऽ ऽ ) would often mean, “Isn’t that naughty ?”
- a short, plain (not nasal) repetitive अ (अ, अ) would often mean, “Excuse me, I want to say something.”
Interjections and exclamatory words would be too large to list them. Some examples
- अधर्मोऽभिभवति उत (गीता 1-40)
- अहो बत महत्पापम् (गीता 1-45)
- य उ विद्यायां रताः (ईशावास्योपनिषत्)
(2) conjunctions – There are conjunctions for relating two or more words or phrases with each other. For example –
- मामकाः पाण्डवाः च (गीता 1-1)
- यत् वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः (गीता 2-6)
(3) Adverbs – There are conjunctions also for relating two or more clauses with each other. Adverbial sub-clauses are either of time or of place or of manner or of reason/purpose. Accordingly the conjunctions are by pairs. There is an interrogative related to each pair, which is mentioned in brackets
- time (when) यदा-तदा (कदा)
- place (where) यत्र-तत्र (कुत्र)
- manner (how) यथा-तथा (कथम्)
- (why) reason (if-then) /purpose (because-hence) यतः-ततः or हि or यदि-तर्हि (किमर्थम्)
There are more shades in the usage of above adverbs. For example,
- while यावत् or until तावत्
- at all times सर्वदा
- any time कदापि
- never न कदापि
- whenever यदाकदापि
- sometime or other कदाचित् or कदाचन
- In न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचित् (गीता 2-20) कदाचित् is used in the sense of कदापि
- with न both कदाचित् and कदाचन i.e. न कदाचित् and न कदाचन get the sense of “never”.
- day before yesterday, yesterday, today, tomorrow, day after tomorrow. In Sanskrit one has words to cover 3 days previous to today and three days after today – प्रपरह्यः, परह्यः, ह्यः, अद्य, श्वः, परश्वः, प्रपरश्वः
- now, अधुना/इदानीम् presently सद्यः
- later अनन्तरम् afterwards पश्चात् soon, sooner
- before, ahead of पूर्वम् ago, long time ago पुरा
- again पुनः again and again पुनःपुनः
- at 5 o’clock पञ्चवादनसमये
- at quarter past five सपाद-पञ्चवादनसमये
- at half past five सार्ध्-पञ्चवादनसमये
- at quarter to six पादोन-षड्वादनसमये
Actually, in Sanskrit, units of measurement of time have been different. The units span the dimension of time from very minute to very huge, from क्षण, लव, निमिष, कला विकला to युग मन्वन्तर कल्प, even to thousands of युग-s
- See the mention in गीता that one day of ब्रह्मा is equal to one thousand युग-s सहस्रयुगपर्यन्तम् अहर्यद्ब्रह्मणो विदुः (गीता 8-17)
- See also this mention of units of time – काष्ठाः कला मुहूर्ताश्च दिवा रात्रिस्तथा लवाः | मासाः पक्षाः षड् ऋतवः कल्पः संवत्सरस्तथा ||श्रीमद्भागवतम् १२-१३७-२१||
The adverb “before” has connotations both for time and place. When the context is of place, i.e. in the sense of “in front of” Sanskrit equivalent is पुरतः or पुरस्तात्
Likewise the word पश्चात् has connotations both for time and place. When the context is of place, i.e. “behind or after”. For example after him = तस्य पश्चात्
- In गणपत्यथर्वशीर्षस्तोत्रम् there are मन्त्र-s अव पश्चात्तात्, अव पुरस्तात् Here the word पश्चात् has been further modified as पश्चात्तात् meaning “from behind”.
- Likewise पुरस्तात् means “from the front”. In English the word “front” is a noun.
It would be good to study, how all the words above are detailed in the dictionary. They are all “indeclinable”s अव्ययानि.
But it can be seen that the words कदाचित्, कदाचन, पुरतः, पुरस्तात्, पश्चात्तात् have प्रत्यय-s चित्, चन, तः, तात् and तात् respectively. If there are प्रत्यय-s, it means that the words कदा पुरस् पश्चात् have suffered a change. That means these words are not exactly indeclinable.
In fact I would like to make a closer examination of many of the above indeclinables from a totally different perspective of associated pronouns
|Pronoun||Conjunction / Adverb of time||Conjunction / Adverb of place||Conjunction / Adverb of manner||Conjunction / Adverb of reason or purpose|
|यत्||यदा / यावत्||यत्र / यावत्||यथा||यतः|
|तत्||तदा / तावत्||तत्र / तावत्||तथा||ततः|
|Interrogative किम्||कदा||कुत्र||कथम्||कुतः किमर्थम्|
|अदस् (इदम् एतत्)||अधुना (इदानीम्)||अत्र||इत्थम् एवम्||अतः|
The above table brings forth a close connection between the pronouns and the adverbs. So, though the dictionary mentions these as indeclinable, aren’t there obvious patterns or प्रत्यय-s in the formation of these words, may be, प्रत्यय दा for time, प्रत्यय त्र for place, प्रत्यय था for manner प्रत्यय तः for reason or purpose ?
The conjunction सह connects two nouns or pronouns. For example रामेण सह सीता or सीतया सह रामः It should be noted that one of the two nouns needs to be in the third case.
The words समम् and सार्धम् also should be with concerned noun in third case. For example
- in नास्ति विद्यासमं धनम् – विद्यासमम् = विद्यया समम्
- सार्धम् ind. Together with, with, in company with (with instr.); वनं मया सार्धमसि प्रपन्नः R.14.63
But these are not exactly लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः.
(4) verbal auxiliaries
In Sanskrit transformation from affirmative to negative is simply done by a verbal auxiliary न or मा. For example,
- Do not do that = तन्मा कुरु (तत् मा कुरु)
- That is not to be done = तन्न कर्तव्यम् (तत् न कर्तव्यम्)
As mentioned in the above table transformation from affirmative or negative to interrogative is done by
- using Interrogative किम् e.g. Would you go ? त्वं गच्छसि किम् ?
- using सुबन्त-s of किम् e.g. Whose son ? कस्य पुत्रः ?
- using अपि e.g. Would you go ? अपि गच्छसि ? Note, अपि is to be used at the beginning of the sentence.
- or simply by using an interrogative tone Would you go ? गच्छसि ?
Auspicious beginning is pronounced by ॐ and/or अथ
In English direct speech is quoted between quotes “..”. And there are rules for transforming direct speech to indirect. In Sanskrit, there is no Indirect speech. Instead of quotes, one uses इति. For example, He said, “I go” सोऽवददहं गच्छामीति (सः अवदत् अहं गच्छामि इति)
(5) लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः in figures of speech
One common figure of speech is simile. For example
- Lotus-like eyes कमलम् इव नेत्रम्
Another common figure of speech is metaphor. For example
- Knowledge is wealth विद्या एव धनम्
There are other usages of these लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्द-s. For example
- भ्रमतीव (भ्रमति इव) च मे मनः (गीता 1-30) Here इव has the sense of “as if”
In Apte’s dictionary इव is detailed as –
इव ind. 1 Like, as (showing उपमा or comparison); वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ R.1.1; वैनतेय इव विनतानन्दनः K.5. -2 As if, as it were (denoting उत्प्रेक्षा); पश्यामीव पिनाकिनम् Ś.1.6. लिम्पतीव तमोङ्गानि वर्षतीवाञ्जनं नभः Mk.1.34. -3 Little, somewhat, perhaps; कडार इवायम् G. M. -4 (Added to interrogative words), ‘Possibly’, ‘I should like to know’, ‘indeed’; विना सीतादेव्या किमिव हि न दुःखं रघुपतेः U.6.3; क इव of what sort, what like; क इव कालः Māl.2; what a long time has elapsed. -5 इव is frequently used with adverbs, especially with such as involve restriction, by way of emphasis in the sense of even or just so, just, exactly, quite, indeed, very; मुहूर्तमिव but for a moment; किंचिदिव just a little bit; so ईषदिव, नाचिरादिव, &c.; (इव is considered by grammarians as forming compounds with the word after which it stands; इवेन समासो विभक्त्यलोपश्च Vārt. on P.II.4.71. Sk.). -Comp. -उपमा f. A simile in which इव is used. Bk.1.41 is given as an illustration of इवोपमा.
For examples of usages of एव –
- सर्वे एव महारथाः (गीता 1-6) Here एव has the sense of inclusiveness
- In a सुभाषितम् – अश्वं नैव गजं नैव व्याघ्रं नैव च नैव च – नैव means ‘not at all’ Here the word एव is used with a sense of emphasis.
In Apte’s dictionary एव is detailed as below, giving 14 different perceptions for meaning and usage of the word –
एव ind. This particle is most frequently used to strengthen and emphasize the idea expressed by a word :– (1) Just, quite, exactly; एवमेव quite so, just so; (2) same, very, identical; अर्थोष्मणा विरहितः पुरुषः स एव Bh.2.4 that very man; (3) only, alone, merely, (implying exclusion); सा तथ्यमेवाभिहिता भवेन Ku.3.63 only the truth, nothing but the truth; so नाम्नैव, स एव वीरः he alone (and not others); (4) already; गत एव न ते निवर्तते Ku.4.3; (5) scarcely, the moment, as soon as; chiefly with participles; उपस्थि- तेयं कल्याणी नाम्नि कीर्तित एव यत् R.1.87 as soon as the name was uttered; इति चिन्तयन्नेव while just thinking &c; (6) also, likewise; तथैव so also; (7) like, as (showing similarity); श्रीस्त एव मेस्तु G. M. (= तव इव); and (8) generally to emphasize a statement; भवितव्यमेव तेन U.4 it will (surely) take place. It is also said to imply the senses of (9) detraction; (10) diminution (11) command; (12) restraint; or (13) used merely as an expletive. (This particle is used in the Vedas in the senses of so, just so, like, indeed, truly, really) (14) Again; एवशब्दश्च पुनरित्यस्मिन्नर्थे भविष्यति । यथा क्षीरेण भुक्त्त्वा देवदत्तः क्षीरेणैव भुञ्जीतेति । भुञ्जीतैवेति पुनरिति गम्यते । ŚB. on MS.1.8.36.
The mention here of the word “तथैव so also” brings out an interesting aspect that लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः can be used in combination. The combined meaning will of course be different from the meaning when the word is used by itself.
Admittedly, with all the above discussion, I could have hinted at only the tip of the iceberg of लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः. They do make an interesting study !