Only Four Parts of Speech – Part 4 कृदन्तशब्दाः
As mentioned towards the end of the previous Part 3, कृदन्तशब्द-s are also obtained from धातु-s.
This word कृदन्तशब्दाः has three components in it कृत् + अन्त + शब्दाः where the middle component अन्त. Here, the part कृदन्त is adjective of शब्दाः It suggests that कृदन्तशब्दाः have at their ending अन्त something which is known as कृत्. What is at the ending of a word is a suffix प्रत्यय, In कृदन्तशब्दाः the suffix प्रत्यय is of कृत्-type. Yes कृत् is a name of the group or class of suffixes. These are suffixes, which, for example, obtain the word कृत् from the धातु कृ.
So, discussion of कृदन्तशब्दाः is primarily understanding types of कृत्-प्रत्यय-s and understanding what type of कृदन्तशब्दाः can be obtained by affixing these कृत्-प्रत्यय-s to धातु-s.
Because कृत्-प्रत्यय-s are affixed to धातु-s and तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s also are affixed to धातु-s, पाणिनि just says कृदतिङ् (३।१।९३) Note, कृदतिङ् = कृत् + अतिङ्, meaning, कृत्-प्रत्यय-s are not तिङ्.
Recently my friend Mr. Vijay Kane got for me a book कृत्-प्रत्ययविश्लेषणम् by डॉ. गोपबन्धु मिश्र. In the book he has detailed as many as 139 कृत्-प्रत्यय-s !
But here, we shall discuss only a select few of them, which are most common and have specific usage in composing sentences, i.e. as Parts of Speech. The select few, which we shall discuss shall be –
- शतृ / शानच्, तृच् (3)
- ण्वुल् तुमुन् (2)
- क्त्वा/ल्यप्, (2)
- क्त, क्तवतु (2)
- यत्/ण्यत्, तव्यत्, अनीयर् (4)
These are thirteen. I have put them in 5 groups, which, by my understanding makes it simpler, because, then we have to think of only five groups of कृत्-प्रत्यय-s, instead of thinking that we have to study thirteen कृत्-प्रत्यय-s.
Actually, out of these twelve, use of तृच् (in group 2) and of ण्वुल् (in group 5) as Parts of Speech is also not very common, compared to other 11. We shall come to that.
One may ask, “If the eleven कृत्-प्रत्यय-s are more commonly used as Parts of Speech, what is the role or use of other 100+ कृत्-प्रत्यय-s ? The answer is that many of them are etymological, since they are used to form nouns and adjectives. For example
- there is a कृत्-प्रत्यय – घञ् One gets masculine nouns by affixing घञ् to धातु-s. e.g. पद् + घञ् → पादः, विश् + घञ् → वेशः, स्पृश् + घञ् → स्पर्शः, सृ + घञ् → सारः, त्यज् + घञ् → त्यागः
- there is a कृत्-प्रत्यय – क्तिन् One gets feminine nouns by affixing क्तिन् to धातु-s. e.g. शम् + क्तिन् → शान्तिः, कृ + क्तिन् → कृतिः, स्तु + क्तिन् → स्तुतिः
- there is a कृत्-प्रत्यय – ल्युट् One gets a neuter noun by affixing ल्युट् to धातु-s e.g. युज् + ल्युट् → योजनम्, सेव् + ल्युट् → सेवनम्, पा + ल्युट् → पानम्, भुज् + ल्युट् → भोजनम्
Coming to the thirteen कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in five groups, कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in groups (1), (4) and (5) are used to get adjectives विशेषणानि only. But, when formed, they have such force, that one may often use them as a complete Part of Speech, without any explicit verb क्रियापदम्. For example, one can simply say इदं मया कर्तव्यम् I must do this. The English phrase has the verb ‘must do’. In Sanskrit there is no explicit verb क्रियापदम्. Yet the phrase is meaningful and hence a complete speech, by virtue of the कृदन्त ‘कर्तव्यम्’.
Let us study the select कृत्-प्रत्यय-s group by group.
कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in Group (1) – शतृ/शानच्, तृच्
It ought to be noted that there is a slash ‘/’ between शतृ and शानच्. This is because they apply to परस्मैपदी and आत्मनेपदी धातु-s respectively. So both of them are not सर्वधातुक (applicable to all धातु-s).
Although their names are शतृ, शानच् and तृच्, the actual affixes are अत्, मान तृ. Let us also see the process of affixing these affixes.
1-1 Since प्रत्यय शतृ affixes only to परस्मैपदी धातु-s, the process can be –
- take तिङ्शब्द of the धातु in present tense वर्तमानकाल third person प्रथमपुरुष plural बहुवचनम् e.g. धातु गम् → गच्छन्ति
- Take away the तिङ्प्रत्यय अन्ति Hence, गच्छन्ति – अन्ति = गच्छ्
- Add कृत्-प्रत्यय अत् गच्छ् + अत् = गच्छत् meaning “going”
- That is the प्रातिपदिक with शतृ-प्रत्यय
- It is an adjective and would have सुबन्त-शब्द-s in all genders, cases and numbers.
- गच्छन् बालः boy, who is going
- गच्छत् दुःखम्, pain, which is going (i.e. receding)
- गच्छती निशा night, which is going (i.e. ending, passing)
1-2 Since शानच्-प्रत्यय affixes only to आत्मनेपदी धातु-s the process is similar
- take तिङ्शब्द of the धातु in present tense वर्तमानकाल third person प्रथमपुरुष singular एकवचनम् e.g. धातु भाष् → भाषते
- Take away the तिङ्प्रत्यय ते भाषते – ते = भाष
- Add कृत्-प्रत्यय मान भाष + मान = भाषमाण (= talking, speaking, saying, lecturing ….)
- That is the प्रातिपदिक with शानच्-प्रत्यय
- It is an adjective and would have सुबन्त-शब्द-s in all genders, cases and numbers.
- भाषमाणः नेता = leader, who is speaking (i.e. giving a speech)
- भाषमाणं क्रीडणम् = toy, that is speaking (i.e. talking)
- भाषमाणा युवती = young lady, who is speaking (i.e. giving a talk, giving a lecture)
Note that since in passive voice all धातु-s take आत्मनेपदी तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s, one gets शानच्-कृदन्त-s with passive भावकर्मणिप्रयोग inbuilt in the meaning
- In Geetaa, प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः (अन्वयेन – कर्माणि सर्वशः प्रकृतेः गुणैः क्रियमाणानि =
- All actions (are) being done by (inherent) characteristics of Nature, i.e.
- all actions happen by (inherent) characteristics of Nature, i.e.
- it is inherent of Nature that it makes all actions happen, i.e.
- nobody should think that an action happened, because he did it, nobody should claim or contend doer-ship of an action).
- I am prompted to elaborate the meaning of the quotation in as many different ways, also realizing that the use of passive voice is itself so meaningful. In passive voice the doer-ship is transposed. Here doer-ship is transposed to characteristics of Nature. So, nobody is really the doer. “Nobody is really the doer.” is a great philosophical thought. Use of passive voice, whereby doership is transposed is itself smart use of grammar to convey the philosophical thought emphatically.
- In this quotation क्रियमाण is the शानच्-कृदन्त from the passive voice form of धातु कृ. Note, कृ → करोति (कर्तरि, वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम्) → क्रियते (कर्मणि, वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम्) → क्रियमाण (शानच्-कृदन्तम्) → क्रियमाणानि (विशेषणम् of कर्माणि, hence नपुंसकलिङ्गेन प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम्)
1-3 तृच्-प्रत्ययः – As said above, actual affix is तृ, e.g. दा → दातृ (दाता, दात्री), कृ → कर्तृ (कर्ता, कर्त्री), त्रै → त्रातृ (त्राता, त्रात्री) वच् → वक्तृ (वक्ता, वक्त्री)
- By its meaning, तृच्-प्रत्यय connotes doer of the action, which is implicit in the meaning of the verb. It is कर्तृवाचक. Because it is adjectival, I have given, in the examples, masculine and also feminine forms.
- Since तृच्-कृदन्त-s are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.
- This is NOT a सार्वधातुक प्रत्यय. That is, it cannot be applied to all धातु-s.
- The criteria for applicability of तृच्-प्रत्यय to a धातु are not as simple, as are the criteria for applicability of शतृ or शानच् प्रत्यय-s.
- Since it is not सार्वधातुक, for धातु-s, to which this is not applicable, there are other कृत्-प्रत्यय-s, which serve the function of तृच्-प्रत्यय, e.g.
- पू + ण्वुल् → पावकः, गै + ण्वुल् → गायकः (गायिका)
- तॄ-णिच् ण्वुल् → तारक Note, here the कृत्-प्रत्यय ण्वुल् is affixed to the causative णिच् of धातु तॄ.
- May it be noted that ण्वुल् is actually affixed as अक
कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in Group (2) – ण्वुल् तुमुन्
There is some logic in my taking ण्वुल् तुमुन् next to तृच्. The logic is that ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय has usage in the role of both तृच् and तुमुन्. There are two aphorisms सूत्र-s, which endorse this.
- ण्वुल्तृचौ ३।१।१३३
- तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम् ३।३।१०
In the discussion just above, use of ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय in the role of a तृच्-प्रत्यय i.e. with a कर्तृवाचक meaning is already shown.
Since ण्वुल्-कृदन्त-s with a कर्तृवाचक meaning are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.
The second aphorism तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम् ३।३।१० mentions use of ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय in the sense of क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्. It should be hence understood that a word formed with ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय has in it the sense also of क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्.
For example, we have पू + ण्वुल् → पावकः. Having been derived from धातु पू, the word पावकः has the meaning of the क्रिया and क्रियार्थ as of the धातु पू.
- Meaning of धातु पू is ‘to purify’.
- So पावकः is that, which does the क्रिया as of धातु पू That is to say that “पावकः purifies” and
- पावकः fulfils the क्रियार्थ of धातु पू, That is to say that. “पावकः fulfils purification”.
Thus a word with ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय has many meanings – a कर्तृवाचक meaning, also क्रियावाचक meaning and also क्रियार्थवाचक meaning.
One may ask, if a word with ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय has such multi-tasking capability, why we need separate words with तृच्-प्रत्यय-s and with तुमुन्-प्रत्यय-s. One answer is that words with तृच्-प्रत्यय-s and ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय-s are not सार्वधातुक. तुम् is सार्वधातुक.
Words with तुमुन्-प्रत्यय-s are also needed when we need in the speech a part as an infinitive. For example, in an English phrase as “Fire to purify gold” there is the infinitive “to purify”. The Sanskrit phrase would be सुवर्णं पवितुं पावकः
- Here, we need the word पावकः to connote fire (the purifier) and
- we also need the word पवितुम् to connote “to purify”.
- Just two words सुवर्णं पावकः would be meaningless.
- Likewise just two words सुवर्णं पवितुम् would also be meaningless.
- All three words together, सुवर्णं पवितुं पावकः becomes meaningful speech.
It would have been noticed that पवितुम् is तुमन्त from धातु पू. We have infinitives of all verbs. So we have तुमन्त-s of all धातु-s.
Processes of formation of तुमन्त-s are different for different धातु-s. For example, पू → पवितुम्, कृ → कर्तुम्, भू → भवितुम्, गम् → गन्तुम्, दृश् → द्रष्टुम्, गै → गातुम्, पा → पातुम्, पृच्छ् → प्रष्टुम्, भुज् → भोक्तुम्, बन्ध् → बध्नुम् etc.
There will be तुमन्त-s also of causatives णिजन्त-s of धातु-s. For example, पठ् → पठितुम् → पाठयितुम्, दृश् → द्रष्टुम् → दर्शयितुम्, स्था → स्थातुम् → स्थापयितुम्
From the various examples given, it can be appreciated that to detail the grammatical processes of formation of तुमन्त-s. Learning तुमन्त-s of various धातु-s and practising with them is possibly an easier approach.
कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in Group (3) – क्त्वा/ल्यप्
I have put a slash between क्त्वा and ल्यप्. Actually we can say, that main प्रत्यय is क्त्वा. It is सार्वधातुक. When there is an उपसर्ग prefixed to a धातु, then one affixes the प्रत्यय ल्यप्. Use of कृदन्त of a धातु is when in a speech there are two actions. The प्रत्यय क्त्वा or ल्यप् is used for former of the two actions.
कृदन्त-s having कृत्-प्रत्यय क्त्वा are known as त्वान्त-s and having कृत्-प्रत्यय ल्यप् are called as ल्यबन्त-s. Actual affix for क्त्वा is only त्वा and actual affix for ल्यप् is य.
For example, in a sentence such as “On going home, I shall have meals.” there are two actions – first, going home, secondly having meals. क्त्वा or ल्यप् प्रत्यय is to be applied for the first action of going home. In Sanskrit, the sentence will be अहं गृहं गत्वा भोजनं खादामि. Here we have the त्वान्त – गत्वा from धातु गम्.
In the first chapter of गीता, there is the mention – भीष्मः सिंहनादं विनद्य शङ्खं दध्मौ BheeShma yelled a roar and blew the conch. Here we have the ल्यबन्त – विनद्य. It is a ल्यबन्त, because विनद्य is obtained from धातु विनद् where वि is the उपसर्ग. There are two actions ‘yelled’ and ‘blew the conch’. Of the two actions ‘yelled’ is the former. Hence ल्यबन्त is of this action.
कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in Group (4) – क्त, क्तवतु
(4-1) The कृत्-प्रत्यय क्त is possibly one, which is used the maximum. This is same as the Past Passive Participle in English grammar. But unlike its terminology as “Participle” in English grammar, it is a wholesome adjective कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् Even in English there are instances of its adjectival usages e.g. “Given data”, “Assumed values”, “Swept floor”, “Bygone days”. etc.
The actual affix of कृत्-प्रत्यय क्त is only त. It is सार्वधातुक. But the processes of affixing प्रत्यय क्त are different for different धातु-s. For example कृ → कृत, भू → भूत, गम् → गत, दृश् → दृष्ट, भज् → भक्त, वच् → उक्त, गै → गीत (गीता), रच् → रचित, बन्ध् → बद्ध, वह् → ऊढ, व्यूह् → व्यूढ.
Since क्त-कृदन्त-s are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.
(4-2) Since क्तवतु-प्रत्यय has क्त as its first part and वतु as its second part, the process of affixing क्तवतु-प्रत्यय is to first get the क्त-कृदन्त and then affix वत्. So the above examples also become examples of क्तवतु-कृदन्त-s by affixing वत् thereafter. So, कृ → कृतवत् (कृतवान्, कृतवती), भू → भूतवत् (भूतवान् भूतवती), गम् → गतवत् (गतवान् गतवती), दृश् → दृष्टवत् (दृष्टवान् दृष्टवती), भज् → भक्तवत् (भक्तवान् भक्तवती), वच् → उक्तवत् (उक्तवान् उक्तवती), गै → गीतवत् (गीतवान् गीतवती)), रच् → रचितवत् (रचितवान् रचितवती), बन्ध् → बद्धवत् (बद्धवान् बद्धवती), वह् → ऊढवत् (ऊढवान् ऊधवती), व्यूह् → व्यूढवत् (व्यूढवान् व्यूढवती)
Use of क्तवतु-कृदन्त is to transform the voice of क्त-कृदन्त, i.e. to transform from passive voice to active voice. For example,
- The good saying was said by me मया सुभाषितम् उक्तम् (passive voice) → I said the good saying अहं सुभाषितम् उक्तवान् (active voice)
- The scene was seen by her तया दृश्यं दृष्टम् (passive voice) → She saw the scene सा दृश्यं दृष्टवती (Active Voice)
Since क्तवतु-कृदन्त-s are also adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s. The प्रातिपदिक-s are सुबन्त-s with नपुंसकलिङ्ग प्रथमा विभक्ति एकवचनम्. Given in brackets are पुँल्लिङ्ग and स्त्रीलिङ्ग प्रथमा विभक्ति एकवचनम्.
कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in Group (5) – यत्/ण्यत्, तव्यत्, अनीयर्
(5-1) प्रत्यय-s यत्/ण्यत्. I have put these also with a slash between them, because both are not सार्वधातुक. But the affix which actually gets affixed in both cases is just य.
Examples with यत् are – हन् → वध्य, गद् → गद्य, भू → भव्य, क्षि → क्षय्य (अक्षय्य), आ + चर् → आश्चर्य
Examples with are – सृज् + ण्यत् → सर्ग्य, कृ → कार्य, पठ् → पाठ्यम्, पू → पाव्यम्, त्रप् → त्राप्यम्, पत् → पात्य, वन्द् → वन्द्य, त्यज् → त्याज्य, भुज् → भोज्य
As can be seen from the examples, the प्रत्यय, which gets affixed is simply य, whether it is called as यत् or ण्यत्. Let us say, that these two different names are given by the grammarians. The logic may be in consideration of the difference in processes.
Basically, the meaning of कृदन्त obtained by affixing यत् or ण्यत् is of potential mood, for which in English one uses the auxiliaries ‘may’ ‘might’ By such consideration meaning of कार्य (from कृ = to do) becomes “what may be done”. In turn its meaning becomes job, function, action, activity, etc.
By the meaning of कार्य as “what may be done’, which is in passive voice, It ought to be noted that यत् or ण्यत्-कृदन्त has passive voice inherent in it. Although one may say, “that is my job” तन्मम कार्यम् grammatically it would be more correct to say, तन्मया कार्यम् (= it may be done by me).
Since यत् or ण्यत्-कृदन्त-s are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.
(5-2) कृत्-प्रत्यय – तव्यत्
As कृत्-प्रत्यय – तव्यत् what gets affixed is तव्य. For example कृ → कर्तव्य, पठ् → पाठव्य, भू → भवितव्य, भुज् → भोक्तव्य, etc.
Of course processes of affixing तव्यत् to different धातु-s are different.
Basically, the meaning of कृदन्त obtained by affixing तव्यत् is of mandatory mood, for which in English one uses the auxiliary ‘must’. So, कर्तव्य is ‘what must be done by me’, which is in passive voice, It ought to be noted that तव्यत्-कृदन्त has passive voice inherent in it. Although one may say, ‘that is my duty’ तन्मम कर्तव्यम् grammatically it would be more correct to say, तन्मया कर्तव्यम् (= it must be done by me).
Since तव्यत्-कृदन्त-s are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.
(5-3) कृत्-प्रत्यय – अनीयर्
As कृत्-प्रत्यय – अनीयर् what gets affixed is अनीय. For example कृ → करणीय, पठ् → पठनीय, भू → भवनीय, भुज् → भोजनीय, etc.
Of course processes of affixing अनीयर् to different धातु-s are different.
Basically, the meaning of कृदन्त obtained by affixing अनीयर् is of advisory mood or advocative mood, for which in English one uses the auxiliary ‘should’. So, करणीय is ‘what should be done by me’, which is in passive voice, It ought to be noted that अनीयर्-कृदन्त has passive voice inherent in it. Although one may say, ‘that is advisable for me’ तन्मम करणीयम् grammatically it would be more correct to say, तन्मया करणीयम् (= it should be done by me).
Since अनीयर्-कृदन्त-s are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.
There is a good verse with interesting अनीयर्-कृदन्त-s. कस्यचित् किमपि नो हरणीयम् | मर्मवाक्यमपि नोच्चरणीयम् | श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् | लीलया भवजलं तरणीयम् || Nothing should be snatched of anybody. The (sacred) secret code should not be spoken. The pair of feet of श्रीपति should be (ever) remembered (meditated upon). Waters of creation (i.e. worldly life) should be merrily floated upon.
It comes to mind that one should compile at least these 13 कृदन्त-s for a good number of धातु-s and practise with them. By appropriate pairing, number of columns required for 13 कृदन्त-s will be only 10. Some specimen compilation is shown below.
|No.||धातु||शतृ / शानच्||तृच्||ण्वुल्||तुमुन्||क्त्वा/ल्यप्||क्त||क्तवतु||यत्/ण्यत्||तव्यत्||अनीयर्|
|२-अ||णिच् of कृ||कारयत् कार्यमाण||कारक||कारयितुम्||कारयित्वा||कारित||कारितवत्||कारयितव्य||कारणीय|
|४||ब्रू / वच्||ब्रुवत्||वक्तृ||ब्रवितुम्||उक्त्वा||उक्त||उक्तवत्||वक्तव्य||वचनीय|
|४-अ||णिच् of वच्||वाचक||वाचितुम्||वाचयित्वा||वाचित||वाचितवत्||वाच्य/वाक्य||वाचितव्य||वाचनीय|
|५-अ||णिच् of स्था||स्थापयत्||स्थापक||स्थापयितुम्||स्थापयित्वा||स्थापित||स्थापितवत्||स्थापितव्य||स्थापनीय|
|६-अ||णिच् of पा (पिबति)|
|६-आ||सन् of पा (पिबति)||पेपीयमान (कर्मणि)|
कृदन्त-s need to be studied also
- Of the causatives प्रयोजक (णिच्) mode as shown above at (२-अ), (४-अ), (५-अ) and
- Also शानच्-कृदन्त-s of कर्मणि or भावे प्रयोग-s as shown at (२) and (२-अ)
- कृदन्त-s of other modes (e.g. सन्-mode (i.e. repetitive mode) e.g. at (६-आ) there is शानच्-कृदन्त of कर्मणि of सन्-mode of पा (पिबति) .
- As shown at (६) and (७) कृदन्त-s can be different if a धातु has different meaning and forms in different गण and पद.
Study of कृदन्त-s is thus an essential part of study of Sanskrit, also because they are an important Part of Speech.