Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 34

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 34

To understand how a compound word is made or composed, it would be good to note some basic observations, say, from the very first example of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या. The basic observations are –

  1. All component words पद-s, except the last one, hence the पद-s बाह्य, उद्यान, स्थित, हर, शिरस्, चन्द्रिका and धौत are in their प्रातिपदिक state

  2. संधि is mandatory wherever it is applicable. Here

    1. बाह्य + उद्यान = बाह्योद्यान

    2. शिरस् + चन्द्रिका = शिरश्चन्द्रिका

    3. In respect of संधि being mandatory, one should always bear in mind, the श्लोक – संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः | नित्या समासे, (वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते) ||

  3. The last component word, and in turn the complete compound word gets the complete dress of लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन, as is appropriate to the context.

    1. In बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या the last component हर्म्य was made स्त्रीलिङ्ग, प्रथमा, एकवचन

    2. In उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ताबलौ (or उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णौ आसवदत्ताबलौ) the last component बल was made पुंल्लिङ्ग, प्रथमा, द्विवचन.

The three observations as above seem to be good and logical and would come to notice 90 percent of the times. Why 90 percent ? Does it mean that there will be instances where the observations will not be valid ?

The answer is ‘yes’.

Take for example सामासिकशब्द-s such as युधिष्ठिरः, आत्मनेपदम्, परस्मैपदम्, कर्मणिप्रयोगः, कर्तरिप्रयोगः, भावेप्रयोगः, सरसिजम्

What observation do these words being forth ? Rather, what difference in the method of compounding do these words being forth ?

The first components in all these words युधि, आत्मने, परस्मै, कर्मणि, कर्तरि, भावे, सरसि have their dress of लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन very much intact. They are not in their प्रातिपदिक state.

This method of compounding, where the dress of the first component पूर्वपद, remains intact is called as अलुक्-समास. Here अलुक् means “remains intact”.

Obviously the common method of compounding where the first component(s) पूर्वपद(s) are in their प्रातिपदिक state has the name लुक्-समास (opposite of अलुक्-समास).

These terms अलुक् and लुक् seem to mean, rather, they do mean “remains” and “vanishes” respectively. By the way, लुक् meaning “vanishes” is opposite of the meaning of the word “look” in English, right ? But लुक् meaning “vanishes” is a technical term of Sanskrit grammar, is said to have been coined by पाणिनि.

Even when accepting that लुक् meaning “vanishes” is a technical term, mute point is, “what is it that vanishes ?” Obviously, it is the dress of लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन, that vanishes. Hence the पद-s are in their प्रातिपदिक state.

In अलुक्-समास the ‘look’ does not change !

Just to drive the point home, let us review what are the ‘लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन’-dresses of the words युधि, आत्मने, परस्मै, कर्मणि, कर्तरि, भावे and सरसि.

  1. युधि – युध् इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  2. आत्मने – आत्मन् इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  3. परस्मै – पर इति सर्वनाम | प्रायः पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  4. कर्मणि – कर्मन् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  5. कर्तरि – कर्तृ इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि वा नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  6. भावे – भाव इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  7. सरसि – सरस् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

Since in अलुक्-समास-s the ‘लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन’-dress remains, their विग्रह is very straight-forward.

  1. युधिष्ठिरः – युधि स्थिरः इति युधिष्ठिरः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)

  2. आत्मनेपदम् – आत्मने पदम् इति आत्मनेपदम् (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः)

  3. परस्मैपदम् – परस्मै पदम् इति परस्मैपदम् (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः)

  4. कर्मणिप्रयोगः – कर्मणि प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | कर्मणि = कर्मविषयकः, कर्म एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

  5. कर्तरिप्रयोगः – कर्तरि प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | कर्तरि = कर्तृविषयकः, कर्ता एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

  6. भावेप्रयोगः – भावे प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | भावे = न कर्ता वा न कर्म वा, भावः एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

  7. सरसिजम् – सरसि जायते इति सरसिजम् (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः)

As would have been noted, लुक् and अलुक् are not types of समास. They are types of building a समास. What we discussed as “Types of समास” were types by the patterns of detailing विग्रह-s of समास-s.

Having discussed लुक् and अलुक्-समास-s let me provoke a study of another interesting compound word मनोगतम्.

The two component words, that are obvious, are मनस् and गतम्. Question is, “why has मनस् become मनो ?”

By rules of संधि, which is mandatory for compounding, मनः + गतम् = मनोगतम्. But since मनस् is प्रातिपदिक, just as in शिरश्चन्द्रिका, शिरस् is the प्रातिपदिक, why not मनस्गतम् ?

However since मनः is प्रथमा or द्वितीया विभक्ति एकवचनम् of मनस् is it the declined form of मनस्, which has stayed अलुक् ?

The second component गतम् is a verbal derivative. The verb गम् is transitive in Sanskrit. For example, रमा मन्दिरं गच्छति. Here मन्दिरम् is like an object of the verb गच्छति. Likewise, मनः गतम् = what has gone unto mind and by अलुक्-compounding मनः + गतम् = मनोगतम्. Q.E.D. !!!

So we take मनः + गतम् = मनोगतम् as the विग्रह of मनोगतम् ?

But what about मनोरथः ? मनोरथः = मनः रथः एव (अवधारणा-कर्मधारय) ? And by rules of संधि, मनः + रथः = मनोरथः ? Again अलुक्-compounding ?

What about शिरोधार्यम् (worthy of carrying or wearing on the head) ? The component words are शिरस् and धार्यम्. The विग्रह would be शिरसि धार्यम् इति शिरोधार्यम् (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) However since शिरस् is the प्रातिपदिक, why not शिरस् + धार्यम् = शिरस्धार्यम् ?

Likewise मनसः धैर्यम् = मनोधैर्यम् (षष्ठी–तत्पुरुषः) Why not मनस्धैर्यम् ?

In many such compounds, it seems that the स्-कारान्त प्रातिपदिक of the पूर्वपद is treated as विसर्गान्त. Or the स्-ending is changed to a विसर्ग and thereafter rule of विसर्गसंधि is employed when making the compound word.

It is possible that these compound words happened to be so in spoken Sanskrit. Grammarians also accepted them that way only.

In the संस्कृतभारती book “समासः”, mentioned in the previous lesson also, authored by Mr. G. महाबलेश्वर भट्ट, one finds mention of some प्रक्रिया-s. Some of these are detailed below –

  1. If प्रातिपदिक of the पूर्वपद is न्-ending, the न् is to be dropped. For example राजन् + पुरुषः = राजपुरुषः विग्रह of राजपुरुषः is राज्ञः पुरुषः इति राजपुरुषः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

  2. In नञ्-समास-s i.e. in नञ्-तत्पुरुष or नञ्-बहुव्रीहि, न् from the न of नकार (न is actually न् + अ) is to be dropped. For example न + धर्मः = न् + अ + धर्मः = अधर्मः

  3. If in नञ्-समास the उत्तरपदम् is स्वरादि, i.e. if it begins with a vowel, न् + अ of the नकार exchange their places. For example न + ईश्वरः = अ + न् + ईश्वरः = अनीश्वरः Or the prefix for a स्वरादि उत्तरपदम् is taken as अन् instead of न. There are any number of examples – अनन्त, अनावृत्त, अनवधि, …

  4. The adjective महत्, when in पूर्वपद-position, is used as महा. For example, महादेवः or महादेवी One finds such mention about the word महत् in Apte’s dictionary also.

  5. Words राजन्, अहन् and सखिन् are न्-ending. But if they come in उत्तरपद-position, they become अ-कारान्त पुंल्लिङ्गी For example, महत् + राजन् → महा + राज = महाराजः कृष्ण + सखिन् → कृष्ण + सखः = कृष्णसखः

  6. Items 2 and 3 about प्रक्रिया-s with न् in नञ्-समास-s, I think it is simpler to take it that there are two prefixes उपसर्ग-s for negation, अ and अन्

    1. अ when the following word does not begin with a vowel. अ is anyway a well-known उपसर्ग, very much acknowledged in grammar and in dictionary. There is no need to detail it as a प्रक्रिया where न् is dropped.

    2. अन् also to be taken as उपसर्ग, to be used, when the following word begins with a vowel.

In Sanskrit there are many derived words. Derived words are called as तद्धित-s. The words are derived by affixing प्रत्यय-s, rather तद्धितप्रत्यय-s. Explaining the derivation and meaning of तद्धित-s sounds similar to विग्रह of a समास. But they are not समास-s. They are तद्धित-s. There is a large number of तद्धितप्रत्यय-s. To explain by some examples –

  1. बुद्धिमान् is बुद्धि + मत्. Note प्रत्ययः मत् = अस्य अस्ति इति. Hence बुद्धिः अस्य अस्ति इति बुद्धिमान्

  2. धनवान् is धन + वत्. Note प्रत्ययः वत् also = अस्य अस्ति इति. Hence धनम् अस्य अस्ति इति धनवान्

  3. रक्षकः is रक्ष् + अक. Note प्रत्ययः अक = करोति इति. Hence रक्षणं करोति इति रक्षकः

  4. गुणिन् is गुण + इन्. Note प्रत्ययः इन् = अस्य अस्ति इति. Hence गुणाः अस्य सन्ति इति गुणिन्

  5. दाता is दा + तृ. Note तृ-प्रत्ययेन निर्देशः धातोः अर्थस्य वाहकस्य. Word with तृ-प्रत्यय connotes the person, who does the action connoted by the verbal root दा + तृ (दाता) = सः यः ददाति; दात्री = सा या ददाति

Having noted some तद्धितप्रत्यय-s as above, one should also bear in mind the distinction between तद्धितप्रत्यय-s and उपपद-s. For example ज in अण्डज is उपपदम्, not a तद्धितप्रत्यय. With उपपदम् it is a समास. With तद्धितप्रत्यय it is a तद्धित.

One more point before closing this lesson on composing a compound word. In the context of rules of संधि, I had come across an interesting example.

What would be the संधि of आसने + उपविष्टा ? There are two options –

  1. आसने + उपविष्टा = आसनयुपविष्टा by एचोऽयवायावः

  2. आसने + उपविष्टा = आसन उपविष्टा by लोपः शाकल्यस्य

  3. And the rule is once we do आसन उपविष्टा by लोपः शाकल्यस्य, we should not do further संधि as आसनोपविष्टा

  4. But in this particular case, one can certainly compose a word आसनोपविष्टा as a compound word with its विग्रह as आसने उपविष्टा (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) !!

Doesn’t that bring forth an interesting view of the last part, the विवक्षा aspect,  so succinctly hinted in the श्लोक – संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः | नित्या समासे, वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते || .. ?

It comes to mind that one should learn Sanskrit to cultivate this quality of विवक्षा discretion !

शुभं भवतु !