Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 33

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 33

सरलसंस्कृतस्य त्रित्रिंशत्तमः (३३) पाठः

Now we shall study समास-s of बहुव्रीहि-type. In “समासचक्रम्” this declaration “Now we shall study….” is announced as अथ बहुव्रीहिः कथ्यते. Further it mentions बहुव्रीहिः to be of seven sub-types – स च द्विपदो बहुपदः सहपूर्वपदः संख्योभयपदो व्यतिहारलक्षणो दिगन्तराललक्षणश्चेति भेदात् सप्तविधः । The seven sub-types are – (1) द्विपदः (2) बहुपदः (3) सहपूर्वपदः (4) संख्योभयपदः (5) व्यतिहारलक्षणः (6) दिगन्तराललक्षणः

In a book “समासः” published by संस्कृतभारती, बेङ्गलूरु, author Mr. G. महाबलेश्वर भट्ट gives a broad, two-fold classification of बहुव्रीहिः as सामान्य and विशेष.

It seems what is mentioned in समासचक्रम् as द्विपदः is called as सामान्य by Mr. G. महाबलेश्वर भट्ट.

By that token the rest six sub-types बहुपद, सहपूर्वपद, संख्योभयपद, व्यतिहारलक्षण and दिगन्तराललक्षण come in the class विशेष. But Mr. G. महाबलेश्वर भट्ट does not list बहुपद in his list of sub-types.

He also gives a few more sub-types as व्यधिकरण, संख्योत्तरपद, नञ्-, प्रादि and उपमानपूर्वपद. By a footnote, he clarifies that नञ्-, प्रादि and उपमानपूर्वपद are sub-types of सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class and not of विशेष class.

On the whole, we can say that sub-types of बहुव्रीहि-समास-s are (1) द्विपद (2) बहुपद (3) सहपूर्वपद (4) संख्योभयपद (5) व्यतिहारलक्षण (6) दिगन्तराललक्षण  (7) व्यधिकरण (8) संख्योत्तरपद (9) नञ् (10) प्रादि and (11) उपमानपूर्वपद.

I think examples will clarify the logic of the classification and these names of the sub-types.

Most important thing to be kept in mind is that the meaning of a word, composed as बहुव्रीहि-समास, always hints at something, which is different from what the meanings of component words are. A बहुव्रीहि-समास is अन्यपदार्थ-प्रधान. By that token, a word composed as बहुव्रीहि-समास is adjectival, is an adjective of a different entity, is adjective of अन्यपदार्थ.

Example (1a) प्राप्तोदकः (ग्रामः) – प्राप्तम् उदकं यं सः (प्राप्तोदकः)

  1. This is a बहुव्रीहि-समास of द्विपद or सामान्य, because it has just two component words द्विपद, which is quite common, hence सामान्य.
  2. ग्रामः the word in brackets is not part of the compound word. It is mentioned here to explain the context, in which one will find use of the compound word प्राप्तोदकः.

  3. In the विग्रह, both the components प्राप्तम् and उदकम् are in first case, in same विभक्ति. So, it is समानाधिकरण.

  4. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by the phrase यं सः. In this phrase, the word यम् is द्वितीया विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is द्वितीयार्थबहुव्रीहिः, a further sub-type of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

Example (1-b) यतेन्द्रियः = यतानि इन्द्रियाणि येन सः

  1. Here also there are two components यत and इन्द्रिय.

  2. In the विग्रह, both the components यत and इन्द्रिय are in same विभक्ति. Also, in the विग्रह, both are in बहुवचन. A person  will be called यतेन्द्रिय, only if he has gained control over all his इन्द्रिय-s, right ? One can be smart enough to have in mind the implied meaning and use the appropriate वचन, when stating the विग्रह.

  3. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by the phrase येन सः. In this phrase, the word येन is तृतीया विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is तृतीयार्थबहुव्रीहिः, another sub-type of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

Example (1-c) दत्तार्घ्यः – दत्तं अर्घ्यं यस्मै सः

  1. अर्घ्यम् = valuable offering.

  2. Here also there are two components दत्त and अर्घ्य.

  3. In the विग्रह, both the components दत्त and अर्घ्य are in same विभक्ति. So, it is समानाधिकरण.

  4. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by यस्मै सः. In this phrase, the word यस्मै is चतुर्थी विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is चतुर्थ्यर्थबहुव्रीहिः, another subtype of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

Example (1-d) गतप्राणः – गतः प्राणः यस्मात् सः

  1. Here also there are two components गत and प्राण.

  2. In the विग्रह, both the components गत and प्राण are in same विभक्ति. So, it is समानाधिकरण.

  3. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by यस्मात् सः. In this phrase, the word यस्मात् is पञ्चमी विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is पञ्चम्यर्थबहुव्रीहिः, another sub-type of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

Example (1-e) महाबाहुः – महान्तौ बाहू यस्य सः (= one who has large arms)

  1. Here also there are two components महत् and बाहु.

  2. In the विग्रह, both the components महत् and बाहु are in same विभक्ति. So, it is समानाधिकरण.

  3. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by यस्य सः. In this phrase, the word यस्य is षष्ठी विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is षष्ठ्यर्थबहुव्रीहिः, another sub-type of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

  4. In the विग्रह, both the components are in द्विवचन. As was mentioned for यतेन्द्रियः, here also, since a person will have two arms, one should be alert of this aspect and use द्विवचन, which is appropriate here.

Example (1-f) शुद्धोदकः (घटः) – शुद्धं उदकं यस्मिन् सः

  1. Here also there are two components शुद्ध and उदक.

  2. In the विग्रह, both the components शुद्ध and उदक are in same विभक्ति. So, it is समानाधिकरण.

  3. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by यस्मिन् सः. In this phrase, the word यस्मिन् is सप्तमी विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is सप्तम्यर्थबहुव्रीहिः, another subtype of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

To proceed further, we shall see examples of नञ्, प्रादि and उपमानपूर्वपद sub-types.

In नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः sub-type, the first component here is a prefix giving negative नञ्-sense. For example #2, अपुत्रः (न पुत्रः यस्य सः = one, who does not have a son)

Actually negativity is said to be of six types !! तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता / अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च नञर्थाः षट् प्रकीर्तिताः //

  1. तत्सादृश्यम् = Looks like that, but it is not that, e.g. a mirage. It looks like water, but is not water.

  2. अभावः = Absent, non-existent

  3. तदन्यत्वम् (तत् + अन्यत्वम्) = Different

  4. तदल्पता (तत् + अल्पता) = Incomplete, inadequate, too little

  5. अप्राशस्त्यम् = Inappropriateness i.e. what does not have प्रशस्ति commend-ability.

  6. विरोधः = Opposite, e.g. असत्यम् is opposite of सत्यम्.

प्रादिबहुव्रीहिः – Here also the first component is a prefix उपसर्ग. The word प्रादि connotes “उपसर्ग-s such as प्र”. They are called as प्रादि because the list of प्रादि-s starts with प्र.

For example # 3-a – निरालंबः

  1. निरालंबः = निर् + आलंबः Here निर् is a प्रादि a prefix.

  2. निर् = निर्गतः; आलंबः = support

  3. निरालंबः = निर्गतः आलंबः यस्य सः

  4. Hence, निरालंबः = one who has no support OR one who has lost all support whatever, )

Another example # 3-b from गीता (6-35) दुर्निग्रहम् (मनः)

  1. दुर्निग्रहम् = दुः + निग्रहम् (दुः = दुष्करः/दुष्करम्/दुष्करा, दुष्करः निग्रहः यस्य तत्)

  1. In stating the विग्रह of प्रादिसमास-s one details the meaning connoted by the उपसर्ग.

  2. In गणपाठ, पाणिनि lists 22 उपसर्ग-s. प्र, परा, अप, सम्‌, अनु, अव, निस्‌, निर्, दुस्‌, दुर्, वि, आ (आङ्‌), नि, अधि, अपि, अति, सु, उत् /उद्‌, अभि, प्रति, परि and उप.

  3. Most of these उपसर्ग-s have, not just one meaning, but different shades of meanings. These are detailed at http://grammarofsanskrit.wordpress.com/category/%E0%A4%89%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/

उपमानपूर्वपदबहुव्रीहिः – Here the first component is a simile उपमान. For example #4 गजाननः = गजस्य इव आननं यस्य सः = one who has mouth similar to that of an elephant

Now we shall see other sub-types of विशेष class समास-s. (1) व्यधिकरण (2) संख्योत्तरपद (3) सहपूर्वपदः (4) संख्योभयपदः (5) बहुपदः (6) व्यतिहारलक्षणः (7) दिगन्तराललक्षणः

व्यधिकरण – It should be interesting to understand the difference between व्यधिकरण and समानाधिकरण. As was seen in समानाधिकरण, the विग्रह would have both the पद-s in identical लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन. However in विग्रह of व्यधिकरण, लिङ्ग, विभक्ति, वचन of the पद-s will be different.

Let us see example # 5 चक्रपाणिः = चक्रं पाणौ यस्य सः

  1. चक्रम् is नपुंसकलिङ्ग प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम्; चक्रम् = wheel

  2. पाणौ is पुंल्लिङ्ग सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of पाणि (= hand)

Examples of सहपूर्वपद

  1. Example # 6-a सनाथः – Note, स = सह. नाथेन सह यः सः (अथवा) नाथः सह येन सः

  2. Example # 6-b सलक्ष्मणः – लक्ष्मणः सह येन सः

संख्योत्तरपद can be understood by

Example # 7-a उपविंशम् (वयः). Note, उप = समीपे. विंशतेः समीपे यत् तत् उपविंशम् Example # 7-b  उपविंशाः (जनाः) विंशतेः समीपे ये ते Example # 7-c उपविंशाः (स्त्रियः) विंशतेः समीपे याः ताः

संख्योभयपदः – यथा Example # 8-a द्वित्रीणि (वस्तूनि) – द्वे वा त्रीणि वा (यानि तानि) Example # 8-b द्वित्राः (पशवः) द्वौ वा त्रयः वा (ये ते) Example # 8-c द्वित्राः (कन्यकाः) – द्वे वा तिस्रः वा (याः ताः)

व्यतिहारलक्षणः – यथा Example # 9 केशाकेशि (द्वन्द्वम्) – Note केशाकेशि = केशेषु केशेषु यत् तत् Hence केशेषु केशेषु (गृहीत्वा इदम) यत् तत् केशाकेशि  केशाकेशि द्वन्द्वम् = a duet or a quarrel between two, where both fight by pulling at each-other’s hairs.

दिगन्तराललक्षणः – यथा Example #10 दक्षिणपूर्वे (प्रदेशे) – दक्षिणायां च पूर्वायां च (दिशोः) यः सः = दक्षिणायां च पूर्वायां च (दिशोः) यत् अन्तरालं तत्र. As can be seen, such समास has a vast expanse अन्तराल being covered. Here दक्षिणपूर्वे प्रदेशे means all the region in southeast direction.

It is most important that since बहुव्रीहिः is अन्यपदार्थप्रधान, the compound word is basically an adjective, qualifying a noun, which is the अन्यपदार्थ. So, in a given sentence or phrase, the total compound word will have लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन corresponding to लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन of the noun, which it qualifies. Just to recall, the total compound word बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या was feminine, singular, because the noun it qualified was अलकानगरी. The last पद, हर्म्य is by itself a neuter noun. But the total compound word was made feminine by making the last पद as हर्म्या.

That brings us to studying how पद-s are put together to make a सामासिकशब्द.

What we studied so far is doing विग्रह of a given सामासिकशब्द and understanding its meaning and its type. How about forming सामासिकशब्द-s by ourselves ? How is that done ? Are there any rules and procedures to be followed ?

We shall study that in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

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