Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 32

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 32

We shall now discuss कर्मधारय and द्विगु समास-s. In समासचक्रम् seven sub-types of कर्मधारय are mentioned –

अथ कर्मधारयः कथ्यते ।

स च विशेष्यपूर्वपदो विशेषणपूर्वपदो विशेषणोभयपदः उपमानपूर्वपदः ।

उपमानोत्तरपदः संभावनापूर्वपदोऽवधारणापूर्वपदश्चेति-भेदात् सप्तविधः॥

Specific words in the above श्लोक merit attention. विशेष्य (noun), विशेषण (adjective), उपमान, संभावना, अवधारणा.

These words in the above श्लोक are mentioned in the context of the order or position of पद-s.

These words also sort of dictate different patterns of stating विग्रह.

  • If the relationship between two पद-s is विशेषण-विशेष्य relationship, विग्रह is straightforward.

  • The relationship of उपमेयम्-उपमानम् will need a different pattern. It should be noted that in उपमेयम्-उपमानम् relationship, उपमानम् or उपमा is the other idea or object with which a subject उपमेयम् is being compared. The relationship of उपमेयम्-उपमानम् is identical to the figure of speech “Simile”. विग्रह of such relationship is better stated by using the word इव. For example कुसुमकोमलम् = कुसुमं इव कोमलम्

  • In संभावना-relationship, one of the two components of a compound word is the mention of the general category and the other component is specific name or proper noun. For example, in अलकानगरी one component नगरी is general category and अलका is the proper noun. So, at the mention of अलकानगरी, if there was to be a question, “Which नगरी ?”, the answer would be “अलकानगरी”. So अलका is the संभावना of that नगरी. In the compound word अलकानगरी, अलका is sort of nominal adjective of the नगरी. In turn it becomes sort of विशेषण-विशेष्य relationship. But the विग्रह of अलकानगरी is better stated as अलका इति नगरी.

  • अवधारणा-relationship is identical to the figure of speech “Metaphor”.  विग्रह of अवधारणा-relationship is better stated by using the word एव. For example विद्याधनम् = विद्या एव धनम्

Although विग्रह is really a narration of the meaning of the समास, there have come to be specific patterns for the narration. As can be seen from above the pattern for relationship of उपमेयम्-उपमानम् is by using the word इव. The pattern for संभावना-relationship is by using the word इति. The pattern for अवधारणा-relationship is by using the word एव. These patterns make the narration crisp. So, it becomes good to follow them.

Let us look at examples of the seven types mentioned in the above श्लोक.

  1. विशेष्यपूर्वपद also known as विशेषणोत्तरपद – कुरुश्रेष्ठः (श्रेष्ठः कुरुः) This word कुरुश्रेष्ठः can also be deciphered as कुरूणां श्रेष्ठः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) OR कुरुषु श्रेष्ठः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः). Here the विग्रह श्रेष्ठः कुरुः is makes it an example of विशेष्यपूर्वपद- (or विशेषणोत्तरपद-) कर्मधारय.

    1. There is another interesting variation of this type of कर्मधारय. It is better explained by an example. वेषान्तरः (अन्यः वेषः) Here उत्तरपद is अन्तर, which is interpreted as अन्य. Only by such interpretation, “अन्तर” becomes विशेषण and is in उत्तरपद-position.

  2. विशेषणपूर्वपद (or विशेष्योत्तरपद) –  नीलकमलम् (नीलं कमलम्), महामुनिः (महान् मुनिः)

  3. विशेषणोभयपद – राजर्षिः (राजा च अयं ऋषिः च), चराचरम् (चरं च अचरं च)

  4. उपमानपूर्वपद (or उपमेयोत्तरपद) – घनःश्यामः (घनः इव श्यामः) Here the word घनः (= cloud) is उपमानम् i.e. idea or object with which श्यामः (= blackness) is being compared. So श्यामः is उपमेयम्

  5. उपमानोत्तरपद (or उपमेयपूर्वपद) – पुरुषव्याघ्रः (पुरुषः व्याघ्रः इव), मुखकमलम् (मुखं कमलं इव)

  6. संभावनापूर्वपद – कैलासाद्रिः (कैलासः इति अद्रिः)

  7. अवधारणापूर्वपद – विद्याधनम् (विद्या एव धनम्), गीतामृतम् (गीता अमृतम् एव) ज्ञानप्लवम् (ज्ञानं एव प्लवः)

Above listing of seven types of कर्मधारयसमास-s need not make one feel overwhelmed by their detail. For a study at Simple Sanskrit level, what is relevant and important is to know, how meaning or interpretation of a given compound word can be understood and how the विग्रह can be stated. As can be seen from above examples, the विग्रह-statements are all quite logical and crisp.

One type of समास, which is often missed out in classification is मध्यमपदलोपी समास. This is a type of कर्मधारय When doing विग्रह i.e. when detailing the meaning, one inserts a word, which is implicit. For example

  1. शाकपार्थिवः = शाकप्रियः पार्थिवः ।

  2. देवब्राम्हणः = देवपूजकः ब्राम्हणः ।

  3. शर्करौदनम् = शर्करायुक्तं ओदनम् |

  4. कपिध्वजः = कपिना अङ्कितः ध्वजः |

Meanings of the above compound words become clear by adding extra words as  प्रियः, पूजकः, युक्तम्. In a way, these extra words are implicit and can be made explicit when detailing the विग्रह. The extra words are like middle words ‘between the component words’ मध्यमपद-s, which are invisible or implicit. In अष्टाध्यायी there is a सूत्रम् “अदर्शनं लोपः”. I am quoting it to explain the concept of मध्यमपदलोपी. Meaning of लोप as अदर्शनम् (not visible, implicit) is very apt here.

अथ द्विगुः ।

द्विगुसमासः द्विविधः एकवद्भावी अनेकवद्भावी चेति ।

Main feature of द्विगुसमास is that the first component पूर्वपदम् is numeric संख्यावाचक. Two types of द्विगुसमास are

  1. एकवद्-भावी (एकवत्= like one; भावी = having such sense; एकवद्भावी = having sense like one). When the संख्या speaks of a group or of a set or of a collection.

    1. For example अष्टाध्यायी Its विग्रह is stated as अष्टानां अध्यायानां समाहारः. Note  समाहारः means group or set. The resultant compound word is singular.

    2. In the श्लोक in भगवद्गीता, अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते (1-35) the word त्रैलोक्यम् (त्रयाणां लोकानां समाहारः) is a good example.

  2. अनेकवद्भावी (अनेकवत् = like more than one; भावी= having such sense; अनेकवद्भावी = having sense of more than one). In this, the संख्या suggests taking note of every item of a group.

    1. For example सप्तर्षयः (= सप्त ऋषयः) Note, in this case the resultant compound word is in plural.

The word समाहारः in the विग्रह of एकवद्भावी द्विगुसमास is a good prompt to discuss next type of समास, the द्वंद्वसमास.

अथ द्वंद्वः ।

द्वंद्वोऽपि द्विविधः इतरेतरसमाहारभेदात् ।

Distinctive feature of compound words of this type of समास is that all पद-s are equally important उभयपदप्रधान. Actually the word उभयपद is hinting at two पद-s, पूर्वपद and उत्तरपद in a compound word. But I am making mention of “all पद-s”.

In भगवद्गीता, there is a special and specific mention of द्वंद्वसमास. See अक्षराणां अकारोऽहं द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य च (10-33)

The mention above in समासचक्रम् mentions two types of द्वंद्वसमास – इतरेतरद्वंद्व and समाहारद्वंद्व. But this mention again misses one more type of द्वंद्वसमास, the एकशेष-द्वंद्वसमास. So द्वंद्व is of three types.

  1. इतरेतरद्वंद्व – In this type the पद-s have distinctive identity.

    1. One good example is the word शरीरवाङ्मनोभिः (गीता 18-15)

      1. in first case प्रथमा विभक्तिः शरीरवाङ्मनांसि

      2. विग्रहः – शरीरं च वाक् च मनः च इति एतानि शरीरवाङ्मनांसि body, speech and mind

      3. तैः (by तृतीयाबहुवचनम् ) शरीरवाङ्मनोभिः

      4. Note, when doing विग्रह one should be knowledgeable and conscious of the declensions of different nouns. For example here शरीरम्, वाक् and मनः are प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of शरीर (अकारान्त-नपुंसकलिङ्गि), वाच् (च्-कारान्त स्त्रीलिङ्गि) मनस् (स्-कारान्त नपुंसकलिङ्गि) Correspondingly मनांसि is प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् of मनस्.

    2. There is an interesting variant of इतरेतरद्वंद्व, where two antonyms (words of opposite meaning) are put together. Resultant compound word would hence be dual द्विवचनात्मक. Very good examples are in the श्लोक in भगवद्गीता सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ … (2-38)

      1. This variant is also called as वैकल्पिकद्वन्द्व One component word is विकल्प (antonym) of the other.

      2. विग्रह of such compound words is detailed by using “or” as the conjunction.

      3. सुखं वा दुःखम् इति सुखदुःखे, लाभः वा अलाभः इति लाभालाभौ, जयः वा अजयः इति जयाजयौ

  2. समाहारद्वंद्व – Good examples in भगवद्गीता –

    1. In सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत् सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम् (13-13)

      1. पाणिपादम् ( पाणी च पादौ च) This is also considered as नित्यद्वन्द्वसमास (नित्यद्वन्द्व = always द्वन्द्व)

      2. अक्षिशिरोमुखम् (अक्षिणी च शिरः च मुखं च)

  3. एकशेषद्वंद्व – A pet example of एकशेषद्वंद्व is पितरौ (माता च पिता च). As can be noted, although the word पितरौ seems to have a single component, by its meaning, it is inclusive of both माता and पिता. एकशेष = only one stays or remains.

There are many interesting examples of द्वंद्वसमास in भगवद्गीता. In the end-note of every chapter of भगवद्गीता, there is the word श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे. विग्रह of this would be –

  1. श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे is सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम्

  2. First by taking the compound word in first case प्रथमा विभक्तिः – श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादः

  3. By step-by-step विग्रह

    1. श्रीयुतः कृष्णः = श्रीकृष्णः (मध्यमपदलोपीसमासः)

    2. श्रीकृष्णः च अर्जुनः च श्रीकृष्णार्जुनौ (इतरेतरद्वंद्वसमासः)

    3. श्रीकृष्णार्जुनयोः संवादः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः –

  1. भीष्मः च द्रोणः च भीष्मद्रोणौ (इतरेतरद्वंद्वसमासः)

  2. भीष्मद्रोणयोः प्रमुखतः (अव्ययीभावः)

  3. अथवा

    1. भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः-शब्दस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखम्

    2. भीष्मः च द्रोणः च भीष्मद्रोणौ (इतरेतरद्वंद्वसमासः)

    3. भीष्मद्रोणयोः प्रमुखम् इति भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

    4. तः = तत्र अथवा तः = तथा

Somewhat challenging but interesting words are – समलोष्टाष्मकाञ्चनः (6-8),

अनेकबाहूदरवक्त्रनेत्रम् (11-16), दीप्तानलार्कद्युतिम् (11-17) द्यावापृथिव्योः (11-20)

We can take these words as words for practice exercises.

I need to also bring to notice that the words समलोष्टाष्मकाञ्चनः (6-8) अनेकबाहूदरवक्त्रनेत्रम् (11-16), दीप्तानलार्कद्युतिम् (11-17) are adjectival. The noun qualified by these adjectives is different from the component words. So, these compound words need to be deciphered as अन्यपदार्थप्रधान, i. e. बहुव्रीहिसमास. We shall take up that in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु !