Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 37

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 37

सरलं संस्कृतम् – सप्तत्रिंशत्तमः (३७) पाठः |

 It is possibly time to indulge in practising what Sanskrit is learnt so far.

 In a Sanskrit-study-circle, I raised a point of putting in Sanskrit a simple statement such as “(Please) keep or leave your footwear here”. In Hindu temples it is a code of practice not to enter the temple with footwear on. So there will often be signage about this.

  1. One member of our study-circle promptly responded suggesting पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयितव्यानि |
  2. Instead of तव्यत्-प्रत्यय one could use अनीयर्-प्रत्यय So, पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापनीयानि |
  3. But then why तव्यत् of the causative (णिच्) ? Why not पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थातव्यानि | तव्यत्-प्रत्यय has passive voice inherent.
  4. In my own mind I was churning up पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयन्तु | to use a verb-form क्रियापदम् instead of a verbal derivative कृदन्तम् |
  5. With subject in second person plural (यूयम्), it would be पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयत |
  6. Instead of लोट्-लकार (आज्ञार्थ) one may use विधिलिङ् and second person plural (यूयम्) So, पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयेत |
  7. Rather, with respectful second person plural (भवन्तः), पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयेयुः |
  8. Since causative of स्था is उभयपदी (स्थापयति-ते) sentences 4, 5, 6, 7 can as well be with आत्मनेपदम् So, पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयन्ताम् | by लोट्-लकारे (आज्ञार्थे) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्
  9. पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयध्वम् | लोट्-लकारे (आज्ञार्थे) मध्यमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्
  10. पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयेरन् | विधिलिङ्-लकारे (विध्यर्थे) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्
  11. पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयेध्वम् | विधिलिङ्-लकारे (विध्यर्थे) मध्यमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्
  12. Then I thought, by using passive voice one can say पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थीयन्ते |
  13. or in active voice पादत्राणानि अत्र तिष्ठन्ति |
  14. There can be passive voice of the causative पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थाप्यन्ते |
  15. One may as well use future tense लृट्-लकारे “footwear will stay here” पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थास्यन्ति |
  16. धातु स्था can be also आत्मनेपदी in future tense. So पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थास्यन्ते |
  17. One often uses the infinitive ‘to stay’ (footwear to stay here). In Sanskrit one uses तुमन्तम् So पादत्राणानि स्थातुम् |
  18. The place to keep the footwear can have a signage पादत्राणान्यत्र or simply पादत्राणानि
  19. To speak of the limit beyond which footwear are not to be worn, one could say इतोऽग्रे पादत्राणानि निषिद्धानि | or simply इतोऽग्रे पादत्राणानि न |
  20. In places, where there is a large and continuous stream of visitors, they have facilities and systems provided to leave footwear which can have a board पादत्राणरक्षणव्यवस्था or simply पादत्राणव्यवस्था |
  21. For people coming in groups, there is facility also for bags. The place where bags are kept, can be denoted by स्यूताः
  22. It is important to take the token. So द्योतकम् अवश्यं प्राप्नुवन्तु | or द्योतकम् अवश्यं प्रापणीयम् |
  23. Actually to collect footwear back, token is essential प्रतिग्रहणाय द्योतकम् आवश्यकम् |

Any more ideas, thoughts, suggestions ? I guess, there can be many more !

A farmer just plants a seed. The plant sprouts up with hundreds and thousands of grains ! Saint Tukaram said just that एका बीजापोटी | फळे रसाळ गोमटी | One seed gets you enticing juicy fruits (and so many of them) ! Industrial production can never match productivity of Nature !!

 I just planted a seed “to put in Sanskrit a simple statement such “Please keep or leave your footwear here”. And lo ! Haven’t I surprised myself ?!!

एकं सद्विप्रा बहुधा वदन्ति |

Truth is one. Those who know put it differently (in their own style) !

 Certainly Sanskrit provides number of ‘styles’ – to each his own !

That is possibly the logic behind 330 million देवता-s also !

शुभं भवतु |


 Ms. Vasantha Syamalam sent this comment –

सामान्यतः ‘पादत्राणानि अत्र विहाय गच्छन्तु इति ‘ भवेत्। परन्तु
एकस्मिन् मन्दिरे मया दृष्टं यत् – अत्र भवन्तः ‘अहङ्कारं त्यक्त्वा (ईश्वरदर्शनार्थं) गच्छन्तु।’ – इति लिखितम्। नूतनमस्ति खलु?

Transgressing the convention of not wearing footwear is like carrying one’s ego into the precincts of a temple.

But not to wear footwear is not a mandate for churches. Maybe, because in places of cold climate, one cannot move about without footwear, certainly not in old times when there was no central heating in churches.

I have been noticing some Muslims washing their feet clean before going into a prayer-room. I don’t think there is any such mandate in Islam, especially in places where, at least in old times, even water for drinking was itself not available, let alone for washing feet every time, when going to a mosque or prayer room.


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 36

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 36

सरलं संस्कृतम् – षट्त्रिंशत्तमः (३६) पाठः |

In the previous lesson, there was the example sentence (4b) कर्तरि – रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यं अर्पयति.

This example is different from other examples, because the verb-form अर्पयति is different. This verb form is derived from धातु ऋ. It is the causative form. The धातु ऋ has different meanings as detailed in Apte’s dictionary.

  • ऋ | भ्वा० (१) अनिट् प० | ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः | वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनेन – ऋच्छति

    • To go, move

    • To raise, tend towards

  • ऋ | जु० (३) अनिट् प० | ऋ- [गतौ] | वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनेन – इयर्ति

    • (Mostly used in Vedas) To go

    • To move, shake

    • To obtain, acquire, reach, meet with

  • ऋ | स्वा० (५) सेट् प० | ऋ [हिंसायाम्][इत्येके] | वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनेन – ऋणोति

    • To injure, hurt

In रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यं अर्पयति the meaning of अर्पयति becomes causative in the sense that नैवेद्यं the offering is made to move, made to go, is made to tend towards गणेश.

In this lesson, I plan to discuss causative and other derivations of धातु-s.

In English, causative of a sentence “I do” is “I make (him) do”. As can be seen, causative brings in two changes in the sentence

  • An additional auxiliary verb “make” is used.

  • In causative, I am not the doer. I shall have another person to be the doer. That doer is explained by “him”.

In Sanskrit the causative sense is called as प्रयोजक or णिच्. For example,

  • I do = अहं करोमि

  • I make (him) do = अहं तेन कारयामि

In Sanskrit to make causative, one does not use any auxiliary verb. The धातु itself is changed to its णिच्-form. Also, since I am not the doer. I shall have another person to be the doer. That doer is the instrument or agent for the action to happen. So that doer will be in the instrumental case तृतीया विभक्ति. In the example here, the doer is ‘he’ सः. Its तृतीया विभक्ति is तेन.

What is the process of णिच्-forms of धातु-s ?

The verbal root धातु is inflected with a विकरणम् अय which is also the विकरणम् for धातु-s of दशमगण.

Also in करोमि and कारयामि the धातु is कृ. Of course कृ is क् + ऋ. In the process of णिच्-forms, to be inflected with a विकरणम् अय्, there will be संधि of ऋ + अय. By इको यणचि ऋ will change to र्. Hence क् + र् + अय = क्रय But in कारयामि, there is कारय, which is क् + आ + र् + अय. There is that आ, which is also a part of the process of णिच्-forms.

Instead of going into such complexity of the grammatical processes, for “Simple Sanskrit”, I would strongly recommend that one should take णिच्-form of a धातु as itself a derived धातु ! That would make the whole thing simple.

Once this approach is adopted, it follows logically that the derived धातु will also have रूपाणि in all लकार-s, both in active and passive voice and will have its own कृदन्त-s et al.

As shown by example in previous lesson, i.e. (4b) कर्तरि – रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यं अर्पयति there will also be change of voice of sentences having verb in णिच्-form.

Here is an example with धातु कृ, considering forms in वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् and a couple of कृदन्त-s.

  1. कर्तरि – करोति (=does)

  2. कर्मणि – क्रियते (= is done)

    1. क्त-कृदन्तम् – कृत (adjective in past passive sense, what has been done)

    2. अनीयर्-कृदन्तम् – करणीयम् (adjective in passive voice and in “should” sense, what should be done)

    3. शानच्-कृदन्तम् – क्रियमाण (adjectival gerund, what is done or is being done)

  3. प्रयोजके – कारयति (= makes do)

  4. प्रयोजकस्य कर्मणि – कार्यते (= is made to be done)

    1. क्त-कृदन्तम् – कारित (adjective in past passive sense, what has been obtained done)

    2. अनीयर्-कृदन्तम् – कारणीयम् (adjective in passive voice and in “should” sense, what should be obtained done)

    3. शानच्-कृदन्तम् – कार्यमाण (adjectival gerund, what is obtained done or is being obtained done)

It can be appreciated that various forms as above become easy to understand by considering णिच्-form of a धातु to be a new derived धातु.

This approach of considering a new derived धातु for every different style of usage is useful also for other derived usages such as desiderative, repetitive, etc.

In a book बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः by कृष्णाचार्य (a bookseller by profession, the then proprietor of माधवविलास Book Depot at कुंभकोणम्, केरल) one finds mention of derived usages as –

  1. णिच् (प्रयोजक = causative) करोति → कारयति

  2. सन् (इच्छार्थक = desiderative) करोति → चिकीर्षति (= कर्तुं इच्छति)

  3. यङ् (आवर्तक = repetitive) करोति → चेक्रीयते

  4. यङ्लुक् (= ??) करोति → चर्करीति, चरीकरीति

The last type यङ्लुक् is not found in common usage. I am mentioning, just because it is detailed by कृष्णाचार्य.

In Table 36-1 are compiled वर्तमानकाल, प्रथमपुरुष, एकवचन for णिच् (प्रयोजक = causative) सन् (इच्छार्थक = desiderative) यङ् (आवर्तक = repetitive) forms of धातु कृ,  which is certainly of very common usage and is very interesting by itself.

Table 36-1


धातु कृ


णिच् (प्रयोजक = causative)


इच्छार्थक = desiderative

यङ् (आवर्तक = repetitive)

लटि प्र. पु. ए. व.

करोति, कुरुते




















क्तवतु-कृदन्तम् (पुं)




















As can be seen, words shown in rows 1 and 2 are only representative of hundreds of words that would be obtained in all ten लकार-s, in all 3 पुरुष-s and all 3 वचन-s.

Also words in rows 5 to 11 are again representative of adjectives which can be declined in all 3 लिङ्ग-s, 8 विभक्ति-s and 3 वचन-s.

Furthermore, the धातु-forms and also the adjectives can have उपसर्ग-s. Number of words that one can obtain from any one धातु would be in thousands. One cannot find all of them in any dictionary.

What one should learn is the process of word-formation. Learning Sanskrit is basically learning the processes of word-formation.

Words in Table 36-1 illustrate the causative, desiderative, repetitive forms for धातु कृ. One can and should compile such tables for every other धातु. Many धातु-s have specialties. For example for धातु दा (यच्छति, ददाति-दत्ते) the causative form is दापयति. As we saw in the beginning of this lesson causative of धातु ऋ is अर्पयति.

Such forms may sound to be complicated. But often one may come across usages, which take one into the enchanting realm of philosophical thought.

Just as a specimen one can deliberate unending on the श्लोक –

प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः |

अहंकारविमूढात्मा कर्ताहमिति मन्यते ||गीता 3-27||

प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः = कर्माणि सर्वशः प्रकृतेः गुणैः क्रियमाणानि = All कर्म-s कर्माणि सर्वशः are caused to be happening due to the inherent characteristics of प्रकृति, (प्रकृतेः गुणैः).

अहंकारविमूढात्मा कर्ताहमिति मन्यते = Person engulfed in false pride अहंकारविमूढात्मा considers, thinks मन्यते, himself to be the doer कर्ताहमिति (अहं कर्ता इति).

Time and tide wait for nobody. It is in the nature of Nature that things, events will keep happening. No one should take credit or pride in the success of any job. Nor should anyone take the blame upon oneself and become frustrated at the failure of any job.

The mention above “… All कर्म-s कर्माणि सर्वशः are caused to be happening due to the inherent characteristics of प्रकृति, (प्रकृतेः गुणैः) ..” may sound a grammatically complicated sentence. But this श्लोक 3-27 is prefaced by –

न हि कश्चित् क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् |

कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः ||3-5||

Note the verb-form कार्यते. As noted in Table 36-1, it is कर्मणिप्रयोग of प्रयोजक of धातु कृ. So, सर्वः जातु अवशः Nobody does anything all by himself. Nobody has a command that a particular result must obtain. Things are not executed by Nature either. The inherent characteristics of Nature cause things to happen प्रकृतिजैः गुणैः कर्म कार्यते

Isn’t there philosophical subtlety that महर्षि व्यास thought it fit to use कर्मणिप्रयोग of प्रयोजक of धातु कृ ?

One must not shy away from the grammatical niceties. I would call these as grammatical niceties, not grammatical complexities. These are niceties, because they bring such precision and scientific clarity to the philosophical thought !

Grammar is called as the very visible face of Vedas मुखं व्याकरणं स्मृतम् as is detailed in this verse –

छन्दः पादौ तु वेदस्य हस्तौ कल्पोऽथ पठ्यते ।

ज्योतिषामयनं चक्षुर्निरुक्तं श्रोत्रमुच्यते ।।

शिक्षा घ्राणं तु वेदस्य मुखं व्याकरणं स्मृतम् ।

तस्मात्साङ्कमधीत्यैव ब्रह्मलोके महीयते ।।

The word मुखम् has two meanings –

  1. मुखम् = the very visible face

  2. मुखम् = the point of entry for the nourishing food of philosophical thought contained in the Vedas to enter in our body and give energy to mind and body and soul.

व्याकरणम् serves both these functions. Grammar of Sanskrit certainly has all such rich, electrifying potential !

शुभं भवतु !


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 35

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 35

सरलं संस्कृतम् – पञ्चत्रिंशत्तमः (३५) पाठः |

In the previous lesson No. 34, mention was made of कर्तरिप्रयोगः, कर्मणिप्रयोगः and भावेप्रयोगः as examples of अलुक्-समास-s. Actually these are important topics in grammar. It is quite opportune to discuss them now.

What verb forms, we have studied thus far, are primarily of active voice. In all languages there is also the passive voice. In most languages this concept of change of voice applies only to transitive verbs, i.e. to verbs which have or can have an object. But in Sanskrit the concept of change of voice is very charming, because it applies to all verbs, whether transitive सकर्मक or intransitive अकर्मक !

Voice-change for transitive सकर्मक and intransitive अकर्मक verbs is given different names –

  1. Active voice is कर्तरिप्रयोगः

  2. Passive voice of transitive सकर्मक verbs is कर्मणिप्रयोगः

  3. Voice-change of intransitive अकर्मक verbs is भावेप्रयोगः

Note, I would not call भावेप्रयोगः as Passive Voice, because English grammar has no equivalent of भावेप्रयोगः.

The names कर्तरिप्रयोगः, कर्मणिप्रयोगः and भावेप्रयोगः are not just technical jargon of grammarians. These terms are meaningful.

Meanings are clear from the विग्रह-s, which were detailed in the previous chapter –

  1. कर्तरि प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | कर्तरि = कर्तृविषयकः, कर्ता एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

  2. कर्मणि प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | कर्मणि = कर्मविषयकः, कर्म एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

  3. भावे प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | भावे = न कर्ता वा न कर्म वा, भावः एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

For changing over from कर्तरिप्रयोगः to कर्मणिप्रयोगः or भावेप्रयोगः is very much a reversible process. Voice-change can be done vice versa, i.e. from कर्मणिप्रयोगः or भावेप्रयोगः to कर्तरिप्रयोगः. So, we can call the process of voice-change as प्रयोगान्तरम्. Some people seem to call it as वाच्यान्तरम्.

In the previous lesson, I had used the word ‘dress’. For example in the word बाह्योद्यानम् and its विग्रहः बाह्यम् उद्यानम् both the words have a dress, which has three aspects – लिङ्गम्, विभक्तिः and वचनम्. In बाह्यम् उद्यानम् both words have the dress of नपुंसकलिङ्गम् प्रथमा विभक्तिः, एकवचनम्.

My father would explain many grammatical processes by using this word ‘dress’. So voice-change प्रयोगान्तरम् is also a process of change of dress.

The process of voice-change प्रयोगान्तरम् from कर्तरिप्रयोगः to कर्मणिप्रयोगः or भावेप्रयोगः involves changing the dress of three parts of a sentence, कर्मपदम्, क्रियापदम् and कर्तृपदम् Also, it is better to follow this order. Of course change of dress of कर्मपदम् would apply only if the verb is transitive, there again, only if there is ‘object’ present in the sentence.

So, the flow-chart for the process of प्रयोगान्तरम् becomes –

  1. Check if there is object कर्मपदम् present in the sentence.

    1. If yes, check if there are two objects present. There are धातु-s, which are not just transitive सकर्मक, but द्विकर्मक.

    2. Choose any one of the two objects.

      1. This in turn means that Change of voice, for sentences having two objects, can be done in two ways, first taking one object and also optionally, by taking the other object.

    3. Change its विभक्ति to प्रथमा, to make the selected object to be the subject in changed voice.

    4. Note, विभक्ति of the other object will not change.

  2. Change the क्रियापदम्. This change involves the following.

    1. धातु gets a विकरणम् य, which is also the विकरणम् for धातु-s of चतुर्थगण

    2. The काल or अर्थ (i.e. लकारः) remains the same. But पुरुषः and वचनम् aspects will match the new subject (see 1 (c) above).

      1. Also, रूपम् will be such, as would be, if the धातु was of आत्मनेपदम्.

    3. If there is no object कर्मपदम् present in the sentence, or if the धातु is intransitive, काल or अर्थ (i.e. लकारः) remains the same. पुरुषः will be प्रथमपुरुष and वचनम् will be एकवचनम्.

  3. Change विभक्तिः of the subject कर्तृपदम् to be तृतीया. But लिङ्गम् and वचनम् will remain same.

Let us understand this by examples.

(1) कर्तरि – अहं वृक्षान् सिञ्चयामि

कर्मपदम् – वृक्षान्

  • वृक्ष-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे प्रथमा-बहुवचनेन वृक्षाः

क्रियापदम् – सिञ्चयामि

  • सिञ्च्-इति धातुः | तस्य वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनेन because new subject is वृक्षाः which merits प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन – सिञ्च्यन्ते

कर्तृपदम् – अहम्

  • अस्मद्-इति सर्वनाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे तृतीयाविभक्तिः एकवचनम् – मया

प्रयोगान्तरेण संपूर्णं वाक्यं कर्मणिप्रयोगे – मया वृक्षाः सिञ्च्यन्ते

As can be noted, for changing the voice, one follows the step-by-step sequence, starting with

  1. change the विभक्ति of the object – make it the subject

  2. change the पुरुष and वचन of the verb to correspond to the new subject

  3. change the विभक्ति of the subject – make it तृतीया, because in changed voice, it is the agent to make the action happen.

(2) कर्तरि – अहं गच्छामि |

न किमपि कर्मपदम् अत्र !

  1. क्रियापदम् – गच्छामि,

    1. धातुः गम्

    2. भावेप्रयोगे वर्तमानकालः प्रथमपुरुषः एकवचनम् रूपम् – गम्यते

  2. कर्तृपदम् – अहम्

    1. अस्मद्-सर्वनाम एकवचनम्

    2. भावेप्रयोगे – तृतीयाविभक्तिः, अतः ‘मया’.

  3. प्रयोगान्तरेण भावेप्रयोगे – मया गम्यते |


  1. here there is no object.

  2. Verb is in प्रथमपुरुषः, एकवचनम्

  3. विभक्ति of the subject is changed to तृतीया

(3) कर्तरि – अर्जुनः युधम् अकरोत् | Literally, Arjuna did the battle.

कर्मपदम् – युधम् |

  • युध्-इति स्त्रॆलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे प्रथमाविभक्तिः एकवचनन् – युध्

क्रियापदम् – अकरोत् |

  • कृ-इति धातुः | तस्य लङि (अनद्यतनभूते) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे लङि (अनद्यतनभूते) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् – अक्रियत |

कर्तृपदम् – अर्जुनः |

  • अर्जुन-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमाविभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् – अर्जुनेन |

प्रयोगान्तरेण संपूर्णं वाक्यं कर्मणिप्रयोगे – अर्जुनेन युध् अक्रियत Literally, Battle was done by Arjuna.

In this example the tense is past tense.

When it comes to Passive voice and past tense, there is a charming and crisp option in Sanskrit. The option is to use a past passive participle कर्मणिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम्. Since it is derived from a धातु it is a कृदन्तम्.

कृदन्त is a grammatical term for words derived from धातु-s. Different types of कृदन्त-s are obtained by affixing different suffixes प्रत्यय-s.

The प्रत्यय for obtaining कर्मणिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् is क्त. Hence कर्मणिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् can also be called as क्त-कृदन्त. English scholars of Sanskrit gave it the name Past Passive Participle. But it is not just a participle. It is a whole some adjective. Being an adjective, it has लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन. Also these shall have to correspond with those of the qualified noun.

In the above sentence अर्जुनेन युध् अक्रियत in passive voice, क्त-कृदन्त of कृ-धातु can be used in place of the verb अक्रियत. क्त-कृदन्त of कृ-धातु is कृत. Since noun to be qualified is युध्, which is feminine, the sentence in passive voice would be अर्जुनेन युध् कृता.

Since प्रयोगान्तरम् is a reversible process, one can transform a sentence in कर्मणि into कर्तरि.

If sentence in कर्मणि is अर्जुनेन युध् अक्रियत obviously its transformation in कर्तरि would be अर्जुनः युधम् अकरोत्.

Obvious curiosity would be “can अर्जुनेन युध् कृता also be transformed back into कर्तरि ?”. Answer is ‘yes !’.

The suffix or प्रत्यय for obtaining कर्तरिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् is क्तवतु. This क्तवतु-कृदन्त of कृ-धातु is कृतवत्.

In कर्तरि the कर्तरिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् qualifies the subject अर्जुनः which is पुंल्लिङ्ग and shall be in प्रथमाविभक्ति एकवचन. So one needs to use पुंल्लिङ्ग प्रथमाविभक्ति एकवचन of कृतवत्. By transformation in कर्तरि, the sentence would be अर्जुनः युधम् कृतवान्.

The reverse procedure of प्रयोगान्तरम् has of course reverse sequence. The sequence for कर्तरि to कर्मणि was changing first the कर्मपदम् then क्रियापदम् and lastly कर्तृपदम्. The reverse sequence would be first कर्तृपदम् then क्रियापदम् (or कृदन्तम्) and lastly the कर्मपदम्.

Accordingly –

  1. अर्जुनेन → अर्जुनः changes from तृतीयाविभक्ति to प्रथमाविभक्ति

  2. कृता → कृतवान् corresponds with अर्जुनः

  3. युध् → युधम् becomes the object and hence in द्वितीयाविभक्ति.

(4) कर्तरि – रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यम् अर्पयति |

Here we have two objects – गणेशम् and नैवेद्यम्. We shall take only one object first, say गणेशम्

By sequence for change of voice

(4a) कर्मपदम् – गणेशम् |

  • गणेश-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे प्रथमाविभक्तिः एकवचनन् – गणेशः

क्रियापदम् – अर्पयति |

  • ऋ-इति धातुः | तस्य लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् – अर्प्यते |

कर्तृपदम् – रामः |

  • राम-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे तृतीया विभक्तिः  एकवचनम् – रामेण

प्रयोगान्तरे संपूर्णं वाक्यम् – रामेण गणेशः नैवेद्यम् अर्प्यते |

Optionally by taking the other object –

(4b) कर्तरि – रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यम् अर्पयति |

कर्मपदम् – नैवेद्यम् |

  • नैवेद्य-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे प्रथमाविभक्तिः एकवचनं च – नैवेद्यः

क्रियापदम् – अर्पयति |

  • ऋ-इति धातुः | तस्य लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् – अर्प्यते |

कर्तृपदम् – रामः |

  • राम-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे तृतीया विभक्तिः  एकवचनम् – रामेण

प्रयोगान्तरे संपूर्णं वाक्यम् – रामेण नैवेद्यः गणेशम् अर्प्यते |

(5) कर्तरि – भक्तः ईश्वरं स्मरेत् |

कर्मपदम् – ईश्वरम्

  • ईश्वर-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे प्रथमाविभक्तिः एकवचनं च – ईश्वरः

क्रियापदम् – स्मरेत्

  • स्मृ-इति धातुः | तस्य विधिलिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे विधिलिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् – स्मर्येत |

कर्तृपदम् – भक्तः

  • भक्त-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे तृतीया विभक्तिः  एकवचनम् – भक्तेन

प्रयोगान्तरे संपूर्णं वाक्यम् – ईश्वरः भक्तेन स्मर्येत |

I have taken this example sentence to bring to notice another interesting set of three कृदन्त-s, which have a wonderful combination of change of voice plus विधिलिङ्-लकार. The three कृदन्त-s are by three प्रत्यय-s – यत् (or ण्यत्), तव्य / तव्यत्, अनीयर्.

For the धातु स्मृ, the three कृदन्त-s would be स्मार्यम् स्मर्तव्यम् स्मरणीयम्. Likewise for धातु कृ the three कृदन्त-s would be कार्यम्, कर्तव्यम्, करणीयम्.

One curiosity is if all the three कृदन्त-s connote change of voice of one लकार, the विधिलिङ्-लकार, are they all synonymous or is there a difference ?

Yes, there is a difference. The difference is similar to the difference between the verbal auxiliaries used in English grammar, the auxiliaries – would (or may or might), should and must.

  • कार्यम् = what would (or may or might) be done

  • करणीयम् = what should be done

  • कर्तव्यम् = what must be done

It seems that these कृदन्त-s in Sanskrit bring forth all the shades of meanings, which are not as obvious in just the विधिलिङ्-लकार. So change of voice भक्तः ईश्वरं स्मरेत् should rather be done as ईश्वरः भक्तेन स्मरणीयः instead of just ईश्वरः भक्तेन स्मर्येत.

I had noted the प्रत्यय-s as यत् (or ण्यत्), तव्य / तव्यत्, अनीयर्. That merits some explanation.

प्रत्यय-s तव्य and तव्यत् are options of each other.

प्रत्यय-s यत् and ण्यत् are used as per following guideline –

  • ण्यत् – ऋकारान्तानां हलन्तानाञ्च अन्ते भावार्थे अयं कृत्प्रत्ययः भवति ।

    • For धातु-s ending with ऋकार and ending with a consonant

    • यथा कृ-धातोः कार्य । स्मृ-धातोः स्मार्य

    • गम्-धातोः गम्य

  • यत् – ऋकारान्तं वर्जयित्वा अन्येषाम् अजन्तानां धातूनां अन्ते भावार्थे अयं कृत्प्रत्ययः भवति ।

    • For धातु-s ending with a vowel except ऋ

    • यथा दा-धातोः देय, गै-धातोः गेय, पा-धातोः पेय.

It was noted that the प्रत्यय-s क्त and क्तवतु are converses of each other and facilitate change of voice from Passive to Active and vice versa. But प्रत्यय-s as यत् (or ण्यत्), तव्य / तव्यत्, अनीयर् inherently have the Passive sense and do not have any corresponding converses. Rather, considering the differential meanings of would (or may or might), should and must, it is better to use these प्रत्यय-s appropriately and in passive voice, which is inherent to them.

This अनीयर्-प्रत्यय brings to mind a good verse –

कस्यचित्किमपि नो हरणीयम् ।

मर्मवाक्यमपि नोच्चरणीयम्‌ ।

श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।

लीलया भवजलं तरणीयम्‌ ॥

कस्यचित्किमपि नो हरणीयम् = कस्यचित्किमपि न उ हरणीयम् = Oh, really, nobody should be robbed of anything

मर्मवाक्यमपि नोच्चरणीयम्‌ = मर्मवाक्यमपि न उच्चरणीयम्‌ = The moral (and morality) should not be expressed. (These cannot and should not points of debate or discussion.) मर्मवाक्यम्‌ also means a secret mantra bestowed by the Guru for spiritual meditation. By that मर्मवाक्यमपि न उच्चरणीयम्‌ then means that mantra should never be divulged.

श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् = Feet of God should (always) be remembered.

लीलया भवजलं तरणीयम्‌ = (Thus) the waters of life (the ocean of cycles of life and death) should be crossed gamely.

In every line in this verse, there are words with अनीयर्-प्रत्यय from धातु-s हृ, उच्चर् (उत् + चर्), स्मृ and तॄ respectively.

यत् and ण्यत्-प्रत्यय-s also bring to mind a सुभाषितम् about the wealth of knowledge विद्याधनम्. It has words using कृदन्त-s हार्य and भाज्य from धातु-s हृ and भज् –

न चोरहार्यं न च राजहार्यं न भ्रातृभाज्यं न च भारकारि।

व्यये कृते वर्धत एव नित्यं विद्याधनं सर्वधनप्रधानम्॥

It cannot be stolen by a thief.

It cannot be taken away by a King.

It cannot be divided among brothers.

It does not cause load. It always increases when spent.

The wealth of knowledge is the greatest of all wealths.

शुभं भवतु !


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 34

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 34

To understand how a compound word is made or composed, it would be good to note some basic observations, say, from the very first example of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या. The basic observations are –

  1. All component words पद-s, except the last one, hence the पद-s बाह्य, उद्यान, स्थित, हर, शिरस्, चन्द्रिका and धौत are in their प्रातिपदिक state

  2. संधि is mandatory wherever it is applicable. Here

    1. बाह्य + उद्यान = बाह्योद्यान

    2. शिरस् + चन्द्रिका = शिरश्चन्द्रिका

    3. In respect of संधि being mandatory, one should always bear in mind, the श्लोक – संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः | नित्या समासे, (वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते) ||

  3. The last component word, and in turn the complete compound word gets the complete dress of लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन, as is appropriate to the context.

    1. In बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या the last component हर्म्य was made स्त्रीलिङ्ग, प्रथमा, एकवचन

    2. In उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ताबलौ (or उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णौ आसवदत्ताबलौ) the last component बल was made पुंल्लिङ्ग, प्रथमा, द्विवचन.

The three observations as above seem to be good and logical and would come to notice 90 percent of the times. Why 90 percent ? Does it mean that there will be instances where the observations will not be valid ?

The answer is ‘yes’.

Take for example सामासिकशब्द-s such as युधिष्ठिरः, आत्मनेपदम्, परस्मैपदम्, कर्मणिप्रयोगः, कर्तरिप्रयोगः, भावेप्रयोगः, सरसिजम्

What observation do these words being forth ? Rather, what difference in the method of compounding do these words being forth ?

The first components in all these words युधि, आत्मने, परस्मै, कर्मणि, कर्तरि, भावे, सरसि have their dress of लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन very much intact. They are not in their प्रातिपदिक state.

This method of compounding, where the dress of the first component पूर्वपद, remains intact is called as अलुक्-समास. Here अलुक् means “remains intact”.

Obviously the common method of compounding where the first component(s) पूर्वपद(s) are in their प्रातिपदिक state has the name लुक्-समास (opposite of अलुक्-समास).

These terms अलुक् and लुक् seem to mean, rather, they do mean “remains” and “vanishes” respectively. By the way, लुक् meaning “vanishes” is opposite of the meaning of the word “look” in English, right ? But लुक् meaning “vanishes” is a technical term of Sanskrit grammar, is said to have been coined by पाणिनि.

Even when accepting that लुक् meaning “vanishes” is a technical term, mute point is, “what is it that vanishes ?” Obviously, it is the dress of लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन, that vanishes. Hence the पद-s are in their प्रातिपदिक state.

In अलुक्-समास the ‘look’ does not change !

Just to drive the point home, let us review what are the ‘लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन’-dresses of the words युधि, आत्मने, परस्मै, कर्मणि, कर्तरि, भावे and सरसि.

  1. युधि – युध् इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  2. आत्मने – आत्मन् इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  3. परस्मै – पर इति सर्वनाम | प्रायः पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  4. कर्मणि – कर्मन् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  5. कर्तरि – कर्तृ इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि वा नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  6. भावे – भाव इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  7. सरसि – सरस् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

Since in अलुक्-समास-s the ‘लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन’-dress remains, their विग्रह is very straight-forward.

  1. युधिष्ठिरः – युधि स्थिरः इति युधिष्ठिरः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)

  2. आत्मनेपदम् – आत्मने पदम् इति आत्मनेपदम् (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः)

  3. परस्मैपदम् – परस्मै पदम् इति परस्मैपदम् (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः)

  4. कर्मणिप्रयोगः – कर्मणि प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | कर्मणि = कर्मविषयकः, कर्म एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

  5. कर्तरिप्रयोगः – कर्तरि प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | कर्तरि = कर्तृविषयकः, कर्ता एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

  6. भावेप्रयोगः – भावे प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | भावे = न कर्ता वा न कर्म वा, भावः एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

  7. सरसिजम् – सरसि जायते इति सरसिजम् (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः)

As would have been noted, लुक् and अलुक् are not types of समास. They are types of building a समास. What we discussed as “Types of समास” were types by the patterns of detailing विग्रह-s of समास-s.

Having discussed लुक् and अलुक्-समास-s let me provoke a study of another interesting compound word मनोगतम्.

The two component words, that are obvious, are मनस् and गतम्. Question is, “why has मनस् become मनो ?”

By rules of संधि, which is mandatory for compounding, मनः + गतम् = मनोगतम्. But since मनस् is प्रातिपदिक, just as in शिरश्चन्द्रिका, शिरस् is the प्रातिपदिक, why not मनस्गतम् ?

However since मनः is प्रथमा or द्वितीया विभक्ति एकवचनम् of मनस् is it the declined form of मनस्, which has stayed अलुक् ?

The second component गतम् is a verbal derivative. The verb गम् is transitive in Sanskrit. For example, रमा मन्दिरं गच्छति. Here मन्दिरम् is like an object of the verb गच्छति. Likewise, मनः गतम् = what has gone unto mind and by अलुक्-compounding मनः + गतम् = मनोगतम्. Q.E.D. !!!

So we take मनः + गतम् = मनोगतम् as the विग्रह of मनोगतम् ?

But what about मनोरथः ? मनोरथः = मनः रथः एव (अवधारणा-कर्मधारय) ? And by rules of संधि, मनः + रथः = मनोरथः ? Again अलुक्-compounding ?

What about शिरोधार्यम् (worthy of carrying or wearing on the head) ? The component words are शिरस् and धार्यम्. The विग्रह would be शिरसि धार्यम् इति शिरोधार्यम् (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) However since शिरस् is the प्रातिपदिक, why not शिरस् + धार्यम् = शिरस्धार्यम् ?

Likewise मनसः धैर्यम् = मनोधैर्यम् (षष्ठी–तत्पुरुषः) Why not मनस्धैर्यम् ?

In many such compounds, it seems that the स्-कारान्त प्रातिपदिक of the पूर्वपद is treated as विसर्गान्त. Or the स्-ending is changed to a विसर्ग and thereafter rule of विसर्गसंधि is employed when making the compound word.

It is possible that these compound words happened to be so in spoken Sanskrit. Grammarians also accepted them that way only.

In the संस्कृतभारती book “समासः”, mentioned in the previous lesson also, authored by Mr. G. महाबलेश्वर भट्ट, one finds mention of some प्रक्रिया-s. Some of these are detailed below –

  1. If प्रातिपदिक of the पूर्वपद is न्-ending, the न् is to be dropped. For example राजन् + पुरुषः = राजपुरुषः विग्रह of राजपुरुषः is राज्ञः पुरुषः इति राजपुरुषः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

  2. In नञ्-समास-s i.e. in नञ्-तत्पुरुष or नञ्-बहुव्रीहि, न् from the न of नकार (न is actually न् + अ) is to be dropped. For example न + धर्मः = न् + अ + धर्मः = अधर्मः

  3. If in नञ्-समास the उत्तरपदम् is स्वरादि, i.e. if it begins with a vowel, न् + अ of the नकार exchange their places. For example न + ईश्वरः = अ + न् + ईश्वरः = अनीश्वरः Or the prefix for a स्वरादि उत्तरपदम् is taken as अन् instead of न. There are any number of examples – अनन्त, अनावृत्त, अनवधि, …

  4. The adjective महत्, when in पूर्वपद-position, is used as महा. For example, महादेवः or महादेवी One finds such mention about the word महत् in Apte’s dictionary also.

  5. Words राजन्, अहन् and सखिन् are न्-ending. But if they come in उत्तरपद-position, they become अ-कारान्त पुंल्लिङ्गी For example, महत् + राजन् → महा + राज = महाराजः कृष्ण + सखिन् → कृष्ण + सखः = कृष्णसखः

  6. Items 2 and 3 about प्रक्रिया-s with न् in नञ्-समास-s, I think it is simpler to take it that there are two prefixes उपसर्ग-s for negation, अ and अन्

    1. अ when the following word does not begin with a vowel. अ is anyway a well-known उपसर्ग, very much acknowledged in grammar and in dictionary. There is no need to detail it as a प्रक्रिया where न् is dropped.

    2. अन् also to be taken as उपसर्ग, to be used, when the following word begins with a vowel.

In Sanskrit there are many derived words. Derived words are called as तद्धित-s. The words are derived by affixing प्रत्यय-s, rather तद्धितप्रत्यय-s. Explaining the derivation and meaning of तद्धित-s sounds similar to विग्रह of a समास. But they are not समास-s. They are तद्धित-s. There is a large number of तद्धितप्रत्यय-s. To explain by some examples –

  1. बुद्धिमान् is बुद्धि + मत्. Note प्रत्ययः मत् = अस्य अस्ति इति. Hence बुद्धिः अस्य अस्ति इति बुद्धिमान्

  2. धनवान् is धन + वत्. Note प्रत्ययः वत् also = अस्य अस्ति इति. Hence धनम् अस्य अस्ति इति धनवान्

  3. रक्षकः is रक्ष् + अक. Note प्रत्ययः अक = करोति इति. Hence रक्षणं करोति इति रक्षकः

  4. गुणिन् is गुण + इन्. Note प्रत्ययः इन् = अस्य अस्ति इति. Hence गुणाः अस्य सन्ति इति गुणिन्

  5. दाता is दा + तृ. Note तृ-प्रत्ययेन निर्देशः धातोः अर्थस्य वाहकस्य. Word with तृ-प्रत्यय connotes the person, who does the action connoted by the verbal root दा + तृ (दाता) = सः यः ददाति; दात्री = सा या ददाति

Having noted some तद्धितप्रत्यय-s as above, one should also bear in mind the distinction between तद्धितप्रत्यय-s and उपपद-s. For example ज in अण्डज is उपपदम्, not a तद्धितप्रत्यय. With उपपदम् it is a समास. With तद्धितप्रत्यय it is a तद्धित.

One more point before closing this lesson on composing a compound word. In the context of rules of संधि, I had come across an interesting example.

What would be the संधि of आसने + उपविष्टा ? There are two options –

  1. आसने + उपविष्टा = आसनयुपविष्टा by एचोऽयवायावः

  2. आसने + उपविष्टा = आसन उपविष्टा by लोपः शाकल्यस्य

  3. And the rule is once we do आसन उपविष्टा by लोपः शाकल्यस्य, we should not do further संधि as आसनोपविष्टा

  4. But in this particular case, one can certainly compose a word आसनोपविष्टा as a compound word with its विग्रह as आसने उपविष्टा (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) !!

Doesn’t that bring forth an interesting view of the last part, the विवक्षा aspect,  so succinctly hinted in the श्लोक – संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः | नित्या समासे, वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते || .. ?

It comes to mind that one should learn Sanskrit to cultivate this quality of विवक्षा discretion !

शुभं भवतु !


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 33

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 33

सरलसंस्कृतस्य त्रित्रिंशत्तमः (३३) पाठः

Now we shall study समास-s of बहुव्रीहि-type. In “समासचक्रम्” this declaration “Now we shall study….” is announced as अथ बहुव्रीहिः कथ्यते. Further it mentions बहुव्रीहिः to be of seven sub-types – स च द्विपदो बहुपदः सहपूर्वपदः संख्योभयपदो व्यतिहारलक्षणो दिगन्तराललक्षणश्चेति भेदात् सप्तविधः । The seven sub-types are – (1) द्विपदः (2) बहुपदः (3) सहपूर्वपदः (4) संख्योभयपदः (5) व्यतिहारलक्षणः (6) दिगन्तराललक्षणः

In a book “समासः” published by संस्कृतभारती, बेङ्गलूरु, author Mr. G. महाबलेश्वर भट्ट gives a broad, two-fold classification of बहुव्रीहिः as सामान्य and विशेष.

It seems what is mentioned in समासचक्रम् as द्विपदः is called as सामान्य by Mr. G. महाबलेश्वर भट्ट.

By that token the rest six sub-types बहुपद, सहपूर्वपद, संख्योभयपद, व्यतिहारलक्षण and दिगन्तराललक्षण come in the class विशेष. But Mr. G. महाबलेश्वर भट्ट does not list बहुपद in his list of sub-types.

He also gives a few more sub-types as व्यधिकरण, संख्योत्तरपद, नञ्-, प्रादि and उपमानपूर्वपद. By a footnote, he clarifies that नञ्-, प्रादि and उपमानपूर्वपद are sub-types of सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class and not of विशेष class.

On the whole, we can say that sub-types of बहुव्रीहि-समास-s are (1) द्विपद (2) बहुपद (3) सहपूर्वपद (4) संख्योभयपद (5) व्यतिहारलक्षण (6) दिगन्तराललक्षण  (7) व्यधिकरण (8) संख्योत्तरपद (9) नञ् (10) प्रादि and (11) उपमानपूर्वपद.

I think examples will clarify the logic of the classification and these names of the sub-types.

Most important thing to be kept in mind is that the meaning of a word, composed as बहुव्रीहि-समास, always hints at something, which is different from what the meanings of component words are. A बहुव्रीहि-समास is अन्यपदार्थ-प्रधान. By that token, a word composed as बहुव्रीहि-समास is adjectival, is an adjective of a different entity, is adjective of अन्यपदार्थ.

Example (1a) प्राप्तोदकः (ग्रामः) – प्राप्तम् उदकं यं सः (प्राप्तोदकः)

  1. This is a बहुव्रीहि-समास of द्विपद or सामान्य, because it has just two component words द्विपद, which is quite common, hence सामान्य.
  2. ग्रामः the word in brackets is not part of the compound word. It is mentioned here to explain the context, in which one will find use of the compound word प्राप्तोदकः.

  3. In the विग्रह, both the components प्राप्तम् and उदकम् are in first case, in same विभक्ति. So, it is समानाधिकरण.

  4. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by the phrase यं सः. In this phrase, the word यम् is द्वितीया विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is द्वितीयार्थबहुव्रीहिः, a further sub-type of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

Example (1-b) यतेन्द्रियः = यतानि इन्द्रियाणि येन सः

  1. Here also there are two components यत and इन्द्रिय.

  2. In the विग्रह, both the components यत and इन्द्रिय are in same विभक्ति. Also, in the विग्रह, both are in बहुवचन. A person  will be called यतेन्द्रिय, only if he has gained control over all his इन्द्रिय-s, right ? One can be smart enough to have in mind the implied meaning and use the appropriate वचन, when stating the विग्रह.

  3. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by the phrase येन सः. In this phrase, the word येन is तृतीया विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is तृतीयार्थबहुव्रीहिः, another sub-type of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

Example (1-c) दत्तार्घ्यः – दत्तं अर्घ्यं यस्मै सः

  1. अर्घ्यम् = valuable offering.

  2. Here also there are two components दत्त and अर्घ्य.

  3. In the विग्रह, both the components दत्त and अर्घ्य are in same विभक्ति. So, it is समानाधिकरण.

  4. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by यस्मै सः. In this phrase, the word यस्मै is चतुर्थी विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is चतुर्थ्यर्थबहुव्रीहिः, another subtype of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

Example (1-d) गतप्राणः – गतः प्राणः यस्मात् सः

  1. Here also there are two components गत and प्राण.

  2. In the विग्रह, both the components गत and प्राण are in same विभक्ति. So, it is समानाधिकरण.

  3. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by यस्मात् सः. In this phrase, the word यस्मात् is पञ्चमी विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is पञ्चम्यर्थबहुव्रीहिः, another sub-type of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

Example (1-e) महाबाहुः – महान्तौ बाहू यस्य सः (= one who has large arms)

  1. Here also there are two components महत् and बाहु.

  2. In the विग्रह, both the components महत् and बाहु are in same विभक्ति. So, it is समानाधिकरण.

  3. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by यस्य सः. In this phrase, the word यस्य is षष्ठी विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is षष्ठ्यर्थबहुव्रीहिः, another sub-type of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

  4. In the विग्रह, both the components are in द्विवचन. As was mentioned for यतेन्द्रियः, here also, since a person will have two arms, one should be alert of this aspect and use द्विवचन, which is appropriate here.

Example (1-f) शुद्धोदकः (घटः) – शुद्धं उदकं यस्मिन् सः

  1. Here also there are two components शुद्ध and उदक.

  2. In the विग्रह, both the components शुद्ध and उदक are in same विभक्ति. So, it is समानाधिकरण.

  3. In the विग्रह, the अन्यपदार्थ is explained by यस्मिन् सः. In this phrase, the word यस्मिन् is सप्तमी विभक्ति of सर्वनाम यत्. So, this is सप्तम्यर्थबहुव्रीहिः, another subtype of द्विपद or सामान्य or समानाधिकरण class.

To proceed further, we shall see examples of नञ्, प्रादि and उपमानपूर्वपद sub-types.

In नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः sub-type, the first component here is a prefix giving negative नञ्-sense. For example #2, अपुत्रः (न पुत्रः यस्य सः = one, who does not have a son)

Actually negativity is said to be of six types !! तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता / अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च नञर्थाः षट् प्रकीर्तिताः //

  1. तत्सादृश्यम् = Looks like that, but it is not that, e.g. a mirage. It looks like water, but is not water.

  2. अभावः = Absent, non-existent

  3. तदन्यत्वम् (तत् + अन्यत्वम्) = Different

  4. तदल्पता (तत् + अल्पता) = Incomplete, inadequate, too little

  5. अप्राशस्त्यम् = Inappropriateness i.e. what does not have प्रशस्ति commend-ability.

  6. विरोधः = Opposite, e.g. असत्यम् is opposite of सत्यम्.

प्रादिबहुव्रीहिः – Here also the first component is a prefix उपसर्ग. The word प्रादि connotes “उपसर्ग-s such as प्र”. They are called as प्रादि because the list of प्रादि-s starts with प्र.

For example # 3-a – निरालंबः

  1. निरालंबः = निर् + आलंबः Here निर् is a प्रादि a prefix.

  2. निर् = निर्गतः; आलंबः = support

  3. निरालंबः = निर्गतः आलंबः यस्य सः

  4. Hence, निरालंबः = one who has no support OR one who has lost all support whatever, )

Another example # 3-b from गीता (6-35) दुर्निग्रहम् (मनः)

  1. दुर्निग्रहम् = दुः + निग्रहम् (दुः = दुष्करः/दुष्करम्/दुष्करा, दुष्करः निग्रहः यस्य तत्)

  1. In stating the विग्रह of प्रादिसमास-s one details the meaning connoted by the उपसर्ग.

  2. In गणपाठ, पाणिनि lists 22 उपसर्ग-s. प्र, परा, अप, सम्‌, अनु, अव, निस्‌, निर्, दुस्‌, दुर्, वि, आ (आङ्‌), नि, अधि, अपि, अति, सु, उत् /उद्‌, अभि, प्रति, परि and उप.

  3. Most of these उपसर्ग-s have, not just one meaning, but different shades of meanings. These are detailed at

उपमानपूर्वपदबहुव्रीहिः – Here the first component is a simile उपमान. For example #4 गजाननः = गजस्य इव आननं यस्य सः = one who has mouth similar to that of an elephant

Now we shall see other sub-types of विशेष class समास-s. (1) व्यधिकरण (2) संख्योत्तरपद (3) सहपूर्वपदः (4) संख्योभयपदः (5) बहुपदः (6) व्यतिहारलक्षणः (7) दिगन्तराललक्षणः

व्यधिकरण – It should be interesting to understand the difference between व्यधिकरण and समानाधिकरण. As was seen in समानाधिकरण, the विग्रह would have both the पद-s in identical लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन. However in विग्रह of व्यधिकरण, लिङ्ग, विभक्ति, वचन of the पद-s will be different.

Let us see example # 5 चक्रपाणिः = चक्रं पाणौ यस्य सः

  1. चक्रम् is नपुंसकलिङ्ग प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम्; चक्रम् = wheel

  2. पाणौ is पुंल्लिङ्ग सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of पाणि (= hand)

Examples of सहपूर्वपद

  1. Example # 6-a सनाथः – Note, स = सह. नाथेन सह यः सः (अथवा) नाथः सह येन सः

  2. Example # 6-b सलक्ष्मणः – लक्ष्मणः सह येन सः

संख्योत्तरपद can be understood by

Example # 7-a उपविंशम् (वयः). Note, उप = समीपे. विंशतेः समीपे यत् तत् उपविंशम् Example # 7-b  उपविंशाः (जनाः) विंशतेः समीपे ये ते Example # 7-c उपविंशाः (स्त्रियः) विंशतेः समीपे याः ताः

संख्योभयपदः – यथा Example # 8-a द्वित्रीणि (वस्तूनि) – द्वे वा त्रीणि वा (यानि तानि) Example # 8-b द्वित्राः (पशवः) द्वौ वा त्रयः वा (ये ते) Example # 8-c द्वित्राः (कन्यकाः) – द्वे वा तिस्रः वा (याः ताः)

व्यतिहारलक्षणः – यथा Example # 9 केशाकेशि (द्वन्द्वम्) – Note केशाकेशि = केशेषु केशेषु यत् तत् Hence केशेषु केशेषु (गृहीत्वा इदम) यत् तत् केशाकेशि  केशाकेशि द्वन्द्वम् = a duet or a quarrel between two, where both fight by pulling at each-other’s hairs.

दिगन्तराललक्षणः – यथा Example #10 दक्षिणपूर्वे (प्रदेशे) – दक्षिणायां च पूर्वायां च (दिशोः) यः सः = दक्षिणायां च पूर्वायां च (दिशोः) यत् अन्तरालं तत्र. As can be seen, such समास has a vast expanse अन्तराल being covered. Here दक्षिणपूर्वे प्रदेशे means all the region in southeast direction.

It is most important that since बहुव्रीहिः is अन्यपदार्थप्रधान, the compound word is basically an adjective, qualifying a noun, which is the अन्यपदार्थ. So, in a given sentence or phrase, the total compound word will have लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन corresponding to लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन of the noun, which it qualifies. Just to recall, the total compound word बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या was feminine, singular, because the noun it qualified was अलकानगरी. The last पद, हर्म्य is by itself a neuter noun. But the total compound word was made feminine by making the last पद as हर्म्या.

That brings us to studying how पद-s are put together to make a सामासिकशब्द.

What we studied so far is doing विग्रह of a given सामासिकशब्द and understanding its meaning and its type. How about forming सामासिकशब्द-s by ourselves ? How is that done ? Are there any rules and procedures to be followed ?

We shall study that in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु !


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 32

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 32

We shall now discuss कर्मधारय and द्विगु समास-s. In समासचक्रम् seven sub-types of कर्मधारय are mentioned –

अथ कर्मधारयः कथ्यते ।

स च विशेष्यपूर्वपदो विशेषणपूर्वपदो विशेषणोभयपदः उपमानपूर्वपदः ।

उपमानोत्तरपदः संभावनापूर्वपदोऽवधारणापूर्वपदश्चेति-भेदात् सप्तविधः॥

Specific words in the above श्लोक merit attention. विशेष्य (noun), विशेषण (adjective), उपमान, संभावना, अवधारणा.

These words in the above श्लोक are mentioned in the context of the order or position of पद-s.

These words also sort of dictate different patterns of stating विग्रह.

  • If the relationship between two पद-s is विशेषण-विशेष्य relationship, विग्रह is straightforward.

  • The relationship of उपमेयम्-उपमानम् will need a different pattern. It should be noted that in उपमेयम्-उपमानम् relationship, उपमानम् or उपमा is the other idea or object with which a subject उपमेयम् is being compared. The relationship of उपमेयम्-उपमानम् is identical to the figure of speech “Simile”. विग्रह of such relationship is better stated by using the word इव. For example कुसुमकोमलम् = कुसुमं इव कोमलम्

  • In संभावना-relationship, one of the two components of a compound word is the mention of the general category and the other component is specific name or proper noun. For example, in अलकानगरी one component नगरी is general category and अलका is the proper noun. So, at the mention of अलकानगरी, if there was to be a question, “Which नगरी ?”, the answer would be “अलकानगरी”. So अलका is the संभावना of that नगरी. In the compound word अलकानगरी, अलका is sort of nominal adjective of the नगरी. In turn it becomes sort of विशेषण-विशेष्य relationship. But the विग्रह of अलकानगरी is better stated as अलका इति नगरी.

  • अवधारणा-relationship is identical to the figure of speech “Metaphor”.  विग्रह of अवधारणा-relationship is better stated by using the word एव. For example विद्याधनम् = विद्या एव धनम्

Although विग्रह is really a narration of the meaning of the समास, there have come to be specific patterns for the narration. As can be seen from above the pattern for relationship of उपमेयम्-उपमानम् is by using the word इव. The pattern for संभावना-relationship is by using the word इति. The pattern for अवधारणा-relationship is by using the word एव. These patterns make the narration crisp. So, it becomes good to follow them.

Let us look at examples of the seven types mentioned in the above श्लोक.

  1. विशेष्यपूर्वपद also known as विशेषणोत्तरपद – कुरुश्रेष्ठः (श्रेष्ठः कुरुः) This word कुरुश्रेष्ठः can also be deciphered as कुरूणां श्रेष्ठः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) OR कुरुषु श्रेष्ठः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः). Here the विग्रह श्रेष्ठः कुरुः is makes it an example of विशेष्यपूर्वपद- (or विशेषणोत्तरपद-) कर्मधारय.

    1. There is another interesting variation of this type of कर्मधारय. It is better explained by an example. वेषान्तरः (अन्यः वेषः) Here उत्तरपद is अन्तर, which is interpreted as अन्य. Only by such interpretation, “अन्तर” becomes विशेषण and is in उत्तरपद-position.

  2. विशेषणपूर्वपद (or विशेष्योत्तरपद) –  नीलकमलम् (नीलं कमलम्), महामुनिः (महान् मुनिः)

  3. विशेषणोभयपद – राजर्षिः (राजा च अयं ऋषिः च), चराचरम् (चरं च अचरं च)

  4. उपमानपूर्वपद (or उपमेयोत्तरपद) – घनःश्यामः (घनः इव श्यामः) Here the word घनः (= cloud) is उपमानम् i.e. idea or object with which श्यामः (= blackness) is being compared. So श्यामः is उपमेयम्

  5. उपमानोत्तरपद (or उपमेयपूर्वपद) – पुरुषव्याघ्रः (पुरुषः व्याघ्रः इव), मुखकमलम् (मुखं कमलं इव)

  6. संभावनापूर्वपद – कैलासाद्रिः (कैलासः इति अद्रिः)

  7. अवधारणापूर्वपद – विद्याधनम् (विद्या एव धनम्), गीतामृतम् (गीता अमृतम् एव) ज्ञानप्लवम् (ज्ञानं एव प्लवः)

Above listing of seven types of कर्मधारयसमास-s need not make one feel overwhelmed by their detail. For a study at Simple Sanskrit level, what is relevant and important is to know, how meaning or interpretation of a given compound word can be understood and how the विग्रह can be stated. As can be seen from above examples, the विग्रह-statements are all quite logical and crisp.

One type of समास, which is often missed out in classification is मध्यमपदलोपी समास. This is a type of कर्मधारय When doing विग्रह i.e. when detailing the meaning, one inserts a word, which is implicit. For example

  1. शाकपार्थिवः = शाकप्रियः पार्थिवः ।

  2. देवब्राम्हणः = देवपूजकः ब्राम्हणः ।

  3. शर्करौदनम् = शर्करायुक्तं ओदनम् |

  4. कपिध्वजः = कपिना अङ्कितः ध्वजः |

Meanings of the above compound words become clear by adding extra words as  प्रियः, पूजकः, युक्तम्. In a way, these extra words are implicit and can be made explicit when detailing the विग्रह. The extra words are like middle words ‘between the component words’ मध्यमपद-s, which are invisible or implicit. In अष्टाध्यायी there is a सूत्रम् “अदर्शनं लोपः”. I am quoting it to explain the concept of मध्यमपदलोपी. Meaning of लोप as अदर्शनम् (not visible, implicit) is very apt here.

अथ द्विगुः ।

द्विगुसमासः द्विविधः एकवद्भावी अनेकवद्भावी चेति ।

Main feature of द्विगुसमास is that the first component पूर्वपदम् is numeric संख्यावाचक. Two types of द्विगुसमास are

  1. एकवद्-भावी (एकवत्= like one; भावी = having such sense; एकवद्भावी = having sense like one). When the संख्या speaks of a group or of a set or of a collection.

    1. For example अष्टाध्यायी Its विग्रह is stated as अष्टानां अध्यायानां समाहारः. Note  समाहारः means group or set. The resultant compound word is singular.

    2. In the श्लोक in भगवद्गीता, अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते (1-35) the word त्रैलोक्यम् (त्रयाणां लोकानां समाहारः) is a good example.

  2. अनेकवद्भावी (अनेकवत् = like more than one; भावी= having such sense; अनेकवद्भावी = having sense of more than one). In this, the संख्या suggests taking note of every item of a group.

    1. For example सप्तर्षयः (= सप्त ऋषयः) Note, in this case the resultant compound word is in plural.

The word समाहारः in the विग्रह of एकवद्भावी द्विगुसमास is a good prompt to discuss next type of समास, the द्वंद्वसमास.

अथ द्वंद्वः ।

द्वंद्वोऽपि द्विविधः इतरेतरसमाहारभेदात् ।

Distinctive feature of compound words of this type of समास is that all पद-s are equally important उभयपदप्रधान. Actually the word उभयपद is hinting at two पद-s, पूर्वपद and उत्तरपद in a compound word. But I am making mention of “all पद-s”.

In भगवद्गीता, there is a special and specific mention of द्वंद्वसमास. See अक्षराणां अकारोऽहं द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य च (10-33)

The mention above in समासचक्रम् mentions two types of द्वंद्वसमास – इतरेतरद्वंद्व and समाहारद्वंद्व. But this mention again misses one more type of द्वंद्वसमास, the एकशेष-द्वंद्वसमास. So द्वंद्व is of three types.

  1. इतरेतरद्वंद्व – In this type the पद-s have distinctive identity.

    1. One good example is the word शरीरवाङ्मनोभिः (गीता 18-15)

      1. in first case प्रथमा विभक्तिः शरीरवाङ्मनांसि

      2. विग्रहः – शरीरं च वाक् च मनः च इति एतानि शरीरवाङ्मनांसि body, speech and mind

      3. तैः (by तृतीयाबहुवचनम् ) शरीरवाङ्मनोभिः

      4. Note, when doing विग्रह one should be knowledgeable and conscious of the declensions of different nouns. For example here शरीरम्, वाक् and मनः are प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of शरीर (अकारान्त-नपुंसकलिङ्गि), वाच् (च्-कारान्त स्त्रीलिङ्गि) मनस् (स्-कारान्त नपुंसकलिङ्गि) Correspondingly मनांसि is प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् of मनस्.

    2. There is an interesting variant of इतरेतरद्वंद्व, where two antonyms (words of opposite meaning) are put together. Resultant compound word would hence be dual द्विवचनात्मक. Very good examples are in the श्लोक in भगवद्गीता सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ … (2-38)

      1. This variant is also called as वैकल्पिकद्वन्द्व One component word is विकल्प (antonym) of the other.

      2. विग्रह of such compound words is detailed by using “or” as the conjunction.

      3. सुखं वा दुःखम् इति सुखदुःखे, लाभः वा अलाभः इति लाभालाभौ, जयः वा अजयः इति जयाजयौ

  2. समाहारद्वंद्व – Good examples in भगवद्गीता –

    1. In सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत् सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम् (13-13)

      1. पाणिपादम् ( पाणी च पादौ च) This is also considered as नित्यद्वन्द्वसमास (नित्यद्वन्द्व = always द्वन्द्व)

      2. अक्षिशिरोमुखम् (अक्षिणी च शिरः च मुखं च)

  3. एकशेषद्वंद्व – A pet example of एकशेषद्वंद्व is पितरौ (माता च पिता च). As can be noted, although the word पितरौ seems to have a single component, by its meaning, it is inclusive of both माता and पिता. एकशेष = only one stays or remains.

There are many interesting examples of द्वंद्वसमास in भगवद्गीता. In the end-note of every chapter of भगवद्गीता, there is the word श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे. विग्रह of this would be –

  1. श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे is सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम्

  2. First by taking the compound word in first case प्रथमा विभक्तिः – श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादः

  3. By step-by-step विग्रह

    1. श्रीयुतः कृष्णः = श्रीकृष्णः (मध्यमपदलोपीसमासः)

    2. श्रीकृष्णः च अर्जुनः च श्रीकृष्णार्जुनौ (इतरेतरद्वंद्वसमासः)

    3. श्रीकृष्णार्जुनयोः संवादः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः –

  1. भीष्मः च द्रोणः च भीष्मद्रोणौ (इतरेतरद्वंद्वसमासः)

  2. भीष्मद्रोणयोः प्रमुखतः (अव्ययीभावः)

  3. अथवा

    1. भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः-शब्दस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखम्

    2. भीष्मः च द्रोणः च भीष्मद्रोणौ (इतरेतरद्वंद्वसमासः)

    3. भीष्मद्रोणयोः प्रमुखम् इति भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

    4. तः = तत्र अथवा तः = तथा

Somewhat challenging but interesting words are – समलोष्टाष्मकाञ्चनः (6-8),

अनेकबाहूदरवक्त्रनेत्रम् (11-16), दीप्तानलार्कद्युतिम् (11-17) द्यावापृथिव्योः (11-20)

We can take these words as words for practice exercises.

I need to also bring to notice that the words समलोष्टाष्मकाञ्चनः (6-8) अनेकबाहूदरवक्त्रनेत्रम् (11-16), दीप्तानलार्कद्युतिम् (11-17) are adjectival. The noun qualified by these adjectives is different from the component words. So, these compound words need to be deciphered as अन्यपदार्थप्रधान, i. e. बहुव्रीहिसमास. We shall take up that in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु !


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 31

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 31

Across the previous two lessons, what has been discussed is –

  1. समास-s is such specialty of Sanskrit, that a compound word can have large number of component words

  2. विग्रह means detailing the meaning of the compound word, which should be done by taking up two component words at a time

  3. There has been mention of some names of types of समास-s, viz. कर्मधारय, तत्पुरुष, बहुव्रीहि, अव्ययीभाव also नञ्-तत्पुरुष.

The process of विग्रह is intended to bring out the meaning of the compound word. In so doing, it actually brings forth the relationship between two component words on hand.

For example, विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानम् is बाह्यं उद्यानम्. The relationship is adjective-noun relationship. Type-name of समास of such adjective-noun relationship is कर्मधारय.

विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितः is बाह्योद्याने स्थितः Note, having already explained विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानम् we take that as a component word. And we proceed to explore the relationship between बाह्योद्यानम् and the next component स्थित. As mentioned in Lesson 29, we proceed by taking two components at a time. When proceeding, first of the two components can be a compound word, which has been already detailed.

The first component is called as पूर्वपद and the second component is called as उत्तरपद.

As can be appreciated from विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितः = बाह्योद्याने स्थितः, in this विग्रह, उत्तरपद (स्थितः) is the principal प्रधान component.

By mathematical logic, we can say that broad classification of types of समास-s can be by considering which of the two पद-s is प्रधान – i.e. whether (i) पूर्वपदप्रधान or (ii) उत्तरपदप्रधान or (iii) both पूर्वपद and उत्तरपद equally प्रधान or (iv) none of the two पद-s is प्रधान. Such mathematical, rather Boolean logic is actually valid !

If, not being प्रधान = False or 0, and being प्रधान =True or 1, we get following Truth Table, keeping पूर्वपद first and उत्तरपद the next,

  1. पूर्वपदप्रधान (10) –  अव्ययीभाव, also a sub-type of कर्मधारय can be of this type

  2. उत्तरपदप्रधान (01) – तत्पुरुष, कर्मधारय, द्विगु

  3. both पूर्वपद and उत्तरपद equally प्रधान (11) – द्वन्द्व

  4. none of the two प्रधान, hence also mentioned as अन्यपदप्रधान (00) – बहुव्रीहि

In a booklet of 1912 by the name समासचक्रम्, there is a mention as follows –

समासाः षड्-विधाः । तत्पुरुषः कर्मधारयः बहुव्रीहिर्द्विगुर्द्वंद्वः अव्ययीभावश्चेति भेदात् । meaning “समास-s are of six types, the types being (i) तत्पुरुष (ii) कर्मधारय (iii) बहुव्रीहि (iv) द्विगु (v) द्वन्द्व and (vi) अव्ययीभाव

  • पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानो‍ऽव्ययीभावः । Meaning, “when अर्थ of पूर्वपद is प्रधान, it is अव्ययीभाव”

  • उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः । Meaning, “when अर्थ of उत्तरपद is प्रधान, it is तत्पुरुष”

  • उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । Meaning, “when अर्थ of both पूर्वपद and उत्तरपद is प्रधान, it is द्वन्द्व”

  • अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । Meaning, “when अर्थ of some different अन्यपद becomes प्रधान, it is बहुव्रीहि”

  • द्विगुकर्मधारयौ तत्पुरुषभेदौ । Meaning, “द्विगु and कर्मधारय are sub-varieties of तत्पुरुष.”

समासार्थबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रह इति । Meaning, “the sentence, which explains meaning of the compound word is called as विग्रह.”

Above lines come after a preamble as follows –

अथ समासचक्रं प्रारभ्यते । Meaning, “Here begins the wheel of समास-s.”

षोढाः समासाः संक्षेपात् अष्टाविंशतिधा स्मृताः । Meaning, “Six main categories of समास-s, become 28 varieties, when considering the sub-types.”

नित्यानित्यत्वयोगेन लुगलुक्त्वेन च द्विधा ॥ Meaning, “The compounding can be of two types – लुक् or अलुक्”. Note in लुक्-type compounding, the शब्दरूप of पूर्वपद is elided, whereas in अलुक्-type compounding शब्दरूप of पूर्वपद is not elided, it is retained.” For example, in words such as परस्मैपद आत्मनेपद कर्तरिप्रयोग कर्मणिप्रयोग भावेप्रयोग the पूर्वपद-s परस्मै आत्मने कर्तरि कर्मणि भावे  are शब्दरूप-s of पर आत्मन् कर्तृ कर्मन् भाव respectively. What are retained when compounding are शब्दरूप-s. Such style of compounding is not the common नित्य style.

तत्राष्टधा तत्पुरुषः सप्तधा कर्मधारयः । Meaning, “तत्पुरुष has 8 sub-types; कर्मधारय has 7 sub-types”.

सप्तधा च बहुव्रीहिर्द्विगुराभाषितो द्विधा ॥ Meaning, “बहुव्रीहि also has 7 sub-types; द्विगु is of 2 sub-types.”

चकारबहुलो द्वंद्वः स चासौ कर्मधारयः । Meaning, “विग्रह of द्वंद्व is with चकार-s and विग्रह of कर्मधारय is in the manner “he is this”..”

यस्य येषां बहुव्रीहिः शेषस्तत्पुरुषः स्मृतः ॥ Meaning, “विग्रह of बहुव्रीहि is of “he, whose..” style; विग्रह of तत्पुरुष is with prepositions”

अथ समासविधिः कथ्यते । Meaning, “

In समासचक्रम्, one gets specimen examples also, such as –

वृक्षशाखा तत्पुरुषः श्वेताश्वः कर्मधारयः । Meaning, “

रक्तवस्त्रो बहुव्रीहिः द्वंद्वश्चन्द्रदिवाकरौ ॥ Meaning, “

Of course there are six main types – अव्ययीभाव, तत्पुरुष, कर्मधारय, द्विगु, द्वंद्व, बहुव्रीहि. What is hinted above is that these have their sub-types.

Out of the six main types, अव्ययीभाव has been somewhat discussed in the previous lesson.

In समासचक्रम्, अव्ययीभाव has been detailed as follows, mostly by typical examples –

  • तटं तटं प्रति (border by border) = अनुतटम् ।
  • क्रमं अनतिक्रम्य वर्तते इति (without disturbing the serial order) = यथाक्रमम्
  • वेलायामिति (in time) = अधिवेलम् ।
  • कुंभस्य समीपे वर्तते इति (is near the कुम्भम्) = उपकुम्भम् ।
  • मक्षिकाणां अभावः (with shortage or absence of मक्षिका-s, flies) = निर्मक्षिकम् ।
  • हिमस्य अत्ययः (with excess of snow) = अतिहिमम् ।
  • Note, अव्ययीभाव-समास-s there is adverbial sense.

Although we had mention of तत्पुरुष and कर्मधारय in the context of बाह्योद्यानस्थितः we should learn the तत्पुरुष, कर्मधारय and द्विगु better, understanding also their sub-types.

Sub-types of तत्पुरुष are detailed as –

तत्राष्टधा तत्पुरुषक्रमः ।

प्रथमातत्पुरुषो द्वितीयातत्पुरुषस्तृतीयातत्पुरुषश्चतुर्थीतत्पुरुषः ।

पंचमीतत्पुरुषः षष्ठीतत्पुरुषः सप्तमीतत्पुरुषो नञ्-तत्पुरुषश्चेति ॥

In the above श्लोक, तत्पुरुष is said to be of eight types. It can however be noted that names of first seven have names of विभक्ति-s. In doing विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितः as बाह्योद्याने स्थितः we used सप्तमी विभक्ति of बाह्योद्यान. And the type of समास was noted as सप्तमी-तत्पुरुष. We had examples also of तृतीया-तत्पुरुष and also of नञ्-तत्पुरुष.

Starting with प्रथमातत्पुरुष, what needs some clarification and explanation is the difference between प्रथमातत्पुरुष and कर्मधारय. As can be seen, in the विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानम् = बाह्यं उद्यानम्, both बाह्यम् and उद्यानम् are in प्रथमा विभक्ति. If so, why can कर्मधारय be not considered to be प्रथमातत्पुरुष ?

To understand the difference, it would be better to take an example of प्रथमातत्पुरुष. In a compound word, say, पुनर्जन्म the grammatical characteristic of the पूर्वपद पुनः is not adjectival. Grammatically पुनः is an indeclinable. The meaning of पुनर्जन्म (= rebirth) is not adverbial or अव्ययीभाव. Grammarians thought it fit to treat such compound words as प्रथमातत्पुरुष, maybe, because it satisfies the qualification उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः. Here उत्तरपद is जन्म and it is obviously प्रधान.

However, compound words of प्रथमातत्पुरुष can have the पद having प्रधान principal meaning as पूर्वपद. For example, in a compound word such as भूतपूर्वम्, the component word having प्रधान principal meaning is भूत. विग्रह of भूतपूर्वम् is पूर्वम् भूतम्. Here also the पद पूर्वम् is grammatically an indeclinable. The meaning of भूतपूर्वम् (= what happened sometime back) is not adverbial or अव्ययीभाव.

Mention of भूतपूर्वम् brings to mind a word in गीता – अदृष्टपूर्वं .. हृषितोस्मि दृष्ट्वा (11-45). This word अदृष्टपूर्वम् has three components – अ, दृष्ट, पूर्वम्. The sequential विग्रह would be –

  1. न दृष्टम् इति अदृष्टम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)

  2. पूर्वं अदृष्टम् इति अदृष्टपूर्वम् (प्रथमा-तत्पुरुषः)

Typically one can see that in compound words of प्रथमातत्पुरुष type, one component is an indeclinable, though the meaning of the word is not adverbial or अव्ययीभाव. And in the विग्रह, the पद having प्रधान principal meaning, has its meaning as of प्रथमा विभक्ति. That makes the compound word to be of प्रथमातत्पुरुष type.

Other types of तत्पुरुष समास, with विग्रह requiring पूर्वपद to be detailed by its विभक्तिरूप, are quite straightforward.

There is one more type of तत्पुरुष, the उपपद-तत्पुरुष which is missed out. This should be the ninth type of तत्पुरुष समास.

उपपद-तत्पुरुष is an interesting type of तत्पुरुष समास. As the name suggests, one पद is not a complete पद. But on deciphering meaning, it seems as good as a complete पद. Because it is like पद, but is not a complete पद, it is called as उपपद.

Some simple examples are अण्डज, पयोद, खग.

The उपपद-s here are ज in अण्डज, द in पयोद, ग in खग.

उपपद-s are like suffixes and hence are in उत्तरपद position. For the समास to be called as तत्पुरुष, उत्तरपद should be प्रधान. How can an उपपद be प्रधान ? How is it then, that the समास is called as a type of तत्पुरुष ? As was explained about भूतपूर्वम् example of प्रथमातत्पुरुष, I would say that  उत्तरपद-प्रधान is not a very rigid definition of तत्पुरुष. Rather, a समास is of तत्पुरुष class, if it is not of any other class ! In समासचक्रम् also, there is the quote शेषस्तत्पुरुषः स्मृतः !!

Although उपपद-s are like suffixes, they are not प्रत्यय-s. They are specific abbreviations for specific meanings.

For example,

  1. विग्रह of अण्डजः is अण्डे जायते इति अण्डजः So in अण्डज, ज stands for जायते.

  2. Likewise विग्रह of पयोद is पयः ददाति इति पयोदः. So in पयोद, द stands for ददाति.

  3. विग्रह of खग is खे गच्छति इति खगः So ग in खगः stands for गच्छति.

As can be seen most उपपद-s stand for some verb. And in the विग्रह of उपपद-तत्पुरुष समास-s, the पूर्वपद is detailed by its विभक्तिरूप. By that token, the उपपद, which is in उत्तरपद position, connotes a meaning of a verb and can be considered to be the principal meaning. By such consideration, उपपद-तत्पुरुष seems to satisfy the premise, that in तत्पुरुष समास-s, उत्तरपद should be प्रधान.

Actually components of a समास are either –

  1. उपसर्ग – प्रति as in प्रतिदिनम्, स as in साश्चर्यम्, अ as in अदृष्टम्

  2. नाम – अण्डम्, पयस्, खम्,

  3. अव्यय – पुनः as in पुनर्जन्म, पूर्वम् as in भूतपूर्वम्

  4. उपपद – ज as in अण्डजम्, ग as in खगः,

  5. विशेषणम् – भूत as in भूतपूर्वम्, बाह्य as in बाह्योद्यानम्

The component of a समास is never a verb धातु.

The resultant compound word is often either a noun नाम or adjective विशेषणम् or a word with अव्ययीभाव (not exactly an अव्यय but sounding the sense of an अव्यय). So, the resultant compound word can decline taking up विभक्तिप्रत्यय-s.

In the line “द्विगुकर्मधारयौ तत्पुरुषभेदौ” कर्मधारय and द्विगु are mentioned as  variations of तत्पुरुष. But कर्मधारय has its own seven sub-types. We shall discuss कर्मधारय and द्विगु in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु !