Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 26

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 26

व्यञ्जनसंधि-s Part 1- व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः

Now the व्यञ्जनसंधि-s !

In व्यञ्जनसंधि-s पूर्ववर्ण is certainly a व्यञ्जनम् a consonant. परवर्ण may be a vowel or a consonant.

Basically, whether a  संधि is a स्वरसंधि or विसर्गसंधि or व्यञ्जनसंधि is decided by the feature of the पूर्ववर्ण, whether पूर्ववर्ण is a स्वर, स्वर + विसर्ग, or व्यञ्जनम् .

  • in the case of स्वरसंधि-s पूर्ववर्ण is स्वर, परवर्ण is also a स्वर
  • in the case of विसर्गसंधि-s पूर्ववर्ण is स्वर + विसर्ग, परवर्ण is स्वर or व्यञ्जनम्
  • in the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s पूर्ववर्ण is व्यञ्जनम्, परवर्ण is स्वर or व्यञ्जनम्

So, in the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, possible number of परवर्ण-s can be 33 व्यञ्जनानि and 14 स्वर-s. So the number of possible one-to-one combinations of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s can be as many as (33 व्यञ्जनानि as पूर्ववर्ण-s) x 46 (33 व्यञ्जनानि and 13 स्वर-s as परवर्ण-s) = 1518 व्यञ्जनसंधि-s ! That is a large number, especially to explain by as many examples.

Putting them into groups and patterns would help to reduce the variety.

Basically, व्यञ्जनसंधि-s can be classified into two broad classes –

  1. पूर्ववर्ण व्यञ्जनम् + परवर्ण स्वर (33×13 = 429)
  2. पूर्ववर्ण व्यञ्जनम् + परवर्ण व्यञ्जनम् (33×33 = 1089)

Let us start with the class व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः.

Case (1) एकादेश-व्यञ्जनसंधि-s

Recalling what we studied in the case of most स्वरसंधि-s, the resultant sound on mixing of पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण is a single resultant sound. For example  अ + आ = आ, अ + उ = ओ, इ +ऊ = यू. Resultant sound being a single sound is called as एकादेश.

In the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s also, when परवर्ण is a स्वर, it will naturally make व्यञ्जनम् at the

पूर्ववर्ण position complete with that स्वर. So, it becomes एकादेश.

Here are some examples from गीता –

  1. किकुर्वत (1-1) = किम् + अकुर्वत Note म् + अ = म
    1. दृष्टवासि (11-53) = दृष्टवान् + असि Note न् + अ = न
  2. तमाहुः पण्डितं बुधाः (4-19) तमाहुः = तम् + आहुः Note म् + आ = मा
  3. वाक्यमिमाह (1-21) = वाक्यम् + इदम् + आह Note म् + इ = मि also म् + आ = मा There are 2 successive संधि-s
    1. कुरूनिति (1-25) = कुरून् + इति Note न् + इ = नि
  4. युद्धमीदृशम् (2-32) = युद्धम् + ईदृशम् Note म् + ई = मी
    1. ब्रह्माणमीशम् (11-15) = ब्रह्माणम् + ईशम् Note म् + ई = मी
  5. एवमुक्तो (1-24) = एवम् उक्तो Note म् + उ = मु
    1. स्वजनमुद्यताः (1-45) = स्वजनम् उद्यताः Note म् + उ = मु
    2. श्रीभगवानुवाच (2-10/11) = श्रीभगवान् + उवाच Note न् + उ = नु
  6. सर्वमेदृतम् (10-14) = सर्वम् + एतद् + ऋतम् Note म् + ए = मे also द् + ऋ = दृ There are 2 successive संधि-s
  7. पापमेव (1-36) = पापम् एव Note म् ए
    1. गुणानेतान् (14-20, गुणान् एतान्) Note न् + ए = ने
    2. यानेव (2-6, यान् एव) Note न् + ए = ने
  8. पवित्रमोङ्कार (9-17) = पवित्रम् + ओंकार Note म् + ओ = मो
  9. अहमौषधम् (9-16) = अहम् + औषधम् Note म् + औ = मौ

All the above संधि-s are so very natural, that there is not much of any प्रक्रिया to be explained. Some people would like to contend that these are not संधि-s at all.

I would like to follow a simplistic concept that, whatever can be split into its components, should be considered as संधि. Actually there are many internal संधि-s, in view of the rule संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः, नित्या समासे.

Splitting the components, called as पदच्छेद, often helps to understand the derivation of a word. For example,

  • Sanskrit word for sunrise is सूर्योदय which is a compound word, having two component words सूर्य and उदय. Because in a compound word it is compulsory to do संधि, नित्या समासे Hence सूर्य + उदय = सूर्योदय.
  • Also  उदय is itself उत् + अय, where उत् = up, अय = going, moving. So, by संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः the word has to be उत् + अय = उदय = going up, moving up, rising. That is how सूर्योदय means sunrise.

While above examples of संधि-s of “व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः”-type, are simple or straightforward, there are interesting conditional variations.

As said earlier, though number of possible व्यञ्जनसंधि-s can be as large as 1518 putting them into groups and patterns would help to reduce the variety. It becomes easy to understand the patterns by understanding the सूत्र-s of अष्टाध्यायी.

Case 2 – ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् (८/३/३२)

Now, there is a set method of understanding a सूत्रम्. First we do पदच्छेद-s. To do पदच्छेद-s, we shall have to know all the संधि-rules. But we have so far studied only the स्वरसंधि-s and विसर्गसंधि-s, not the व्यञ्जनसंधि-s. So, for now, take the पदच्छेद-s, as I shall give.

ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् = ङमः ह्रस्वात् अचि ङम्-उट् नित्यम्

After पदच्छेद, we understand the विभक्ति-वचन of every word.

ङमः is 6’1 i.e. 6th विभक्ति, 1 वचन of ङम्

ह्रस्वात् is 5’1 i.e. 5th विभक्ति, 1 वचन of ह्रस्व

अचि is 7’1 i.e. 7th विभक्ति, 1 वचन of अच्

ङम्-उट् is 1’1 i.e. 1st विभक्ति, 1 वचन of ङम्-उट्

नित्यम् is 0’0 because it is an indeclinable i.e. अव्यय.

In the next step of understanding a सूत्रम्, it would be good to know that particular विभक्ति signifies a particular sense.

The sixth विभक्ति denotes undergoing a change.

The fifth विभक्ति denotes “when preceded by”.

The seventh विभक्ति denotes “when followed by”.

So, here, ङमः ह्रस्वात् अचि ङम्-उट् नित्यम् would mean

ङमः = ङम् will suffer change

ह्रस्वात् = when preceded by ह्रस्व

अचि = when followed by अच्

ङम्-उट् = addition of ङम् Note, उट् means “addition of”

नित्यम् = always.

By paraphrasing, the meaning of the सूत्रम् becomes ङम् when preceded by ह्रस्व

and when followed by अच् will suffer change as addition of ङम् always.

  • Here ङम् is a प्रत्याहार and denotes all वर्ण-s starting from ङ until म्. So ङम् denotes ङ्, ण् and न्.
  • ह्रस्व means short vowel
  • Also अच् is a प्रत्याहार denoting all वर्ण-s starting from अ until च्. This range from अ until च् covers all vowels.

We can rewrite the meaning and understand that as per this सूत्रम्, ङ्, ण् and न्, when preceded by a short vowel and when followed by any vowel will always suffer addition of ङ्, ण् and न्. That means ङ्, ण् and न् will become doubled.

Let us understand this by an example. प्रहसन् + इव = प्रहसन्निव. Here पूर्ववर्ण is अनुनासिक न्. It is preceded by short vowel ह्रस्वस्वर अ in स. Hence अनुनासिक न् has become doubled. The doubled न् mixes with इ and becomes न्नि.

Note that in the examples of case (1), पूर्ववर्ण is अनुनासिक, mostly म् न्. This सूत्रम् does not provide for doubling of म्. But there is न् in some examples, which is not doubled. The reason is that the स्वर preceding the अनुनासिक न् is not ह्रस्व. For example, (a) दृष्टवान् + असि = दृष्टवानसि (there is आ before न्) (b) कुरून् + इति = कुरूनिति (there is ऊ before न्).

Examples from गीता, where न् is doubled, because स्वर preceding the अनुनासिक न् is ह्रस्व –

  • विषीदन्निदं 1-28 (विषीदन् इदं), प्रहसन्निव 2-10 (प्रहसन् इव), कुर्वन्नपि 5-7 (कुर्वन् अपि), जिघ्रन्नश्नन् 5-8 (जिघ्रन् अश्नन्), गृह्नन्नुन्मिषन् 5-9 (गृह्णन् उन्मिषन्), निमिषन्नपि 5-9 (निमिषन् अपि), तन्निष्ठाः 5-17 (तत्+निष्ठाः), युञ्जन्नेवम् 6-28 (युञ्जन् एवम्),
  • In ईशावास्योपनिषत् the second mantra starts with the word कुर्वन्नेवेह.
    • The पदच्छेद of this word is कुर्वन् एव इह
    • Note कुर्वन् + एव = कुर्वन्नेव as per ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् (८/३/३२)
    • कुर्वन्नेव + इह = कुर्वन्नेवेह has अ + इ = ए (व + इ = वे) as per आद्गुणः (6’1’87) as studied in Lesson 21.

Case 3 – झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९)

Let us understand this सूत्रम् also, following the set method.

झलां जशोऽन्ते = झलाम् जशः अन्ते

  • झलाम् is 6’3 (6th विभक्ति 3=बहुवचनम्) of झल् Note झल् starts at झ in शिवसूत्रम् (8) and covers 24 out of 33 consonants until the end-marker ल् in शिवसूत्रम् (14),
    • excepting य् व् र् ल् the अन्तस्थ-s in शिवसूत्र-s (5 and 6) and the nasals अनुनासिक-s ञ् म् ङ् ण् न् in शिवसूत्रम् (7)
  • जशः is 1’3 (प्रथमा विभक्ति बहुवचनम्) of जश् Note जश् starts at ज in शिवसूत्रम् (10) and covers all consonants until the end-marker श् of the same शिवसूत्रम् (10). Hence जश् means ज् ब् ग् ड् द् i.e. third consonant in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively.  
  • अन्ते is 7’1 (सप्तमी विभक्ति एकवचनम्) of अन्त meaning at the end of a word

It is important to note that झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) is not exactly a संधि-rule. It applies, even when there is no संधि, because, it checks whether the वर्ण at the end of a word is a झल्. If it is a झल्, it will change to जश्. That can be why the pronouns तत् and एतत् are also quoted to be तद् and एतद्

There would be a curiosity as to how as many as 24 consonants of झल् will change to only 5 of जश्. So, one needs to know, which of 24 will change to which 5 of जश्. As is logical,

  • The four च् छ् ज् झ् of च-वर्ग will change to ज्. That means ज् will not change.
  • The four प् फ् ब् भ् of प-वर्ग will change to ब् That means ब् will not change.
  • The four क् ख् ग् घ् of क-वर्ग will change to ग् That means ग् will not change.
  • The four ट् ठ् ड् ढ् of ट-वर्ग will change to ड् That means ड् will not change.
  • The four त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग will change to द् That means द् will not change.

The curiosity will then be what श् ष् स् of शिवसूत्रम् (13) and ह् of शिवसूत्रम् (14) will change to. We shall explore this later on.

These changes influence संधि-प्रक्रिया-s also.

Case (3) when झल् is followed by a vowel, the following vowel mixes into the जश्.

Note the following examples

  • वागीशः (वाक्-ईशः) Here क् is first replaced by ग्, Then ग् + ई = गी
  • अजन्तः (अच्-अन्तः) Here च् is first replaced by ज्, Then अज् + अन्तः = अजन्तः Note, since प्रत्याहार अच् = all स्वर-s, अजन्त = स्वरान्त i.e. vowel-ending)
  • षट् + आनन = षडानन Here ट् is first replaced by ड् Then ड् + आ = डा
  • from गीता – मत्+अर्थे=मदर्थे (1’9), तत्+अस्माकं=तदस्माकं (1’10), अन्यत्+अस्ति=अन्यदस्ति (2’42),  यत्+ऋच्छया=यदृच्छया (2’32), यावत्+एतान्=यावदेतान् (1’22) 

So, with 24 पूर्ववर्ण-s from झल् and 13 vowels as परवर्ण-s, number of possible combinations can be 312. This सूत्रम् – झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) becomes the formula for 312 सन्धि-s of Case (3).

Actually, there is a सूत्रम् – झलां जश् झशि (8’4’53) has झलां and जश् common to झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) We can say that झलां जश् झशि is an extension of झलां जशोऽन्ते. We shall discuss this in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु !