Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 23

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 23

सरलं संस्कृतम् – त्रिविंशतितमः पाठः |

Last among matrices of स्वरसन्धि-s is Matrix 4 for the rows of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. Although this is the order, in which one learns these vowels, for learning संधि-s, they are better put in the sequence ए, ओ and ऐ, औ. The logic is that among these four conjoint vowels, ए, ओ are of गुण-character and ऐ, औ are of वृद्धि-character.

Basically we would be studying स्वरसन्धि-s, wherein we have ए, ओ and ऐ, औ in the पूर्ववर्ण-position and we may have any of the 14 vowels – अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, लॄ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ in the परवर्ण-position. So we have to study 4*14 = 56 स्वरसन्धि-s.

Matrix 4

The general rule for these संधि-s is by the सूत्रम् एचोऽयवायावः। (६/१/७८). It would be good to understand the meaning of this सूत्रम्.  एचोऽयवायावः = एचः अय्-अव्-आय्-आवः

एचः = of एच् = of ए, ओ, ऐ and औ = in place of ए, ओ, ऐ and औ

अय्-अव्-आय्-आवः = take अय्-अव्-आय्-आव् respectively. That is, replace ए, ओ, ऐ and औ by अय्-अव्-आय्-आव् respectively.

Let us take example of ते + आगताः When doing any संधि, we should keep alphabetical analysis in mind. As is obvious, here we have  त् + ए + आ (गताः). We are looking for संधि of ए + आ. As per एचोऽयवायावः we should replace ए by अय्. By that we would have त् + अय् + आ (गताः) The result then becomes तयागताः, right ?

संधि-s as per this rule are also called as यान्तावान्तादेशसन्धि-s. But some other rules also apply in specific instances.

To explain all these 56 स्वरसन्धि-s by examples is going to be quite some exercise. Anyway, there is no shortcut to success !

Case 1 ए + अ For example ते + अत्र By एचोऽयवायावः it should be तयत्र. But ए + अ is an exception. Here the general rule एचोऽयवायावः is superseded by एङः पदान्तादति। (६/१/१०९). संधि-s as per this rule are called as पूर्वरूपसंधि-s. In ते + अत्र the alphabetical analysis is त् + ए + अ(त्र). Between ए + अ, ए is पूर्वरूप or पूर्ववर्ण. That stays. The पररूप or परवर्ण is अ. That vanishes or becomes invisible and is not to be pronounced. So संधि of ते + अत्र becomes तेत्र. When writing there has been a practice of giving an indication of the invisible अ by a symbol ‘s’. This symbol is called as अवग्रह. So, when one sees अवग्रह, one should read तेsत्र with a little prolongation of the ए sound, as if one is also pronouncing अ. So, the symbol ‘s’ means “prolong a little bit, the previous vowel sound”.

Case 2 ए + आ Example for this has already been given. ते + आगताः By alphabetical analysis we have  त् + ए + आ (गताः). Then by एचोऽयवायावः we replace ए by अय्. By that we have त् + अय् + आ (गताः) The result then becomes तयागताः  

Now there is also an OPTION for this संधि. The option is by the rule लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९). लोपः means something gets dropped off. What drops off in this instance is य् from अय् or आय्, also व् from अव् or आव्. So, ते + आगताः ⇒ त् + अय् + आ (गताः) ⇒ त् + अ + आ (गताः) ⇒ त आगताः. It ought to be noted that having dropped य् we get त आगताः. We MUST NOT make further संधि of त आगताः as त + आगताः = तागताः.

Cases 3 to 14 ए + इ, ए + ई … ए + औ All these cases work similar to Case 2, meaning एचोऽयवायावः is the general rule and लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९) is also OPTIONAL. All the twelve cases are explained below by examples

Case 3 ए + इ e.g. ते + इच्छन्ति = तयिच्छन्ति or त + इच्छन्ति.

Case 4 ए + ई e.g. ते + ईशाः = तयीशाः or त ईशाः

Case 5 ए + उ e.g. ते + उपविष्टाः = तयुपविष्टाः or त उपविष्टाः

Case 6 ए + ऊ e.g. ते + ऊर्ध्वम् = तयूर्ध्वम् or त ऊर्ध्वम्

Case 7 ए + ऋ e.g. ते + ऋषयः = तयृषयः or त ऋषयः

Case 8 ए + ॠ e.g. ते + ॠकाराः = तयॄकाराः or त ॠकाराः This example is just composed to explain the संधि. In Sanskrit texts, one would not find any word starting with ॠ

Case 9 ए + लृ e.g. ते + लृकाराः = तयॢकाराः or त लृकाराः This example is just composed to explain the संधि. In Sanskrit texts, one would not find any word starting with लृ

Case 10 ए + ॡ e.g. ते + ॡकाराः = तयॣकाराः or त ॡकाराः This example is just composed to explain the संधि. In Sanskrit texts, one would not find any word starting with ॡ

Case 11 ए + ए e.g. ते + एजन्ति = तयेजन्ति or त एजन्ति

Case 12 ए + ऐ e.g. ते + ऐश्वर्यम् = तयैश्वर्यम् or त ऐश्वर्यम्

Case 13 ए + ओ e.g. ते + ओजः = तयोजः or त ओजः

Case 14 ए + औ e.g. ते + औषधिः = तयौषधिः or त औषधिः

I am a fan of श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता not only because one can learn eternal and universally valid philosophy from it, but also because one can learn Sanskrit, when studying it. There is a phrase in 1’33, which is a good example of Cases 3 and 1. The phrase is त इमेऽवस्थिताः Actually most Sanskrit texts and many Sanskrit words have संधि-s already done. So, the first step in exploring the meaning of a Sanskrit text becomes to decipher or segregate the components. This is called as पदच्छेदनम्. I have already hinted that त इमेऽवस्थिताः has Cases 3 and 1 inherent. Maybe, it would be a good idea to put in such exercises on पदच्छेदनम् in the flow of this lesson.

Cases 15 to 28 for ऐ + अ, ऐ + आ, …. ऐ + औ will all be by एचोऽयवायावः and optionally by लोपः शाकल्यस्य. Here are examples of not all 14 cases but of a few cases. I shall give some cases as exercises.

Case 15 ऐ + अ e.g. कस्मै + अददात् = कस्म् + ऐ + अददात् = कस्म् + आय् + अददात् = कस्मायददात् or कस्मा अददात्

Case 16 ऐ + आ e.g. कस्मै + आनन्दः = ? or ?

Case 17 ऐ + इ e.g. कस्मै + इच्छन्ति = कस्म् + ऐ + इच्छन्ति = कस्म् + आय् + इच्छन्ति = कस्मायिच्छन्ति or कस्मा इच्छन्ति

Case 18 ऐ + ई e.g. कस्मै + ईशः = ? or ?

Case 19 ऐ + उ e.g. कस्मै + उपायः = कस्म् + ऐ + उपायः = कस्म् + आय् + उपायः = कस्मायुपायः or कस्मा उपायः

Case 20 ऐ + ऊ e.g. कस्मै + ऊर्जा = ? or ?

Case 21 ऐ + ऋ e.g. कस्मै + ऋषित्वम् = कस्म् + ऐ + ऋषित्वम् = कस्म् + आय् + ऋषित्वम् = कस्मायृषित्वम् or कस्मा ऋषित्वम्

Cases 22, 23 and 24 for ऐ + ॠ, ऐ + लृ, ऐ + लॄ need not be discussed, because, in Sanskrit texts, one would not find any words starting with ॠ, लृ or लॄ.

Case 25 ऐ + ए e.g. कस्मै + एजन्ति = कस्म् + ऐ + एजन्ति = कस्म् + आय् एजन्ति = कस्मायेजन्ति or कस्मा एजन्ति One good example of this case also is of how one gets चतुर्थी एकवचनम् for रै (meaning wealth). The suffix प्रत्यय for चतुर्थी एकवचनम् is ए. So we have to do रै + ए = र् + आय् + ए = राये. One comes across this word राये in the last stanza of ईशावास्योपनिषत् – अग्ने नय सुपथा राये अस्मान् (O fire ! for wealth, lead us by the righteous path). Such संधि occuring in the process of formation of a word is called as internal संधि. We must not do पदच्छेदनम् for such internal संधि-s.

Case 26 ऐ + ऐ e.g. कस्मै + ऐश्वर्यम् = ? or ?

Case 27 ऐ + ओ e.g. कस्मै + ओजः = कस्मायोजः or कस्मा ओजः

Case 28 ऐ + औ e.g. (a) रै + औ = र् + ए + औ = र् + आय् + औ = रायौ. Note, औ is suffix for formatting प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of words. By रै + औ = रायौ we have रायौ as प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of रै (b) कस्मै + औषधिः = ? or ?

Cases 29 to 42 shall be for ओ + अ, ओ + आ, … ओ + औ.

Case 29 ओ + अ This संधि is similar to that of ए + अ, that is, the rule एङः पदान्तादति। (६/१/१०९) applies. For example सो + अपि = सोऽपि. But there would be instances when only एचोऽयवायावः (६/१/७८) applies. Take for example forming a compound word to say “following a cow”. The word for cow is गो and for “following” is अन्वयः. So we have to do compounding of गो + अन्वयः. This compounding will be only by संधि as गो + अन्वयः = ग् + ओ + अन्वयः = ग् + अव् + अन्वयः = गवन्वयः We cannot do गो + अन्वयः = गोऽन्वयः. This is because the rule एङः पदान्तादति applies, only if ओ is in पदान्त i.e. at the end-position of a word. In the process of making a compound word, गो + अन्वयः the ओ of गो would not remain at the end of the word.

By the way, to understand the meaning of a compound word, one has to decipher how the component words are related to each other. This is called as विग्रह. In गवन्वयः we have

  1. गो = cow
  2. अन्वयः = going behind or one who goes behind
  3. Hence गवन्वयः =
    1. the action of going behind a cow
    2. one, who goes behind a cow, i.e. a cowherd and in a specific instance गवन्वयः means Lord Krishna !

In the lessons thus far, I have not discussed समास-s. This example is a good suggestion to discuss them soon.

Cases 30 to 42 ओ + आ, ओ + इ … will be in the case of compound words, only by एचोऽयवायावः (६/१/७८) and in the case of uncompounded words by एचोऽयवायावः (६/१/७८) or optionally by लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९). In Sanskrit there are not many words like गो, which have ending vowel ओ. So, as examples of cases 30 to 42, we can have compound words with गो as first component. In Sanskrit सम्बोधन-एकवचनम् of उ-कारान्त masculine words would have ending vowel ओ. For example प्रभु ⇒ प्रभो, भानु ⇒ भानो, गुरु ⇒ गुरो, etc. Let us see a few examples and have some for exercise.

Case 30 ओ + आ e.g. (a) गो + आ = ग् + ओ + आ = ग् + अव् + आ = गवा Note, आ is suffix for formatting तृतीया एकवचनम् of words. By गो + आ = गवा we have गवा as तृतीया एकवचनम् of गो. Similarly we get गो + आम् = गवाम् as षष्ठी बहुवचनम् of गो. (b) गो + आगमनम् = ग् + ओ + आगमनम् = ग् + अव् + आगमनम् = गवागमनम् meaning coming of cow. (c) प्रभो + आगच्छतु = प्रभ् + ओ + आगच्छतु = प्रभ् + अव् + आगच्छतु = प्रभवागच्छतु or प्रभ आगच्छतु |

Case 31 ओ + इ e.g. (a) गो + इ = ग् + ओ + इ = ग् + अव् + इ = गवि Note, इ is suffix for formatting सप्तमी एकवचनम् of words. By गो + इ = गवि we have गवि as सप्तमी एकवचनम् of गो (b) गो + इच्छा = ग् + ओ + इच्छा = ग् + अव् + इच्छा = गविच्छा meaning wish of a cow or wish for a cow. (c) प्रभो + इच्छतु = प्रभ् + ओ + इच्छतु = प्रभ् + अव् + इच्छतु = प्रभविच्छतु or प्रभ इच्छतु |

Case 32 ओ + ई e.g. (a) गो + ईशः = ? meaning master of cow(s) i.e. a cowherd. (b) प्रभो + ईशः = ? or ?

Case 33 ओ + उ e.g. (a) गो + उत्सवः = ग् + ओ + उत्सवः = ग् + अव् + उत्सवः = गवुत्सवः meaning festival for the cows and bulls and the oxen. In India, there has been a tradition especially among the farmers, of observing गवुत्सवः a festival for the oxen, for them to acknowledge the great labor lent by the oxen. The festival is observed on श्रावण-अमावस्या or भाद्रपद-अमावस्या.  (b) प्रभो + उपायः = प्रभ् + ओ + उपायः = प्रभ् + अव् + उपायः = प्रभवुपायः or प्रभ उपायः

Case 34 ओ + ऊ e.g. (a) गो + ऊर्जा = गवूर्जा meaning the strength of a bull. (b) प्रभो + ऊर्जा = ? or ?

Case 35 ओ + ऋ e.g. (a) गो + ऋषित्वम् = ग् + ओ + ऋषित्वम् = ग् + अव् + ऋषित्वम् = गवृषित्वम् This is fitting adoration of Nandi, who was given the special distinction of being the carrier of Lord Shiva, in acknowledgement of his exemplary conduct. (b) प्रभो + ऋषित्वम् = प्रभ् + ओ + ऋषित्वम् = प्रभ् + अव् + ऋषित्वम् = प्रभवृषित्वम् or प्रभ ऋषित्वम्

Cases 36, 37 and 38 for ओ + ॠ, ओ + लृ, ओ + लॄ need not be discussed, because, in Sanskrit texts, one would not find any words starting with ॠ, लृ or लॄ.

Case 39 ओ + ए e.g. गो + ए = ग् + ओ + ए = ग् + अव् + ए = गवे Note, ए is the suffix for formatting चतुर्थी एकवचनम् of words. By गो + ए = गवे we have गवे as चतुर्थी एकवचनम् of गो (b) गो + एजनम् = गवेजनम् Because एजनम् means movement, this word गवेजनम् can mean the special characteristics of oxen that by slightest excitement, there will be a shiver on their skin. (b) प्रभो + एजन्ति = प्रभ् + ओ + एजन्ति = प्रभ् + अव् + एजन्ति = प्रभवेजन्ति or प्रभ एजन्ति

Case 40 ओ + ऐ e.g. (a) गो + ऐश्वर्यम् = गवैश्वर्यम् Some bulls have a grace, even by their horns. Grace of a bull is गवैश्वर्यम्. (b) प्रभो + ऐश्वर्यम् = ? or ?

Case 41 ओ + ओ e.g. (a) गो + ओस् = ग् + ओ + ओस् = ग् + अव् + ओस् = गवोस् = गवोः Note, ओस् is the suffix for formatting षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of words. गवोः is षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of गो (b) प्रभो + ओजः = प्रभ् + ओ + ओजः = प्रभ् + अव् + ओजः = प्रभवोजः or प्रभ ओजः

Case 42 ओ + औ e.g. (a) गो + औ = गवौ i.e. प्रथमा or द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of गो (b) प्रभो + औषधिः = ? or ?

Cases 43 to 56 for औ + अ, औ + आ, …. औ + औ will all be by एचोऽयवायावः and optionally by लोपः शाकल्यस्य. Here are examples of not all 14 cases but of a few cases. We shall have some cases as exercises.

Case 43 औ + अ e.g. (a) नौ + अस् = न् + औ + अस् = न् + आव् + अस् = नावस् = नावः Note, अस् is suffix for formatting प्रथमा बहुवचनम् of words. So नावः is प्रथमा बहुवचनम् of नौ. (b) तौ + अक्षरौ = तावक्षरौ or ता अक्षरौ (c) In गीता in श्लोक 2’8, there is the word भूमावसपत्नम्. What would be its पदच्छेदनम् ?

Case 44 औ + आ e.g. (a) नौ + आ = न् + औ + आ = न् + आव् + आ = नावा Note, आ is suffix for formatting तृतीया एकवचनम् of words. So नावा is तृतीया एकवचनम् of नौ. (b)  नौ + आसनम् = नावासनम् becomes a compound word meaning seat in a boat. (c) तौ + आगतौ (meaning, “those two have come”) = ? or ?

Case 45 औ + इ e.g. (a) नौ + इ = न् + औ + इ = न् + आव् + इ = नावि Note, इ is suffix for formatting सप्तमी एकवचनम् of words. So नावि is सप्तमी एकवचनम् of नौ. (b) तौ + इच्छतः (meaning “They two wish”) = ? or ?

Case 46 औ + ई e.g. (a) नौ + ईशः = नावीशः becomes a compound word meaning master, captain of a boat (b) तौ + ईशौ (meaning “those two masters”) = ? or ?

Case 47 औ + उ e.g. (a) नौ + उत्सवः = नावुत्सवः becomes a compound word meaning festival of boats. There is long tradition of boat race festivals in Kerala, in Tripura, even in Laos. (b) तौ + उपविशतः (meaning “those two sit”) = ? or ?

Case 48 औ + ऊ e.g. तौ + ऊर्जे (meaning the two energies) = तावूर्जे or ता ऊर्जे

Case 49 औ + ऋ e.g. तौ + ऋषी = तावृषी or ता ऋषी

Cases 50, 51 and 52 for औ + ॠ, औ + लृ, औ + लॄ need not be discussed, because, in Sanskrit texts, one would not find any words starting with ॠ, लृ or लॄ.

Case 53 औ + ए e.g. (a)  नौ + ए = न् + औ + ए = न् + आव् + ए = नावे Note, ए is suffix प्रत्यय for चतुर्थी एकवचनम्. So नावे is चतुर्थी एकवचनम् of नौ. (b) नौ + एजनम् = नावेजनम् becomes a compound word meaning “movement of the boat” since एजनम् means movement. (c) तौ + एजतः = तावेजतः or ता एजतः  

Case 54 औ + ऐ e.g. तौ + ऐश्वर्ये (meaning the two splendours) = ? or ?

Case 55 औ + ओ e.g. (a) नौ + ओस् = न् + ओ + ओस् = न् + अव् + ओस् = नावोस् = नावोः Note, ओस् is the suffix for formatting षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of words. नावोः is षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of नौ (b) द्वौ + ओष्ठौ (meaning “two lips”) = ? or ?

Case 56 औ + औ e.g. (a) नौ + औ = न् + औ + औ = न् + आव् + औ = नावौ Note, औ is suffix for formatting प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of words. So नावौ is प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of नौ. (b) तौ + औषधी (meaning the two medicines) = ? or ?

Exercises – Among विभक्तिप्रत्यय-s case-suffixes following have a vowel at their beginning. Since suffixes affix after the word, in the case of the suffixes having vowels at the beginning, the vowels become परवर्ण-s. So it would become a good exercise to get शब्दरूपाणि of words रै, गो and नौ in following cases.

  1. प्रत्यय for प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् is औ.
  2. प्रत्यय for प्रथमा बहुवचनम् is अस् (अः)
  3. प्रत्यय for तृतीया एकवचनम् is आ.
  4. प्रत्यय for चतुर्थी एकवचनम् is ए.
  5. प्रत्यय for पञ्चमी and षष्ठी एकवचनम् is अस् (अः).
  6. प्रत्यय for षष्ठी and सप्तमी द्विवचनम् is ओस् (ओः)
  7. प्रत्यय for सप्तमी एकवचनम् is इ.

Some of these have been already discussed also. No harm doing them again as exercises.

शुभं भवतु |

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