Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 21

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 21

सरलं संस्कृतम् – एकविंशतितमः पाठः |

Even though I have been discussing स्वरसंधि-s in previous lessons, it has always been on my mind that there should be a structured, tabulated view, sort of a Matrix view. After quite some effort and study, I am glad that I have been able to compile primarily the general rules for all the 196 possible combinations of स्वरसंधि-s in just 4 matrices.

I would like to present them across three lessons matrices 1 and 2 in this lesson 21, Matrix 3 in next lesson No. 22 and Matrix 4 in lesson No. 23.

Here is Matrix 1 covering स्वरसंधि-s as per सूत्रम् – अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101). Examples of all 20 स्वरसंधि-s are also given.

– Note, just one सूत्रम् with just three words becomes the rule covering 20 स्वरसंधि-s ! That is पाणिनि !!

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 1

These संधि-s are also called as सवर्णदीर्घसंधि-s. These are 5 blocks, of 4 संधि-s each, diagonally across 10 rows.

To proceed further, it becomes logical to proceed by rows, firstly by the first two rows for अ + and आ +.

Here is the matrix 2 for the first two rows.

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 2

As can be seen, in Matrix 2,

  1. There are 8 संधि-s under columns for इ, ई, उ, ऊ. These are as per पाणिनिसूत्रम् आद्गुणः (6-1-87). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as गुणसंधि-s.

  2. Next there are 8 more under columns for ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ as per उरण् रपरः (1-1-51).

  3. Further there are 8 more under columns for ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. These are as per वृद्धिरेचि (६/१/८८). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as वृद्धिसंधि-s

I would think that explaining the rules and patterns, by explaining the पाणिनिसूत्र-s would eminently be beyond the scope of “Simple Sanskrit”. But in case of संधि-rules in particular,

  1. It is interesting how a short and crisp सूत्रम् specifies the rule for so many patterns.

  2. one needs to also know special cases, when a particular rule is superseded by another subsequent rule. There is a सूत्रम् even to say that, when applicable, a subsequent सूत्रम् supersedes a previous सूत्रम् !! For those interested, the सूत्रम् is विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (१-४-२)

In this matrix 2

  1. There is a box under the columns for ऋ, ॠ, लृ and ॡ, mentioning the सूत्रम् – उपसर्गादृति धातौ (6-1-91). This सूत्रम् supersedes the सूत्रम् उरण् रपरः (1-1-51) applicable for these columns. Hence, by virtue of this superseding सूत्रम्, in the special cases of अ/आ-ending उपसर्ग-s followed by धातु-s having initial वर्ण ऋ, there is वृद्धिः आर् instead of अर्. Note संधि between उपसर्ग and धातु is compulsory.

  2. There is also another box under the columns for ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, noting सूत्रम् – एङि पररूपम् (६/१/९४) Sanskrit-explanation of this is अवर्णान्तात् उपसर्गात् एङादौ धातौ परतः पूर्वपरयोः स्थाने पररूपमेकादेशः भवति, संहितायां विषये, meaning if अ-ending उपसर्ग is followed by धातु-s having initial वर्ण ए or ओ, then

    1. such संधि of अ + ए does not become ऐ it becomes ए only, e.g. प्र + एजते (प्र् + {अ + ए} + जते = प्र् + {ए} + जते) = प्रेजते

    2. likewise संधि of अ + ओ does not become औ, it becomes ओ only, e.g. उप + ओषति (उप् + {अ + ओ} + षति = उप् + {ओ} + षति) = उपोषति

    3. The box applies only for columns for ए and ओ, not for all the 4 columns. So, these are very special संधि-s of अ + ए and अ + ओ.

    4. Such संधि-s are also called as पररूपसंधि-s

It is important to bear in mind the rule, telling the instances, when it is compulsory to make a संधि.

संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः |

नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते ||

By पदच्छेद,

  1. संहिता एकपदे नित्या

  2. नित्या धातु-उपसर्गयोः

  3. नित्या समासे

  4. वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षां अपेक्षते

संहिता नित्या = संहिता i.e. संधि (is to be done) नित्या, always = it is compulsory to make a संधि

  1. एकपदे = The resultant word is to be used as one word only, e.g. कश्चित् Actually the word is a संधि of कः + चित्

  2. धातूपसर्गयोः = Between धातु and उपसर्ग, e.g. in अपेक्षते there is उपसर्ग अप and धातु ईक्षते These have to be said only as अपेक्षते as per the गुणसंधि of अ + ई = ए See column for ई in Matrix 2.

  3. समासे = The word धातूपसर्गयोः is a compound word having component words धातु and उपसर्ग. Because it is a compound word, there has to be संधि of उ + उ = ऊ, a सवर्णदीर्घसंधि as per अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः in Matrix 1.

वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षां अपेक्षते = In a sentence it is discretionary. For example, one may say त्वं एव माता or त्वमेव माता.

We shall see Matrix 3 in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु |