Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 30

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 30

 

An important aspect of procedure of detailing विग्रह of a समास is to first get to the bare minimum form of the compound word. The bare minimum form is often the form in प्रथमा विभक्ति.

 For example first word in first verse in गीता is धर्मक्षेत्रे. This is of course a compound word. But the form धर्मक्षेत्रे is सप्तमी विभक्ति एकवचनम् of the noun धर्मक्षेत्रम्. So we should do विग्रह of the word धर्मक्षेत्रम् and not of the formatted word धर्मक्षेत्रे.

 This may not be always necessary, especially if the word is already in प्रथमा विभक्ति. That was the case for बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या.

 Words like प्रतिदिनम्, साश्चर्यम् also are already in प्रथमा विभक्ति.

 But doing विग्रह of a समास would need being conscious of the meaning intended to be conveyed.

 Note प्रतिदिनम् = every day साश्चर्यम् = with wonder. “Every day” would be an answer to a question “When ?” Similarly “with wonder” would be an answer to a question “how ?” So प्रतिदिनम् and साश्चर्यम् have an adverbial intent, which in Sanskrit is called as अव्ययीभावः

 विग्रह of a समास is primarily an exercise in detailing the meaning of the word. And विग्रह should do that.

 विग्रह of प्रतिदिनम् is detailed as दिने दिने.

विग्रह of साश्चर्यम् is detailed as आश्चर्येण सह.

 अव्ययीभाव-समास-s are another type of समास-s.

 Both these words प्रतिदिनम् and साश्चर्यम् have a prefix उपसर्ग. In detailing विग्रह of प्रतिदिनम् as दिने दिने what is detailed is really the meaning lent by the prefix प्रति. Likewise in detailing विग्रह of साश्चर्यम् as आश्चर्येण सह, what is detailed is really the meaning lent by the prefix स. So in these words, the prefixes are almost like component words पद-s of the compound words.

 Need to be conscious of the meaning intended can be explained also by considering a word विमलम् in two different sentences – (1) विमलं वस्त्रं धारय Wear a clean cloth (2) वस्त्रं विमलं क्षालय Wash the cloth clean.

 As can be seen, in विमलं वस्त्रं धारय, the word is adjective of the noun वस्त्रम्. In the other sentence, it is adverb of the verb क्षालय. Should we do different विग्रह for the same word ? My answer would be ‘Yes’. Basically some people may question whether every word, which has a prefix उपसर्ग and a noun नाम, should be treated as a compound word. Again, my answer would be ‘Yes’. I say so with the basic premise in mind, that विग्रह of a समास is primarily an exercise in detailing the meaning of the word.

 In विमलं वस्त्रं धारय I would decipher the विग्रह as विगतः मलः यस्मात् तत् (बहुव्रीहिः)

 In वस्त्रं विमलं क्षालय I would decipher the विग्रह as विगतः मलः अस्मात् तथा (बहुव्रीहिः)

 Even if one should be conscious of the meaning intended to be conveyed, it is important to be open-minded and receptive to different meanings likely to be derived by different विग्रह of a given समास. Another person may think of a different meaning. Why not grant it ?

 For example, in the word धर्मक्षेत्रम्, धर्म = ?? क्षेत्रम् = field. Note, I am mentioning “धर्म = ??” Do we not know the meaning of the word धर्म ? We do, but the word has many, many shades of meaning. One common meaning of धर्म is religion. But what is ‘religion’ ? It is a challenging question to answer.

 I would rather go by the meaning धर्म = righteousness. So धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field of righteousness.

Now, what can make a battlefield a field of righteousness ? Possibly there was history associated with that particular battlefield, that in any battle fought there, only that side prevailed, which had righteousness with it. The battle between पाण्डव-s and कौरव-s was also to be fought to decide, which side had righteousness. Because of its past history the battlefield had come to be known as धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field of righteousness.

 Rather, since the battle was to be fought to decide which side had righteousness, it was the field (for) decision about righteousness. The word धर्म has this other shade of meaning as धर्म = justice. Then we can say धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field (of) righteousness OR field (for) justice about righteousness.

 Since the two prepositions ‘of’ and ‘for’ connote षष्ठी and चतुर्थी विभक्ति-s respectively, विग्रह of धर्मक्षेत्रम् can be धर्मस्य क्षेत्रम् OR धर्माय क्षेत्रम्.

 On that battlefield there was also the person whose name was धर्म. Being a battlefield, there were two parties and there was the allotted field for each party. So by another meaning of क्षेत्रम् = domain, meaning of धर्मक्षेत्रम् becomes “the domain of the person whose name was धर्म”. So even by the विग्रह as धर्मस्य क्षेत्रम्, there can be two meanings of धर्मक्षेत्रम् – (1) धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field of righteousness (2) धर्मक्षेत्रम् = domain of the person whose name was धर्म.

 विग्रह-s of समास-s make Sanskrit literature very engaging and enjoyable, revealing, refreshing and vibrant, especially when one gets to derive a range of meanings from the same given words.

 The drama स्वप्नवासवदत्तम् by भास opens with सूत्रधार briefing the audience of the main characters of the drama. For that briefing, the सूत्रधार sings a श्लोक, which has a compound word आसवदत्ताबलौ. This word can have three different meanings ! In the panel below can be seen an excerpt, giving all the three interpretations, as detailed by Shri. A. B. Gajendragadkar, the then Professor of Sanskrit in Elphinstone College, Mumbai, in his book published in 1938, downloaded by me from the internet.

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First of all, the word आसवदत्ताबलौ is adjective of the strong arms of King उदयन, who is the hero of the drama.

 (1) आसवदत्ताबलौ = आसवेन दत्तं आबलं याभ्यां तौ (In आबलम्, आ = समन्तात्, सर्वतोमुखम् इति अर्थः). So, आसवदत्ताबलौ = (arms) which have gained all-round strength by आसव (= an intoxicating drink, wine). It is a known fact that an intoxicating drink gives to warriors reckless courage and under its influence that perform deeds of valor.

 (2) आसवदत्ताबलौ = आसवेन दत्तं अबलं याभ्यां तौ. Here अबलम् = न बलम् इति अबलम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुष) Then the meaning becomes “(arms) to which languor or lassitude or weakness has been imparted by wine.”

 (3) आसवदत्ताबलौ =

  1. दत्तः आसवः यस्यै सा = आसवदत्ता (बहुव्रीहिः) (she अबला), to whom drink has been given

  2. आसवदत्ता अबला याभ्यां तौ = आसवदत्ताबलौ (बहुव्रीहिः) (arms) by which drink has been given to a lady.

 Important point to be also noted is that in दत्ताबलौ, there is a संधि (संहिता). And in compound words, it is compulsory to coalescence, wherever coalescence is applicable. संहिता .. नित्या समासे But here the challenge is of separating the components of a coalesced word. दत्ताबलौ can be split either as दत्त + अबलौ or दत्त + आबलौ.  And that renders different meanings !

 There is another charming and different meaning possible for the phrase in the श्लोक – उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ताबलौ together, a single word ! The component words to be considered are उदय, नव, इन्दु, सवर्णा, वासवदत्ता, बलौ = (arms), which got strength from वासवदत्ता (heroine of the drama) whose complexion was similar to that of (just) rising new moon. This meaning brings to mind a famous proverb, “Behind every successful person, there is strong support of a woman.”

 In the prior discussion the word आसवदत्ताबलौ was obtained by split of उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ताबलौ as उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णौ आसवदत्ताबलौ. But the other charming meaning is derived by not doing this splitting.

 Yet another charming meaning ….

 Keeping in mind that King उदयन is the hero of the drama, उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ता can be interpreted to mean वासवदत्ता whose complexion was similar सवर्णा, to that of उदयन (or) वा इन्दु moon, (वेन्दु = वा इन्दु).

 Since the drama starts off with सूत्रधार saying this श्लोक, one can consider that सूत्रधार is not only introducing the hero and the heroine by their names but also describing them, how they are, … ! That is a specimen of smartness of Sanskrit poets, here, भास. It takes great intelligence and literary skill to weave so many different meanings in a single word, right ?

 Important point, which is to be noted is that विग्रह of a समास need not be only one specific विग्रह. समास-s are often very inviting, inviting you to indulge in different interpretations !

 Such is the case also with उपसर्ग-s. In श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता one comes across a word अकर्म. This उपसर्ग अ is interesting. It lends a negative meaning to the noun, to which it is prefixed. So, न कर्म इति अकर्म (नञ्-तत्पुरुष). But in Apte’s dictionary, the first word अ is detailed giving also an interesting detail that negativity of meaning has itself six shades ! The detail given says, “.. तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च ऩञर्थाः षट् प्रकीर्तिताः ॥ ..” So meanings of the word अकर्म have to be understood with all the six shades of negativity –

  1. कर्मणा सादृश्यम् तदकर्म = Seeming like कर्म, (but not really कर्म) is अकर्म !

  2. कर्मणः अभावः तदकर्म = Absence of कर्म is अकर्म.

  3. कर्मणः अन्यत्वं तदकर्म = Different from (apart from or other than) कर्म is अकर्म

  4. कर्मणः अल्पता तदकर्म = Shortcoming in कर्म (doing कर्म not wholeheartedly or only half-heartedly or doing कर्म half way, incomplete) is अकर्म

  5. कर्मणः अप्राशस्त्यम् तदकर्म = Impropriety or haphazardness of कर्म is अकर्म

  6. कर्मणः विरोधः तदकर्म = Causing hindrance to कर्म or doing opposite of कर्म is अकर्म !!!

 And one can derive a definition of कर्म (What is कर्म ?) in the reverse mode to say, What is not अकर्म is कर्म !!!

 Is not philosophy of कर्म a great but very subtle philosophy ?

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 29

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 29

Composing more than one component words and making a single word, which procedure is known as समास, is a specialty of Sanskrit. This is not to say that such composition of a single word from more than one words together is not found in other languages. Examples in English – outbreak, sunrise, sunset, in-laws, etc.

Yet it becomes specialty of Sanskrit because of number of component words, that can be put together. I was most impressed when I first came across a line in मेघदूतम् by कालिदास. बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या. The complete line is a single word of 17 letters. The total word and the letters therein even fully conform to the मन्दाक्रान्ता meter of the verse. There are eight component words – बाह्य, उद्यान, स्थित, हर, शिरस्, चन्द्रिका, धौत and हर्म्या ! And all together the word is an adjective of अलकानगरी !! English transcription of the word would be bAhyodyAnasthitaharashirashchandrikAdhautaharmyA, as many as 48 letters, even when using A instead of aa. Is it not very challenging to read Sanskrit in the transcripted mode ? This is one example, why it is good to learn the script of the language, right when beginning to learn a new language.

Again the eight component words, which are put together have an interrelationship between them, which needs to be detailed, so that one can then understand, how the word becomes an adjective of अलकानगरी. Detailing the interrelationship between component words is called as विग्रह of the समास. It is better to start विग्रह of one pair of component words.

For example

  1. बाह्योद्यान is बाह्य + उद्यान. बाह्य = external उद्यान = garden. So, बाह्योद्यान = external garden. This is an adjective-noun relationship. Sanskrit phrase would be बाह्यं उद्यानम् This is विग्रह of बाह्योद्यान

  2. In बाह्योद्यानस्थित, स्थित = put up. So बाह्योद्यानस्थित = put up (in) the external garden. I have shown the preposition ‘in’ in parentheses. The preposition is really the explanation of the interrelationship between बाह्योद्यान and स्थित. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘in’ is सप्तमी विभक्ति. Hence बाह्योद्याने स्थित becomes विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थित.

  3. Next we shall take बाह्योद्यानस्थित and हर. This again is an adjective-noun relationship. Sanskrit phrase would be बाह्योद्यानस्थितः हरः

  4. Now बाह्योद्यानस्थितहर and शिरस्. हर = Shiva and शिरस् = head. Obvious relationship between हर and शिरस् is head (of) Shiva. Here also the preposition ‘of’ is really the explanation of the interrelationship between हर and शिरस्. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘of’ is षष्ठी विभक्ति. Hence हरस्य शिरस् becomes विग्रह of हरशिरस्. Rather we have बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरस् = बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरस्य शिरस्

  5. We can proceed to connect up बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरस् and चन्द्रिका. चन्द्रिका means crescent. The well-known relationship between हरशिरस् and चन्द्रिका is “crescent (on) the head of Shiva”. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘on’ is सप्तमी विभक्ति. Hence विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिका should be बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरसि चन्द्रिका. Overall meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिका is “crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”

  6. Next बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिका and धौत. Here धौत means “washed”, “covered”, “lit”. Obvious meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत is “lit (by) crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘by’ is तृतीया विभक्ति. Hence विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत becomes बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकया धौत

  7. Now lastly we have to connect बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत and हर्म्या. In the component हर्म्या the root word is हर्म्यम्

    1. The word is explained in Apte’s dictionary (See – http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/contextualize.pl?p.6.apte.1691431) is – हर्म्यम् [हृ-यत् मुट् च] 1 A palace, mansion, any large or palatial building; हर्म्यपृष्ठं समारूढः काको$पि गरु- डायते Subhāṣ.; बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या Me.7;

    2. As can be seen exactly this reference “बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या Me.7” is quoted in the dictionary.

    3. The obvious meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्यम् is “mansion lit by the cresent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”.

    4. And the relationship between बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत and हर्म्यम् is again adjective-noun relationship. So विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्यम् becomes बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतं हर्म्यम् which fits the meaning “mansion lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”

    5. But the compound word is not ending as ..हर्म्यम्. The ending is हर्म्या, which is a feminine ending. So the total meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या is pointing to a feminine noun. There is such feminine noun in the verse. The related portion of the verse is गन्तव्या ते वसतिरलका नाम यक्षेश्वराणाम् | बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या || The feminine noun is वसतिः meaning “place”, “residential complex”, “township”, “city”. Obviously बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या is adjectival to the feminine noun वसतिः. Then the interpretation of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या should be (place, which has) “mansion lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”. Sanskrit way of explaining “.. (place, which has) ..” would be यस्यां सा. Using this the विग्रह would be बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्यम् यस्यां सा meaning “place which has mansion lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”. English meaning of the single word बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या becomes a phrase having 19 words !

    6. By a finer consideration, we can grant that there may not be only one mansion there. And all of them would be lit by the crescent. So we can modify the विग्रह to use plural as mansions and then say बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतानि हर्म्याणि यस्यां सा = place which has mansions lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”

As can be seen, interrelationships between component words are of different types. Here we have seen adjective-noun relationship, विभक्ति-relationship, relationship explained by a phrase such as यस्यां सा.

Sanskrit names of these relationships are –

  1. adjective-noun relationship = कर्मधारय

  2. विभक्ति-relationship = तत्पुरुष

  3. relationship explained by a phrase such as यस्यां सा = बहुव्रीहिः

There are some more types also and also their sub-types. We shall study them one by one.

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 28

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 28

 

There seems to be a commonplace understanding that अनुस्वार is an option for writing the अनुनासिक-s. It is difficult to say, whether this commonplace understanding is correct or not from the standpoint of grammar.

 

Here are some simple, commonplace examples

  • अङ्ग / अंग

  • सञ्जय / संजय

  • पण्डित / पंडित

  • अनन्त / अनंत

  • चम्पा / चंपा

These examples endorse the commonplace understanding. But in the above examples, the अनुस्वार does not connote any one specific अनुनासिक. Rather it connotes all the अनुनासिक-s ! And there is a grammatical pattern or relationship between the अनुस्वार and the अनुनासिक being connoted. The अनुनासिक is of the same वर्ग as of the वर्ण after the अनुस्वार. As can be seen

 

  • in अङ्ग / अंग, ङ् and ग are of क-वर्ग

  • in सञ्जय / संजय, ञ् ज are of च-वर्ग

  • in पण्डित / पंडित, ण् ड are of ट-वर्ग

  • in अनन्त / अनंत, न् त are of त-वर्ग

  • in चम्पा / चंपा, म् प are of प-वर्ग

पाणिनि explains this by the rules

 

अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः । (८/४/५८) and वा पदान्तस्य । (८/४/५९)

  • अनुस्वारस्य = of अनुस्वार

  • ययि = in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) वर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार यय् (= वर्ण-s in 8 शिवसूत्र-s from 5 to 12).

  • Note, this excludes वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 13 and 14.

 

  • परसवर्णः = should be अनुनासिक of the same वर्ग as of the वर्ण, which is पर to the अनुस्वार, i.e. which is after the अनुस्वार

  • वा = applies also to

  • पदान्तस्य। = अनुस्वार at the end of a पद.

 

This means that a stand-alone word or a sentence or line of a verse should not end with अनुस्वार. These should end only with the अनुनासिक.

 

In the previous lesson one example given for अनुनासिक becoming अनुस्वार was –

 

  • इमाँल्लोकान् (18-17 इमान् लोकान्)

It was also mentioned that, here न् of इमान् becomes अनुस्वार, which has a slightly different accent than of न् of इमान्

 

It was also mentioned there that when to write अनुस्वार  and how to pronounce it are points, which merit specific discussion.

 

In all the examples अङ्ग / अंग, सञ्जय / संजय, पण्डित / पंडित, अनन्त / अनंत, चम्पा / चंपा whether to write अनुनासिक or अनुस्वार seems to be more the WRITING option, not necessarily a rule for pronunciation. We can assume that these words will be pronounced only appropriately, even if written either way. Nevertheless, the pronunciation of अनुस्वार in इमाँल्लोकान् would have a slightly different accent than of न् of इमान्. So, there is a contention that अनुस्वार is not just a writing option for writing the अनुनासिक-s, but connotes a different accent also.

 

The following सूत्रम् is the rule for अनुनासिक म् to be अनुस्वार. Of course, “conditions apply”.

 

मोऽनुस्वारः (८/३/२३)

 

Meaning –

मोऽनुस्वारः = मः अनुस्वारः

मः अनुस्वारः = (Make) मः (=of म) the अनुस्वार

 

The applicable condition is हलि परतः when म्-कार is followed by a consonant.

 

Examples –

 

रामं वन्दे, गुहायां तपति, मालायां सूत्रम्, गृहं गच्छति, पुस्तकं पश्य, ताभ्यां देहि, नद्यां जलम्

 

The logic or application of the rule can be extended to derive a corollary, that म्-कार at the end of a sentence or at the end of a line of poetry should not be written as अनुस्वार. At the end of a sentence or at the end of a line of poetry, there is nothing after the म्-कार, so, no परवर्ण् at all. So, म्-कार should remain म्-कार !

 

In the context of this discussion about अनुस्वार, comes to mind the word संस्कृत itself. In the word संस्कृत

  • we have (स्-अ म् स् क् ऋ त् अ).

  • May it be written as सम्स्कृत or as संस्कृत ? Would these have different pronunciation ? Does it then appeal that the अनुनासिक म् be better written as अनुस्वार ?

  • That suggests that one should understand the rule about when an अनुनासिक is better written as अनुस्वार.

  • In some texts one may find the अनुस्वार written as ँ्.

  • So संस्कृत could as well be written as स ँ्स्कृत.

 

Here is another interesting example from गीता –

 

(11-28) यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः or यथा नदीनाम्बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः

 

One can deliberate on some interesting nuances.

 

  • It may again be noted that, whether it is written as यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः or यथा नदीनाम्बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः the difference would be primarily in writing. It makes no difference in pronunciation.

  • For a finer observation, the म् of बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः cannot be written as बहवोंबुवेगाः even if it would get pronounced as such only.

  • It cannot be written as बहवोंबुवेगाः, because, it will then miss the अवग्रह-symbol ऽ, which is essential here !

 

Note, this option of अनुस्वार applies for अनुनासिक

  • at the end of a word, when followed by व्यञ्जनम् of the next word

    • not when the word is stand-alone

  • also not of अनुनासिक at the end of a sentence or

  • of अनुनासिक at the end of a line in a poem.

 

For example in यं यं वापि स्मरन्भावं त्यजत्यन्ते कलेवरम् ।

  • यं यं and स्मरन्भावं are with अनुस्वार

  • म् of कलेवरम् needs to be म् only.

  • न् of त्यजत्यन्ते could as well be written as त्यजत्यंते !

 

Change to अनुस्वार happens not only for म्-कार, but also for न्-कार by the सूत्रम्

 

नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि । ८।३।२४

 

नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि = नः च अपदान्तस्य झलि

  • नः च = also of न्

  • अपदान्तस्य = when not at the end of a word

  • झलि = when followed by व्यन्जनम् of प्रत्याहार झल्

 

For example, वासांसि (गीता 2-22), छंदांसि (15-1)

 

Rules about अनुस्वार are part of rules of treatment of अनुनासिक-s or of संधि-s with अनुनासिक-s in पूर्ववर्ण-position.

 

One special rules in this respect is –

 

नश्छव्यप्रशान् (नः छवि अप्रशान्) (८/३/७)

 

नः = of

छवि = when followed by वर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार छव् (= छ्, ठ्, थ्, च्, ट्, त्)

अप्रशान् = Not when followed by अ or not for the word प्रशान् (This detail is beyond the scope of Simple Sanskrit)

 

When a word ending with नकार is followed by (प्रत्याहार छव् =) छ्, ठ्, थ्, च्, ट्, त्, नकार is written by अनुस्वार. Also,  सकार gets added before परवर्ण्. A वर्ण् coming in or getting added is called as आगम.

 

तान् + तान् = (त् + आ + न् + त् + आन् = त् + आँ + स् + त् + आन् / त् + आ + ं + स् + त् + आन्) = ताँस्तान् / तांस्तान्

 

Examples from गीता – सखींस्तथा (1-26 सखीन् + तथा = सखीं + स् + तथा = सखींस्तथा), प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा (1-33), कामांस्तु (2-5), also संस्कृत (सम् + कृत = सं + स् + कृत)

 

The अनुस्वार here may be found in some texts written as  ँ्. So, सखी ँ्स्तथा, प्राणाँ्स्त्यक्त्वा, कामा ँ्स्तु.

 

Having mentioned संस्कृत (सम् + कृत = सं + स् + कृत), I should also bring to notice two words संकर and संस्कार. Both have their derivation from सम् + कृ. But in संकर there is no आगम of स्. In संस्कार there is आगम of स्, same as in संस्कृत. Also संकर could as well be written as सङ्कर. Rather, it should better be written so.

The आगम of स् from नश्छव्यप्रशान् suffers modification by स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०)

 

That is, when the following letter परवर्ण is either च् or छ्, the आगम of स् is converted to श्

 

Example from गीता – प्रज्ञावादांश्च (2-11)

Other examples – श्लोकान् + टीकाभिः = (श्लोक् + आ + न् + ट् + ईकाभिः = श्लोक् + आँ + स् + ट् + ईकाभिः / श्लोक् + आ + ं + स् + ट् + ईकाभिः) = श्लोकाँ ष् टीकाभिः/श्लोकां ष् टीकाभिः = श्लोकाँष्टीकाभिः/श्लोकांष्टीकाभिः ।

 

Note: When the following letter is either ट् or ठ्, the आगम of स् is converted to ष् according to ष्टुना ष्टुः

 

All the above discussion is about अनुनासिक being पूर्ववर्ण. However, it is interesting to see when अनुनासिक is परवर्ण्, The सूत्रम् is –

यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा । (८/४/४५)

यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा = यरः अनुनासिके अनुनासिकः वा

यरः = प्रत्याहार यर् (वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 5 to 13) That includes all व्यञ्जन, except ह्

अनुनासिके = when followed by अनुनासिक

अनुनासिकः = becomes अनुनासिक.

वा = optionally

 

So, when a व्यञ्जन, except ह्, (प्रत्याहार यर् does not include ह्) is followed by an अनुनासिक, then the व्यञ्जन becomes अनुनासिक of its own वर्ग. The letter वा makes it clear, that application of this rule is optional.

 

वाङ्मयम् / वाग्मयम्, षण्मुखः / षड्मुखः

 

In both these examples व्यन्जनम् in पूर्ववर्ण्-position is कठोर. अनुनासिक in परवर्ण-position has मृदु characteristics. So by कठोर + मृदु, the कठोर पूर्ववर्ण् becomes मृदु by झलां जशोऽन्ते.

  • वाक् + मयम् = वाग् – मयम् Hence वाग्मयम्. OR

    • वाक् + मयम् = वाङ् – मयम् = वाङ्मयम्

  • Similarly षट् + मुखः = षड् – मुखः Hence षड्मुखः OR

    • षट् + मुखः = षण् – मुखः = षण्मुखः

 

If a प्रत्यय has an अनुनासिक at its beginning and since beginning of प्रत्यय  is in परवर्ण्-position, it follows the व्यन्जनम् in पूर्ववर्ण्-position, then the rule is NOT optional. It is mandatory to change the व्यन्जनम् to अनुनासिक.

 

Examples – चिन्मयम् (चित् + मयम्, त् → न्), तन्मात्रम् (तत् + मात्रम्, त् → न्). Here मयम्, मात्रम् are प्रत्यय-s with अनुनासिक म at the beginning.

 

This should be a good enough detailing of, shall we say, अनुनासिक-संधि-s among व्यञ्जनसन्धि-s, including the significance of अनुस्वार.

 

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 27

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 27

 

To proceed further with व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, Table 2 in the previous Lesson No. 26 is a good table to keep a track of how we proceed.

 

Case 5 discussed in Lesson 26 was, for example the case of खर् + खर्, i.e. both पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण being खर्.

व्यञ्जनसंधि-s of type व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम्

खर्

यश्

ह्

खव्

कय्

शर्

यण्

ञम्

झश्

खर्

खव्

कय्

शर्

यश्

यण्

ञम्

झश्

झल्=

झश्+खर्+ह्

 

But as was mentioned, there are special cases.

 

Case 6 – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०).

 

Explanation of स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०) can be read at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/sarvanisutrani/8.4.39.htm

 

The explanation is – सकार-तवर्गयोः शकारचवर्गाभ्यां योगे शकारचवर्गौ आदेशौ भवतः।

 

Meaning – When पूर्ववर्ण्-letters are स् or त्, and are followed by letters of श्-वर्ग (प्रत्याहार शर् – श्, ष्, स्) and च्-वर्ग (त् थ् द् ध्) respectively, then the पूर्ववर्ण्-letters are substituted by letters of श्-वर्ग and च्-वर्ग respectively.

 

Here स् or त् are harsh. But it is to be noted that mention of श्-वर्ग and च्-वर्ग includes all of श्-वर्ग and च्-वर्ग, not just the harsh ones of च्-वर्ग.

 

Examples –

  • स्याज्जनार्दन (1-36, स्यात् जनार्दन त् → ज्),

    • (Note, as per Case (4) it should have been स्याद्+जनार्दन But if one gets the feel of the natural pronunciation, one would realize that in natural process, the pronunciation would become स्याज्जनार्दन.

    • Here त् is followed by ज्, which is a letter of च्-वर्ग. So त् is replaced by ज्, letter of च्-वर्ग,

 

More examples –

  • यज्ज्ञात्वा (4-16, 4-35 also 9-1 यत् + ज्ञात्वा)

    • It is to be noted that ज्ञ is ज् + ञ. So ज्ञ has ज् at its beginning.

      • It is also to be noted that in the dictionary words starting with ज्ञ will be found in the alphabetical order of words starting with ज्.

      • In north India, people seem to be pronouncing ज्ञ as ग्य. But ज्ञ does not have ग् at its beginning.

    • Hence here also त् is followed by ज्, which is a letter of च्-वर्ग. So त् is replaced by ज्, letter of च्-वर्ग

  • मच्चित्तः (18-57, 58, मत् + चित्तः, त् → च्)

  • उच्छिष्टम् (17-10 उत् + शिष्टम्)

    • Here त् is followed by श्. So त् is replaced by च्

    • श् of परवर्ण् also is replaced by छ् !

 

Case 7 – ष्टुना ष्टुः। (८/४/४१)

 

Explanation of ष्टुना ष्टुः। (८/४/४१) can be read at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/sarvanisutrani/8.4.40.htm

 

The explanation is – स्तोः इति वर्तते। सकारतवर्गयोः षकारट्वर्गाभ्यां सन्निपाते षकारटवर्गावादेशौ भवतः। तत्र अपि तथैव सङ्ख्यातानुदेशभावः। षकारेण सकारस्य वृक्षष्षण्डे। प्लक्षष्षण्डे। तस्य एव टवर्गेण वृक्षष्टीकते। प्लक्षष्टीकते।

 

सकारस्य षकारटवर्गाभ्यां यदा योगः भवति तदा तस्य(सकारस्य) स्थाने षकारः, तथैव तवर्गस्य षकारटवर्गाभ्यां यदा योगः भवति तदा तस्य(तवर्गस्य) स्थाने टवर्गः च क्रमात् आदेशः भवति।

 

Meaning, when सकार comes in contact with षकार or टवर्ग letters, षकार is substituted in the place of सकार and when तवर्ग letters  comes in contact with षकार or टवर्ग letters , ट वर्ग letters are substituted in the place of त वर्ग letters  respectively.

 

Some examples –

  • उत् + डयनम् = उड्डयनम्।

  • षण् + नवतिः = षण्णवतिः।

  • रामस् + टीकते = रामष्टीकते।

  • भवत् + टिप्पणी = भवट्टिप्पणी।

  • एतद् + ढक्का = एतड्ढक्का।

 

Case 8 – तोर्लि (८-४-६०)

 

This is sort of further special case, applicable when पूर्ववर्ण्-letters are of त्-वर्ग (त् थ् द् ध् न्), and are followed by ल्. In such instances पूर्ववर्ण्-letters of त्-वर्ग are substituted by ल्.

 

Example in गीता –

  • आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः (8-16 आब्रह्मभुवनात् लोकाः, त् → ल्)

  • श्रुतिमल्लोके (13-14 श्रुतिमत् लोके)

  • इमाँल्लोकान् (18-17 इमान् लोकान्)

    • This is sort of a special case, because here न् of इमान् becomes अनुस्वार, which has a slightly different accent than of न् of इमान्

 

अनुस्वार, when to write it and how to pronounce it are points, which merit specific discussion. We shall come to it separately later.

 

Case 9 – Looking back at the Table having seen in Case (5) that खर् + खर् (कठोर + कठोर) produces primarily a संयुक्ताक्षरम् (even in the special cases), natural curiosity will be about the result of यश् + यश् (मृदु + मृदु). The most common result here also is primarily a संयुक्ताक्षरम् !

 

For example in the word नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते (गीता 2-3), य् + य् + उ = य्यु. Actually य्यु in this word नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते merits some detailing.

  • The word itself is a सन्धि (न + एतत् + त्वयि + उपपद्यते)

  • What is to be noted is that त् of एतत् and next “त् and व” of त्वयि become संयुक्ताक्षरम् त् + त् + व = त्त्व. This is case 5.

  • Further in सन्धि of त्वयि + उपपद्यते, the वर्ण्-s involved are त् + व, य् + इ + उ from उपपद्यते. As per rule of स्वरसन्धि, य् + इ + उ becomes य् + य् + उ. After that य् + य् + उ becomes य्यु. This is case 9.

 

Important point to be noted is that when studying व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, actually when studying any संधि for that matter, the consideration is to understand the phonetics, the resultant sound, when two वर्ण्-s come together.

 

It should be also noted that वर्ण् is not always अक्षर. One अक्षर can have many वर्ण्-s as was shown in कार्त्स्न्यम्.

 

In many words such as सर्व, कार्य, शल्य, माल्य, दिव्य, पूर्व, ब्रह्म, वह्नि, the वर्ण्-s in पूर्ववर्ण् position are य् व् र् ल् ह्. The resultants are all संयुक्ताक्षर-s.

 

Before going over to next case, it may be noted that Case 4 झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) suggests that a harsh consonant, in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) a soft consonant becomes soft !

 

Case 10 – A soft consonant (प्रत्याहार यश्) becomes harsh in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) a harsh consonant (प्रत्याहार खर्) !

 

Example given in प्रभुपादव्याकरणम् is सुहृद् + सताम् = सुहृत्सताम् Note द् + स becomes त् + स.

 

Case 11 – झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम् । (८/४/६२)

 

When झय् letters (first four letters of any varga) are followed by हकार, ह् is optionally replaced by पूर्वसवर्ण (a letter similar to the preceding letter). पूर्वसवर्ण will always be the fourth letter of the same varga to which the preceding झय् letter belongs.

 

For example –

  • वणिग् + हसति = वणिग्घसति / वणिग्‍हसति

    • Because application of the rule is optional, both the results are acceptable.

  • अच् + हलौ = अज्झलौ / अज्‍हलौ

  • षड् + हयाः = षड्ढयाः / षड्‍हयाः

  • तद् + हितम् = तद्धितम् / तद्‍हितम्

  • अब् + ह्रदः = अब्भ्रदः / अब्‍ह्रदः

 

Case 12 खरि च (८-४-५५) झलां (८-४-५३) चरः (८-४-५४)

 

When पूर्ववर्ण्-s of प्रत्याहार झल् are followed by परवर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार खर् the पूर्ववर्ण्-s change to corresponding वर्ण्-s of प्रत्याहार चर् (च् ट् त् क् प् श् ष् स्).

 

Example in गीता

  • युयुत्सवः (1-1)

    • the word is derived from धातुः युध् with suffix सु.

    • Here पूर्ववर्ण् ध् is from प्रत्याहार झल्.

    • The परवर्ण् स् of प्रत्यय सु is from प्रत्याहार खर्.

    • So पूर्ववर्ण् ध् changes to त् of प्रत्याहार चर्

    • basically the मृदुव्यञ्जनं changes to कठोर/कर्कश-व्यञ्जनं of its own वर्ग. Finally we have युयुध् + सु = युयुत्सु.

 

This is an internal संधि, happening in the formation of the word when affixing a suffix, as has been mentioned as एकपदे in संहितैकपदे नित्या.

 

With a plan to discuss topic of अनुस्वार separately, above 12 cases substantially cover important types of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s for Simple Sanskrit.

 

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 26

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 26

Now the व्यञ्जनसंधि-s !

In व्यञ्जनसंधि-s पूर्ववर्ण is certainly a व्यञ्जनम्. परवर्ण may be a vowel or a consonant.

Basically, whether a  संधि is a स्वरसंधि or विसर्गसंधि or व्यञ्जनसंधि is decided by the feature of the पूर्ववर्ण, whether स्वर, स्वर + विसर्ग, or व्यञ्जनम् .

  • in the case of स्वरसंधि-s परवर्ण् is स्वर

  • in the case of विसर्गसंधि-s परवर्ण् is स्वर or व्यञ्जनम्

  • in the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s also परवर्ण् is स्वर or व्यञ्जनम्

So, in the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, possible number of परवर्ण्-s can be 33 व्यञ्जनानि and 14 स्वर-s. So the number of possible one-to-one combinations of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s can be as many as 33 व्यञ्जनानि x 47 (33 व्यञ्जनानि and 14 स्वर-s) = 1551 व्यञ्जनसंधि-s !

Putting them into groups would help to reduce the variety and patterns.

Basically, व्यञ्जनसंधि-s can be classified into two broad classes –

  1. पूर्ववर्ण व्यञ्जनम् + परवर्ण् स्वर

  2. पूर्ववर्ण व्यञ्जनम् + परवर्ण् व्यञ्जनम्

Let us start with the class व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः.

Case (1) एकादेश-व्यञ्जनसंधि-s

In the case of most स्वरसंधि-s, the resultant sound on mixing of पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण् is a single resultant sound. For example  अ + आ = आ, अ + उ = ओ, इ +ऊ = यू. Resultant sound being a single sound is called as एकादेश.

In the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s also, when परवर्ण् is a स्वर, it will naturally make व्यञ्जनम् at the

पूर्ववर्ण position complete with that स्वर. So, it becomes एकादेश.

Here are some examples from गीता –

  1. किमकुर्वत (1-1) = किम् + अकुर्वत

    1. दृष्टवानसि (11-53) = दृष्टवान् + असि

  2. तमाहुः पण्डितं बुधाः (4-19) तमाहुः = तम् + आहुः

  3. वाक्यमिदमाह (1-21) = वाक्यम् + इदम् + आह

    1. कुरूनिति (1-25) = कुरून् + इति

  4. युद्धमीदृशम् (2-32) = युद्धम् + ईदृशम्

    1. ब्रह्माणमीशम् (11-15) = ब्रह्माणम् + ईशम्

  5. एवमुक्तो (1-24) = एवम् उक्तो

    1. स्वजनमुद्यताः (1-45) = स्वजनम् उद्यताः

    2. श्रीभगवानुवाच (2-10/11) = श्रीभगवान् + उवाच

  6. सर्वमेतदृतम् (10-14) = सर्वम् + एतद् + ऋतम्

  7. पापमेव (1-36) = पापम् एव

    1. गुणानेतान् (14-20, गुणान् एतान्)

    2. यानेव (2-6, यान् एव)

  8. पवित्रमोङ्कार (9-17) = पवित्रम् + ओंकार

  9. अहमौषधम् (9-16) = अहम् + औषधम्

All the above संधि-s are so very natural, that there is not much of any प्रक्रिया to be explained. Some people would like to contend that these are not संधि-s at all.

I would like to follow a simplistic concept that, whatever can be split into its components, should be considered as संधि. Actually there are many internal संधि-s, in view of the rule संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः, नित्या समासे. Splitting the components, called as पदच्छेद, often helps to understand the derivation of a word. For example, Sanskrit word for sunrise is सूर्योदय which is a compound word, having two component words सूर्य and उदय. Because in a compound word it is compulsory to do संधि, नित्या समासे Hence सूर्य + उदय = सूर्योदय. Also  उदय is itself उत् + अय, where उत् = up, अय = going, moving. So, by संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः the word has to be उत् + अय = उदय = going up, moving up, rising. That is how सूर्योदय means sunrise.

While above examples of संधि-s of “व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः”-type, are simple or straightforward, there are interesting conditional variations.

Case 2 – ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् (८/३/३२)

Let us understand this by an example. प्रहसन् + इव = प्रहसन्निव. Here पूर्ववर्ण is अनुनासिक न्. परवर्ण् is स्वर इ.

As per case (1), it should have been simply प्रहसनिव. But here the अनुनासिक न् has become doubled.

The rule is, if पूर्ववर्ण is an अनुनासिक ङ् or ण् or न् and the अनुनासिक itself is preceded by a ह्रस्व स्वर (अ, इ, उ), then the अनुनासिक doubles itself before mixing with the vowel at the परवर्ण् position.

In case (1), पूर्ववर्ण is अनुनासिक, mostly म् न्. This सूत्रम् does not provide for doubling of म्. But there is न् in some examples, which is not doubled. The reason is that the स्वर preceding the अनुनासिक न् is not ह्रस्व. For example, दृष्टवानसि (there is आ before न्) कुरूनिति (there is ऊ before न्).

Examples from गीता, where न् is doubled, because स्वर preceding the अनुनासिक न् is ह्रस्व –

  • विषीदन्निदं 1-28 (विषीदन् इदं), प्रहसन्निव 2-10 (प्रहसन् इव), कुर्वन्नपि 5-7 (कुर्वन् अपि), जिघ्रन्नश्नन् 5-8 (जिघ्रन् अश्नन्), गृह्नन्नुन्मिषन् 5-9 (गृह्णन् उन्मिषन्), निमिषन्नपि 5-9 (निमिषन् अपि), तन्निष्ठाः 5-17 (तत्+निष्ठाः), युञ्जन्नेवम् 6-28 (युञ्जन् एवम्),

Case 3 – झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) – व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः

This rule applies when a वर्गीयव्यञ्जन (of प्रत्याहार झल्) is at the end of a word, i.e. is in the पूर्ववर्ण position and is followed by a vowel, i.e. has a vowel in the परवर्ण् position, then the व्यञ्जन of पूर्ववर्ण is replaced by the third letter अल्पप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जन of its own वर्ग. प्रत्याहार जश् (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) covers अल्पप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जन-s.

Note, वर्गीयव्यञ्जन means व्यञ्जन-s of क्, च्, ट्, त्, प् वर्ग-s. प्रत्याहार झल् covers these.

Examples

  • वागीशः (वाक्-ईशः Here क् is replaced by ग्),

  • अजन्तः (अच्-अन्तः Here च् is replaced by ज्. प्रत्याहार अच् = all स्वर-s, अजन्त = स्वरान्त)

  • षट् + आनन = षडानन

  • from गीता – मदर्थे 1-9 (मत्+अर्थे), तदस्माकं 1-10 (तत्+अस्माकं), यावदेतान् 1-22 (यावत्+एतान्), यदृच्छया 2-32 (यत्+ऋच्छया), अन्यदस्ति 2-42 (अन्यत्+अस्ति),

Case 4  झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) – व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम्

The झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) also applies, when a वर्गीयव्यञ्जन (of प्रत्याहार झल्) coming at the end of a word, is followed by a मृदुव्यञ्जन. In the process of of संधि व्यञ्जन of पूर्ववर्ण is replaced by अल्पप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जन of its own वर्ग.

This Case (4) is of the class व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम् It is mentioned in continuation of case (3) because झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) applies.

  • Examples – वाग्व्यवहारः, अज्वर्णः, षड्भ्यः

  • Examples in गीता –

    • श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता (= श्रीमत्-भगवत्-गीता त् → द् at two places because followed by भ and ग respectively).

    • उद्यम्य (1-20, उत् + यम्य, य् is also मृदु),

    • यद्राज्यसुखलोभेन (1-45, यत् राज्यसुखलोभेन, Note, र् also has मृदु characteristics)

In both cases (3) and (4) of झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) षकार gets डकार, if it is followed by a vowel or मृदुव्यञ्जन and it gets ट् or ड् if it is not followed by any letter. For example षट्ज or षड्ज.

Do the phrases “वर्गीयव्यञ्जन”, “अल्पप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जन of its own वर्ग” sound like heavy-weight technical jargon ? Let us take a breather and relook at the grouping of व्यञ्जनानि and the arrangement provided in शिवसूत्राणि.

This was already detailed and presented in the previous lesson No. 25. But for ready reference it is reproduced below.

Table 1 – वर्णानां तालिका

अघोषाः  कठोराः अल्पप्राणेन

अघोषाः  कठोराः महाप्राणेन

घोषाः  मृदवः अल्पप्राणेन

घोषाः  मृदवः महाप्राणेन

घोषाः  अनुनासिकाः

अन्तस्थाः वर्णाः

ऊष्माः वर्णाः

कण्ठ्याः  (कवर्गे)

क्

ख्

ग्

घ्

ङ्

ह्

तालव्याः

(चवर्गे)

च्

छ्

ज्

झ्

ञ्

ल्

स्

मूर्धन्याः (टवर्गे)

ट्

ठ्

ड्

ढ्

ण्

र्

ष्

दन्त्याः  (तवर्गे)

त्

थ्

द्

ध्

न्

य्

श्

ओष्ठ्याः  (पवर्गे)

प्

फ्

ब्

भ्

म्

व्

As was mentioned in the previous lesson No. 24, in शिवसूत्राणि the consonants (connoted by the प्रत्याहार हल्) are grouped differently than in Table 1.

 

क्रमाङ्कः

सूत्रम्

व्यञ्जनानां गुणः

ह य व र (ट्)

यवराणि अन्तस्थानि

ल (ण्)

ल-अन्तस्थम्

ञ म ङ ण न (म्)

ञ-म-ङ-ण-न-इति पञ्च अनुनासिकानि

झ भ (ञ्)

झ-भ-इति चपवर्गयोः मृदुनी  महाप्राणेन

घ ढ ध (ष्)

घ-ढ-ध-इति कटतवर्गेषु मृदूनि महाप्राणेन

१०

ज ब ग ड द (श्)

ज-ब-ग-ड-द-इति पञ्च मृदूनि अल्पप्राणेन

११

ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त (व्)

ख-फ-छ-ठ-थ-इति कठोराणि महाप्राणेन तथा

चटतानि कठोराणि अल्पप्राणेन च

१२

क प (य्)

क-प-इति द्वे कठोरे अल्पप्राणेन

१३

श ष स (र्)

ऊष्माणि

१४

ह (ल्)

ऊष्मं कण्ठ्यम् च

For an overall understanding of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s of the class पूर्ववर्णः व्यञ्जनम् + परवर्णः व्यञ्जनम्, it would help to note the grouping of व्यञ्जन-s by their phonetic characteristics.

(1) कठोर व्यञ्जन-s and ऊष्म-s have closely related phonetic characteristics.

  • प्रत्याहार खर् thus becomes one broad group having 3 subgroups

  • प्रत्याहार खव् = ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त (व्)

  • प्रत्याहार कय् = क प (य्) and

  • प्रत्याहार शर् = श ष स (र्)

(2) मृदु व्यञ्जन-s, अन्तस्थ-s and अनुनासिक-s also have closely related phonetic characteristics.

  • प्रत्याहार यश् thus becomes another broad group, this also having 3 subgroups

  • प्रत्याहार यण् = य् व् र् ल् – the अन्तस्थ-s

  • प्रत्याहार ञम् = ञ म ङ ण न (म्) – the अनुनासिक-s

  • प्रत्याहार झश् = झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध् ज् ब् ग् ड् द् – the मृदु व्यञ्जन-s

By this grouping of व्यञ्जन-s पूर्ववर्ण-s can be from any one of the above 8 प्रत्याहार-s and also ह् , which is included by considering प्रत्याहार झल्. Similarly परवर्ण-s can also be from any one of the above 8 प्रत्याहार-s and also ह् . Table 2 gives an overview of possible combinations.

Table 2 व्यञ्जनसंधि-s of type व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम्

खर्

यश्

ह्

खव्

कय्

शर्

यण्

ञम्

झश्

खर्

खव्

कय्

शर्

यश्

यण्

ञम्

झश्

झल्=

झश्+खर्+ह्

In the table above, there are 9 options (hence 9 rows) for पूर्ववर्ण and also 9 options (hence 9 columns) for परवर्ण. That makes 9×9 = 81 possible combinations. But because प्रत्याहार-s खर् and यश् include 3,3 प्रत्याहार-s within them the number of combinations would reduce. However, there would be some special cases also. We shall come to all these as we proceed.

Case 5

व्यञ्जनसंधि-s with both पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण being कठोर i.e. from प्रत्याहार खर् for both पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण, would generally produce just a संयुक्ताक्षर

Examples –

  • पुरुजित्कुन्तिभोजः (1-5, पुरुजित् कुन्तिभोजः, त् + क् = त्क्),

  • त्वक्च (1-30, त्वक् च, क् + च् = क्च्),

  • तत्सत् (अध्यायसमाप्तौ, तत् सत्, त् + स् = त्स्)

    • Note the ऊष्मवर्ण-s of प्रत्याहारः शर् (= श् ष् स्)  have substantially same phonetic characteristics as of कठोर and are included in प्रत्याहार खर्.

    • But there are special instances, which we shall come to later.

By the way, is it also some curiosity as to, how many व्यन्जन-s can be combined to become a single संयुक्ताक्षरम् ?

Answer is 5 !!! कार्त्स्न्यम् (क्+आ – र्-त्-स्-न्-य्-अ म्) from कृत्स्नम् (= all, whole). By that, कार्त्स्न्यम् = wholesomeness

That is संस्कृत !!!

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 25

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 25

As was explained in previous chapter, शिवसूत्रम् १२ – क प य् is helpful in understanding that when विसर्ग is followed by क or प, then विसर्ग stays.

Intuitively we have started discussing the विसर्गसंधि-s !

In स्वर-संधि-s, we considered, what संधि-result happens with which combination of पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण.

Even for विसर्गसंधि-s same or similar consideration applies, since

  1. There is a वर्ण, the पूर्ववर्ण before the विसर्ग.

    • The पूर्ववर्ण is essentially a vowel.

  2. विसर्ग by itself is not a वर्ण. It is an expiration. The expiration is sort of an extension of the pronunciation of पूर्ववर्ण.

    • All vowels can have such expiration-extension.

    • It was noted in the previous chapter that most vowels can have 18 types of pronunciation. With expiration possibly becomes the 19th type !

    • When I learnt the देवनागरी script, which is also the script for my mother-tongue मराठी, we learnt the vowels as अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ लृ ए ऐ ओ औ अं अः We learnt अं अः as being vowels by their own merit and getting associated with all consonants. In writing practise we learnt writing बाराखडी (बाराक्षरी) for each consonant e.g. क का कि की कु कू के कै को कौ कं कः They are 12 बारा, right ?

  3. The परवर्ण can be a vowel or a consonant.

  4. Though विसर्ग by itself is not a वर्ण, it is very much an element and a part of the process of विसर्गसंधि.

  5. The process of विसर्गसंधि, is a process involving three elements – पूर्ववर्ण, विसर्ग, and the परवर्ण.

  6. The matrices presented for स्वरसंधि-s are relevant for understanding विसर्गसंधि-s also, specifically because पूर्ववर्ण is essentially a vowel. So the rows in the matrices for स्वरसंधि-s will be the rows in matrices for विसर्गसंधि-s also. That makes a good justification to discuss विसर्गसंधि-s next  after स्वरसंधि-s.

  7. Major difference, however, comes up, because परवर्ण can be either a vowel or a consonant. Would that call for too many columns for परवर्ण ?

Possibly it would be good to make a matrix for cases when परवर्ण is a vowel. Then think separately of instances when परवर्ण will be a consonant. As mentioned at the end of previous lesson, one can find examples of विसर्गसंधि-s almost all over गीता. Examples here are compiled mostly from गीता

Table !

स्वरः विसर्गस्य पूर्वं

विसर्गस्य परे वर्णः

विसर्गस्य परे वर्णः

अन्यः कोऽपि स्वरः

(1) प्रथमोऽध्यायः (2) कूर्मोऽङ्गानि

प्रक्रिया –

अ + विसर्गस्य उकारः = ओ, परवर्णस्य अकारस्य अवग्रहः

(1) धृतराष्ट्र उवाच (2) संजय उवाच (3) भूय एव (4) निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् (5) काम एषः (6) क्रोध एषः

प्रक्रिया –

विसर्गस्य लोपः

(1) नित्ययुक्ता उपासते

प्रक्रिया –

विसर्गस्य लोपः

(1) बुद्धिरस्य (2) हानिरस्य

प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

(1) निराहारस्य (2) मुनिरुच्यते (3) आत्मरतिरेव

प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

(1) निराशीरपरिग्रहः

प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

(1) जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी (2) क्रतुरहम्

प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

(1) अघायुरिन्द्रियारामः (2) उत्सीदेयुरिमे (3) आहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः (4) दुरासदम् (5) बन्धुरात्मा

प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

e.g. मुनेरभ्यासः

प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

(1) उभयोरपि (2) अणोरणीयान्

प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

(1) एतयोरेकं (2) वायोरिव

प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

(1) पूर्वैरपि (2) योगैरपि

प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

(1) दोषैरेतैः (2) शनैरुपरमेत्

प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

Just two columns in Table 1 cover विसर्गसंधि-s  with vowel as परवर्ण.

Now let us look at विसर्गसंधि-s with consonant as परवर्ण. Examples for these  विसर्गसंधि-s also  are compiled from गीता. But before discussing विसर्गसंधि-s with consonants, one should understand consonants and their phonetic characteristics.

There are different aspects of phonetic characteristics of consonants.

One aspect is from the place of origin (PO). Consonants are कण्ठ्य (क-वर्ग), दन्त्य (च-वर्ग), तालव्य (त-वर्ग), मूर्धन्य (ट-वर्ग) or ओष्ठ्य (प-वर्ग) has been mentioned in previous lesson.

It was also mentioned that in each वर्ग there are 5 consonants – 2 कठोर, 2 मृदु and 1 अनुनासिक

It will be good to understand all consonants in a chart. See Table 1.

Table 1

अघोषाणि कठोराणि अल्पप्राणेन

अघोषाणि कठोराणि महाप्राणेन

घोषाणि मृदूनि अल्पप्राणेन

घोषाणि मृदूनि महाप्राणेन

घोषाणि अनु- नासिकानि

अन्तस्थानि

ऊष्माणि

कण्ठ्यानि (कवर्गे)

क्

ख्

ग्

घ्

ङ्

ह्

दन्त्यानि (चवर्गे)

च्

छ्

ज्

झ्

ञ्

ल्

स्

मूर्धन्यानि (टवर्गे)

ट्

ठ्

ड्

ढ्

ण्

र्

ष्

तालव्यानि (तवर्गे)

त्

थ्

द्

ध्

न्

य्

श्

ओष्ठ्याणि (पवर्गे)

प्

फ्

ब्

भ्

म्

व्

As was mentioned in the previous lesson, in शिवसूत्राणि the consonants (connoted by the प्रत्याहार हल्) are grouped differently.

क्रमाङ्कः

सूत्रम्

व्यञ्जनानां गुणः

ह य व र ट्

यवराणि अन्तस्थानि

ल ण्

ल-अन्तस्थम्

ञ म ङ ण न म्

ञ-म-ङ-ण-न-इति पञ्च अनुनासिकानि

झ भ ञ्

झ-भ-इति चपवर्गयोः मृदुनी  महाप्राणेन

घ ढ ध ष्

घ-ढ-ध-इति कटतवर्गेषु मृदूनि महाप्राणेन

१०

ज ब ग ड द श्

ज-ब-ग-ड-द-इति पञ्च मृदूनि अल्पप्राणेन

११

ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व्

ख-फ-छ-ठ-थ-इति कठोराणि महाप्राणेन तथा

चटतानि कठोराणि अल्पप्राणेन च

१२

क प य्

क-प-इति द्वे कठोरे अल्पप्राणेन

१३

श ष स र्

ऊष्माणि

१४

ह ल्

ऊष्मं कण्ठ्यम् च

Now we can look at विसर्गसंधि-s and their patterns/types when परवर्ण is a consonant.

To start with the end-note of last lesson, where mention was made of instances where विसर्ग stays, that is a good type of विसर्गसंधि (rather, absence of विसर्गसंधि) to begin with.

(1) विसर्ग stays – विसर्गः तिष्ठति

  1. when विसर्ग is followed by क् or प् For example in गीता

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं अकारः

      • चेकितानः काशिराजः in श्लोकः 1-5

      • माधवः पाण्डवः in श्लोकः 1-14

      • कामः कामात् in श्लोकः 2-62

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं आकारः

      • पूर्वं मामकाः पाण्डवाः in श्लोकः 1-1

      • अवस्थिताः प्रमुखे in श्लोकः 2-6

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं इकारः

      • अस्माभिः पापात् in श्लोकः 1-39

      • बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते in श्लोकः 2-65

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं ईकारः

      • स्थितधीः किं in श्लोकः 2-54

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं उकारः

      • दध्मुः पृथक् in श्लोकः 1-18

      • आहुः पण्डितं in श्लोकः 4-19

      • विदुः कृत्स्नं in श्लोकः 7-29

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं एकारः

      • बुद्धेः परम् in श्लोकः 3-43

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं ऐकारः

      • एतैः कुलघ्नानाम् in श्लोकः 1-43

      • कर्मेन्द्रियैः कर्मयोगं in श्लोकः 3-7

      • सांख्यैः प्राप्यते in श्लोकः 5-5

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं ओकारः

      • हेतोः किम् in श्लोकः 1-35

  1. विसर्ग stays – विसर्गः तिष्ठति is valid not only for क् or प् but also for ख् फ्

    • By the way, do we also note that ख् फ् in सूत्रं ११ are in a sequence matching with that of क् प् सूत्रं १२ ?

    • Example in गीता –

      • शब्दः खे in श्लोकः 7-8

      • दुःखतरम् in श्लोकः 2-36

  1. विसर्ग stays – विसर्गः तिष्ठति is valid also for the ऊष्माणि व्यञ्जनानि श् ष् स् Actually, here, instead of saying विसर्गः तिष्ठति it would not be wrong to say that in pronunciation विसर्गः changes to and in turn doubles the श् ष् स् of the परवर्ण्. But in writing विसर्गः तिष्ठति. Examples from गीता are given with chapter number and श्लोक-number in brackets.

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं अकारः – भवन्तः सर्वे (1-11) ततः शङ्खाः (1-13) ततः श्वेतैः (1-14) अर्जुनः संख्ये (1-47) परमेष्वासः शिखण्डी (1-17) अन्यः श्रुणोति (2-29) अन्तःसुखः (5-24) अन्तःस्थानि (3-) शुक्लः षण्मासाः (8-24) तपःसु (8-28) अधःशाखं (15-1)

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं आकारः – उदाराः सर्वे (7-18) भोगाः सुखानि (1-33) मातुलाः श्वशुराः (1-34) श्यालाः संबन्धिनः (1-34)

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं इकारः – प्रीतिः स्यात् (1-36) बुद्धिः समाधौ (2-44) निःश्रेयसकरौ (5-2)

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं ईकारः – शाश्वतीः समाः (6-41) औषधीः सर्वाः (15-13)

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं उकारः – वायुः सर्वत्रगः (9-6)

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं ऐकारः – उच्चैः शङ्खम् (1-12) शनैः शनैः (6-25)

    • विसर्गस्य पूर्वं ओकारः – सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योः समः (2-48)

Among the examples given above, दुःखतरम् निःश्रेयसकरौ are examples of internal संधि-s. अन्तःसुखः, अन्तःस्थानि are examples of सामासिक संधि-s, i.e. संधि-s in compound words.

(2) विसर्गस्य लोपः is other extreme of विसर्गः तिष्ठति, right ? Common feature of the two extremes is that the two words in both cases would stay separate and have to be written separated.

Examples of विसर्गस्य लोपः

  1. विसर्गस्य पूर्वं अकारः विसर्गस्य परे आत् इच् (= इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ)

    • परवर्णः आकारः – निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् (2-45) युक्त आसीत (2-61) मन आधत्स्व (12-8) दैव आसुरः (16-6) प्रोक्त आसुरं (16-6)

    • परवर्णः उकारः – धृतराष्ट्र उवाच (1-1) संजय उवाच (1-2) ध्यायन्त उपासते (12-6)

    • परवर्णः ऊकारः – अत ऊर्ध्वं (12-8)

    • परवर्णः एकारः – काम एषः (3-37) क्रोध एषः (3-37) भूय एव (10-1)

  2. विसर्गस्य पूर्वं आकारः विसर्गस्य परे अच् (= अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ)

    • परवर्णः अकारः – बालाः + अत्र = बाल् + आ + : + अ + त्र = बाल् + आ +  + अ + त्र = बाला अत्र) जघन्यगुणवृत्तस्था अधः (14-18)

    • परवर्णः आकारः – (ताः + आगच्छन्ति = त् + आ + : + आ + गच्छन्ति = त् + आ +  + आ + गच्छन्ति = ता आगच्छन्ति) अपहृतज्ञाना आसुरं (7-15) हृद्या आहाराः (17-8)

    • परवर्णः इकारः – मणिगणा इव (7-7)

    • परवर्णः उकारः – षण्मासा उत्तरायणम् (8-24) नित्ययुक्ता उपासते (9-14, 12-2)

  1. विसर्गस्य पूर्वं शर्युक्तः अकारः (The अकार before विसर्ग is mixed with शर् i.e. with श्, ष् or स्) This is special case of विसर्गलोप, where not only the पूर्ववर्ण but the व्यञ्जन with which the पूर्ववर्ण is mixed also becomes a consideration. –

    • एष रजोगुणः (3-37)

      • पुरुषः पार्थ (2-21) seems to be an exception to विसर्गस्य लोपः but conforms to the rule of विसर्गः तिष्ठति. Rather it conforms to वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते (In a sentence, making संधि or not is a matter of discretion or choice.)

    • स घोषः (1-19) स कौन्तेयः (1-27) स बध्यते (4-14) स पश्यति (5-5) स युक्तः (5-23) स सुखी (5-23) स योगी (5-24)

  2. There is one more instance of विसर्गस्य लोपः detailed at (4a) below.

(3) Having considered कठोरव्यञ्जनानि of कवर्ग and पवर्ग being परवर्ण्, we should next consider विसर्गसंधि-s with कठोरव्यञ्जनानि of चवर्ग (च्, छ्), टवर्ग (ट्, ठ्) and तवर्ग (त्, थ्) as परवर्ण्.

  • with कठोरव्यञ्जनानि of चवर्ग (च्, छ्) as परवर्ण् the विसर्ग changes to श् (विसर्गस्य श्-आदेशः) – Examples from गीता

    • विराटश्च (1-4-2) द्रुपदश्च (1-4-3) शैब्यश्च (1-4-4) कश्चित् (1-4-5) विभ्रष्टश्छिन्नाभ्रम्

    • पाण्डवाश्च, (2-4-2) शङ्खाश्च

    • निश्चितम्

    • धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः (5-4-2) युधामन्युश्च (5-4-3) चक्षुश्च

    • इन्द्रियैश्चरन्

  • with कठोरव्यञ्जनानि of टवर्ग (ट्, ठ्) as परवर्ण् the विसर्ग changes to ष् (विसर्गस्य ष्-आदेशः) – Examples from गीता

  • with कठोरव्यञ्जनानि of तवर्ग (त्, थ्) as परवर्ण् the विसर्ग changes to स् (विसर्गस्य स्-आदेशः) – Examples from गीता

    • दुर्योधनस्तदा (1-2) शब्दस्तुमुलः (1-13)

    • पुत्रास्तथा (1-34) निष्ठास्तत्

    • सौमदत्तिस्तथा (1-8) बुद्धिस्तदा

    • हन्युस्तन्मे (1-46)

    • तयोस्तु (5-2)

    • वियुक्तैस्तु (2-64) कामैस्तैस्तैः (7-20)

(4) Having considered all कठोरव्यञ्जनानि and ऊष्मानि as परवर्ण्-s, the other consonants to be considered as परवर्ण्-s, are मृदुव्यञ्जनानि, अनुनासिकानि, अन्तस्थानि (प्रत्याहारः यण् = य् व् र् ल्) and ह्-कारः These विसर्गसंधि-s have three प्रक्रिया-s.

(4a) विसर्गस्य पूर्वं अकारः परवर्णः, being मृदुव्यञ्जनम्, अनुनासिकम्, अन्तस्थम् (प्रत्याहारः यण् = य् व् र् ल्) or ह्-कारः

  • प्रक्रिया – अ + विसर्गस्य उकारः = ओ

    • युयुधानो विराटः (1-4) नो राज्यं (1-32) वासो भवति (1-44) श्रेयो भोक्तुं (2-5) नो गरीयो (2-6) नो जयेयुः (2-6) प्रसन्नचेतसो हि (2-65) रजोगुणः (3-37) कायशिरोग्रीवं (6-13) विश्वतोमुखम् (9-15) शिरोमुखम् (13-13)

(4b) विसर्गस्य पूर्वं आकारः परवर्णः being मृदुव्यञ्जनम्, अनुनासिकम्, अन्तस्थम् (प्रत्याहारः यण् = य् व् र् ल्) or ह्-कारः

  • प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य लोपः

    • शूरा महेष्वासाः (1-4) विशिष्टा ये (1-7) नायका मम (1-7) तस्या राधनम् (7-22) दिव्या हि (10-16, 10-19) आहारा राजसस्य (17-9)

(4c) विसर्गस्य पूर्वं इच् (= इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ), परवर्णः, being मृदुव्यञ्जनम्, अनुनासिकम्, अन्तस्थम् (प्रत्याहारः यण् = य् व् र् ल्) or ह्-कारः

  • प्रक्रिया – विसर्गस्य रेफः

    • पूर्ववर्णः इकारः – प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्दन (1-39) प्राप्तिर्धीरः (2-13) निर्द्वन्द्वः (2-45) निर्वेदं (2-52) वह्निर्यथा (3-38)

    • पूर्ववर्णः ईकारः – स्थितधीर्मुनिः (2-56) निराशीर्निर्ममः (3-30) विगतभीर्ब्रह्मचारी (6-14)

    • पूर्ववर्णः उकारः – मृत्युर्ध्रुवं (2-27) चिकिर्षुर्लोकसंग्रहम् (3-25) वायुर्नावम् (2-67) आहुर्योगं (6-2)

    • पूर्ववर्णः ऊकारः – भूर्मा (2-47)

    • पूर्ववर्णः एकारः – दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे (1-23) प्रकृतेर्ज्ञानवान् (3-33)

    • पूर्ववर्णः ऐकारः – श्वेतैर्हयैः (1-14) हयैर्युक्ते (1-14) कैर्मया (1-22) एतैर्विमोहयति (3-40)

    • पूर्ववर्णः ओकारः – उभयोर्मध्ये (1-21) तयोर्न (3-34)

All the प्रक्रिया-s are now summarized in the matrix as below.

*

The प्रक्रिया-s are the following –

  1. अ + विसर्गस्य उकारः (१) = ओ, परवर्णस्य अकारस्य अवग्रहः – स्तंभः १ पङ्क्तिः १

  2. विसर्गस्य रेफः (२१) –

    • (स्तंभः १ पङ्क्तयः ३-९), (स्तंभः २ पङ्क्तयः ३-९), (स्तंभः ८ पङ्क्तयः ३-९)

  3. विसर्गस्य लोपः (५) –

    • (स्तंभः १ पङ्क्तिः २), (स्तंभः २ पङ्क्ती १, २), (स्तंभः ८ पङ्क्तिः २), (स्तंभः ९ पङ्क्तिः १)

  4. विसर्गः तिष्ठति (१८) – स्तंभौ ३, ४ सर्वाः पङ्क्तयः

  5. विसर्गस्य श्-आदेशः (९) – स्तंभः ५ सर्वाः पङ्क्तयः

  6. विसर्गस्य ष्-आदेशः (९) – स्तंभः ६ सर्वाः पङ्क्तयः

  7. विसर्गस्य स्-आदेशः (९) – स्तंभः ७ सर्वाः पङ्क्तयः

  8. अ + विसर्गस्य उकारः (१) = ओ – स्तंभः ८ पङ्क्तिः १

कुलतः – ७३

I noted that at some other places, types for विसर्गसंधि-s are mentioned as –

(1) लोपः (2) उकारादेशः (3) रेफादेशः (4) सकारादेशः (5) जिह्वामूलीयः उपध्मानीयश्च

  • रेफादेशः mentioned here is detailed in प्रक्रिया 2 above.

  • उकारादेशः mentioned here is detailed in प्रक्रिया-s 1 and 8 above.

  • सकारादेशः mentioned here is detailed in प्रक्रिया-s 5, 6 and 7 above.

  • जिह्वामूलीयः उपध्मानीयश्च

    • When विसर्ग is followed by क्/ख्, or प्/फ्, is optionally substituted by जिह्वामूलीय and उपध्मानीय respectively

    • जिह्वामूलीय and उपध्मानीय are special characters which resemble half-विसर्ग. They cannot be represented accurately in writing, since symbols for representing these are not available in most transcriptions.

    • Their pronunciation has to be learnt by listening. Rather, once one gets to read the texts aloud, I think, the pronunciation comes out or happens naturally.

    • Since जिह्वामूलीय and उपध्मानीय are optional characters in scripting, one can just script the विसर्ग, as has been mentioned in प्रक्रिया-s as विसर्गः तिष्ठति.

The chapter on विसर्गसंधि in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित mentions following सूत्र-s.

1

८।३।३४

विसर्जनीयस्य सः

2

८।३।३५

शर्परे विसर्जनीयः

3

८।३।३६

वा शरि

4

८।३।३७

कुप्वोः क्ष्कक्ष्पौ च

5

८।३।३८

सोऽपदादौ

6

८।३।३९

इणः षः

7

८।३।४०

नमस्पुरसोर्गत्योः

8

८।३।४१

इदुदुपधस्य च अप्रत्ययस्य

9

८।३।४२

तिरसो ऽन्यतरस्याम्

10

८।३।४३

द्विस्त्रिश्चतुरिति कृत्वो ऽर्थे

11

८।३।४४

इसुसोः सामर्थ्ये

12

८।३।४५

नित्यं समासे ऽनुत्तरपदस्थस्य

13

८।३।४६

अतः कृकमिकंसकुम्भपात्रकुशाकर्णीष्वनव्ययस्य

14

८।३।४७

अधःशिरसी पदे

These are mentioned here, simply because सूत्राणि related to different patterns of संधि-s have been mentioned in earlier lessons. But any more elaboration of this detail is outside the scope of “Simple Sanskrit”.

Basically all the विसर्गसन्धि-प्रक्रिया-s have been covered as is seen in the matrix, covering all possibilities of पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण. That is generally good and certainly good enough for “Simple Sanskrit”.

The coverage is generally good also because the examples are given from गीता. That should give the confidence that the coverage is good to even understand विसर्गसन्धि-s in गीता.

शुभं भवतु ।

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 24

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 24

Having discussed स्वरसंधि-s in lessons 21, 22 and 23, logically the next step should be to discuss व्यञ्जनसंधि-s and then विसर्गसंधि-s. But it comes to mind that I should devote this lesson to शिवसूत्राणि, also known as माहेश्वरसूत्राणि or प्रत्याहारसूत्राणि.

In Lesson 21, I had made a statement “.. I would think that explaining the rules and patterns, by explaining the पाणिनिसूत्र-s would eminently be beyond the scope of “Simple Sanskrit”. ..” One may ask, “Does it become good to discuss शिवसूत्राणि as a part of Simple Sanskrit ?

I would think it is not only good, rather helpful to discuss शिवसूत्राणि. For one thing शिवसूत्राणि are not as complex as पाणिनिसूत्र-s. They are just 14 lists of Sanskrit alphabets or वर्ण-s. But the arrangement of वर्ण-s is different from the way one learns them when learning the देवनागरी script.

The arrangement is different because in शिवसूत्राणि the वर्ण-s are arranged by their phonetic characteristics.

In the script also the वर्ण-s have some logic of phonetic characteristics, such as place from where the वर्ण emanates, viz. from throat कण्ठ्य (क-वर्ग), from teeth दन्त्य (च-वर्ग), from gums तालव्य (त-वर्ग), from the roof मूर्धन्य (ट-वर्ग), from lips ओष्ठ्य (प-वर्ग). Every वर्ग has a set of 5 वर्ण-s again in an order, first two वर्ण-s are कठोर, next two are मृदु and fifth one is nasal अनुनासिक.

In शिवसूत्राणि वर्ण-s are in an order, such that it becomes easy to explain or understand how two वर्ण-s mix with each other, which is what happens in संधि-s. That is the reason, why it becomes not only good, rather helpful to discuss शिवसूत्राणि in the context of संधि-s.

Let me enumerate the शिवसूत्राणि.

क्रमाङ्कः

सूत्रम्

वर्णसंख्या

अ इ उ ण्

ऋ लृ क्

ए ओ ङ्

ऐ औ च्

ह य व र ट्

ल ण्

ञ म ङ ण न म्

झ भ ञ्

घ ढ ध ष्

१०

ज ब ग ड द श्

११

ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व्

१२

क प य्

१३

श ष स र्

१४

ह ल्

कुलतः

४३

Some important observations –

(1) The consonant at the end of each सूत्र is only an end-marker. So it is not counted in number of वर्ण-s in a सूत्र.

(2) First 4 सूत्र-s cover all vowels though –

  • दीर्घस्वर-s आ ई ऊ ॠ ॡ are not in the list. They are to be taken as contained in their short representatives अ इ उ ऋ लृ

  • When one learns the script the vowels ए ऐ ओ औ are in such order. Here the order is ए ओ ऐ औ.

    • By the order in the script अ आ इ ई उ ऊ … अ is short, आ is long. One may get an impression that ए is short and ऐ is long. Also ओ is short and औ is long. This is wrong.

      • ए is conjoint of अ/आ with इ/ई

      • ऐ however is a conjoint of अ/आ with ए, conjoint with a conjoint or second level conjoint.

      • Similarly ओ is conjoint of अ/आ with उ/ऊ

      • औ however is conjoint of अ/आ with ओ, conjoint with a conjoint or second level conjoint.

      • As can be appreciated ऐ is not long of ए, because ए can itself be pronounced long, say when calling somebody aloud or calling from a long distance ए ऽ ऽ !

  • By finer analysis, grammar considers that most vowels can be pronounced in 18 ways, all of which cannot be represented in scripting. That could be a reason, why Vedas are said to have been transmitted only orally for hundreds or thousands of years, Guru getting the shishya to pronounce every pronunciation only in the manner, which will bring the benevolent effect of every mantra. The benevolent effect will come, only when pronunciation is perfect. By the way the 18 ways of pronouncing a vowel are from the pronunciation being

    • nasal or not nasal अनुनासिक / अननुनासिक

    • short, long or extended ह्रस्व दीर्घ प्लुत

    • stressed, unstressed (level) or low उदात्त स्वरित अनुदात्त

    • 2x3x3 = 18

(3) Among 43 वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्राणि, there are

  • 9 vowels स्वराः in सूत्र-s 1 to 4 and

  • 34 consonants व्यञ्जनानि in सूत्र-s 5 to 14 –

    • actually 33, because ह is repeated in सूत्र-s 5 and 14.

    • In शिवसूत्राणि all consonants have अ vowel mixed in them. This is only to facilitate pronunciation of the शिवसूत्र-s,

(4) In the script वर्ण-s are learnt in the order य र ल व …. ह. In सूत्र-s the order is ह य व र in सूत्र 5 and ल in सूत्र 6. Why the order in सूत्र-s is more appropriate for learning संधि-s can be appreciated by recalling Matrix 3 in Lesson 22.

All संधि-s there were explained by a single सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६/१/७७). This सूत्रम् has 3 प्रत्याहार-s इक् यण् and अच्.

  • प्रत्याहार is the name of a set of वर्ण-s. The elements of the set are all those वर्ण-s, starting with the beginning वर्ण of the प्रत्याहार up to the end-marker.

  • Hence इक् = इ उ ऋ लृ

  • यण् = य व र ल and

  • अच् = अ इ उ ऋ लृ ए ओ ऐ औ

  • From Matrix 3 we can see that there is a nice and intelligent one-to-one correspondence between इ उ ऋ लृ of इक् and य व र ल of यण्.

    • In यण्-संधि-s इ becomes य्, उ becomes व्, ऋ becomes र् and लृ becomes ल्

      • when an element of इक् is followed by and mixes with an element of अच् except when

      • the superseding सूत्रम् अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः applies

(5) Learning विसर्गसंधि-s also becomes easy with शिवसूत्रम् १२ – क प य्. When विसर्ग is followed by क् or प् then the विसर्ग stays.

  • For example in गीता (1) मामकाः पाण्डवाः in श्लोकः 1-1 (2) चेकितानः काशिराजः in श्लोकः 1-5 (3) माधवः पाण्डवः in श्लोकः 1-14 (4) दध्मुः पृथक् in श्लोकः 1-18 (5) कामः कामात् in श्लोकः 2-62 (6) स्थितधीः किं in श्लोकः 2-54

गीता by itself is a good study-material to learn संधि-s of almost all types !

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 23

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 23

सरलं संस्कृतम् – त्रिविंशतितमः पाठः |

Last among matrices of स्वरसन्धि-s is Matrix 4 for the rows of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. Although this is the order, in which one learns these vowels, for learning संधि-s, they are better put in the sequence ए, ओ and ऐ, औ. The logic is that although all four are conjoint vowels, ए, ओ are of गुण-character and ऐ, औ are of वृद्धि-character.

The general rule for these संधि-s is by the सूत्रम् एचोऽयवायावः। (६/१/७८).

संधि-s as per this rule are also called as यान्तावान्तादेशसन्धि-s.

However for vowels, ए, ओ of गुण-character there is one more rule, of two specific applications and in those instances supersedes the general rule.

The rule of specific applications is एङः पदान्तादति। (६/१/१०९). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as पूर्वरूपसंधि-s.

Specifics of the applications are –

  1. The first word has ending vowel  ए or ओ

  2. At the beginning of the second word the vowel is अ.

The procedure is ए, ओ stay and the following अ becomes silent, is not pronounced. But its presence is indicated by a symbol ऽ called as अवग्रहः

In the Matrix 4, these instances are marked with fill color red and are detailed in two special rows for ए and ओ. There being only two specific instances, the examples are given in the Matrix 4 below in rows with fill colors orange and green.

The instances for the general rule would be 54 (4 rows x 14 columns – 2 special instances = 54). It will be appreciated that it is difficult to give examples of all possible 54 संधि-s within the matrix itself. These are compiled here.

*

To see the image clearly, right-click on the image and then click “view image”.

There is obviously an order of supersession between the rules

  1. एङः पदान्तादति (६।१।१०९)

  2. एचोऽयवायावः । (६/१/७८)

By the order

  1. एङः पदान्तादति (६।१।१०९) is to be applied, if the case is any of the two specific instances.

  2. If not, एचोऽयवायावः । (६/१/७८) applies.

For all the 54 संधि-s as per the general rule, there is an optional way. That option is by the सूत्रम् – लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९)

Furthermore, it is to be noted that once संधि is made as per the सूत्रम् लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९), one does not make further संधि. For example

(1) कस्मै + अददात्

1.1) = कस्मायददात् as per एचोऽयवायावः । (६/१/७८)

1.2) = कस्मा अददात् as per लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९). One does not make it further as कस्माददात् by अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101).

That is the smartness of पाणिनि in sequencing of सूत्र-s. Once you have gone ahead all the way to लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९), you do not return to apply 6-1-101 !

Here now examples of all 56 संधि-s

  1. as per the general rule एचोऽयवायावः । (६/१/७८)

  2. also by the option of सूत्रम् – लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९)

  3. adding also two specific instances for ए + अ and ओ + अ

No.

पूर्ववर्ण

परवर्ण्

Example by General Rule

Option

1.1

ए +

वृक्षे + अस्मिन् = वृक्षेऽस्मिन्

This is specific instance, no option

1.2

ए +

ते + आगताः = तयागताः

ते + आगताः =

त आगताः

1.3

ए +

ते + इच्छन्ति = तयिच्छन्ति

ते + इच्छन्ति =

त इच्छन्ति

1.4

ए +

ते + ईशाः = तयीशाः

ते + ईशाः = त ईशाः

1.5

ए +

ते + उपविष्टाः = तयुपविष्टाः

ते + उपविष्टाः =

त उपविष्टाः

1.6

ए +

ते + ऊर्ध्वम् = तयूर्ध्वम्

ते + ऊर्ध्वम् = त ऊर्ध्वम्

1.7

ए +

ते + ऋषयः = तयृषयः

ते + ऋषयः = त ऋषयः

1.8

ए +

ते + ॠकाराः = तयॄकाराः

ते + ॠकाराः =

त ॠकाराः

1.9

ए +

लृ

ते + ॡकाराः = तयॣकाराः

ते + ॡकाराः =

त ॡकाराः

1.10

ए +

ते + ॡकाराः = तयॣकाराः

ते + ॡकाराः =

त ॡकाराः

1.11

ए +

ते + एजन्ति = तयेजन्ति

ते + एजन्ति = त एजन्ति

1.12

ए +

ते + ऐरावतः = तयैरावतः

ते + ऐरावतः = त ऐरावतः

1.13

ए +

ते + ओष्ठौ = तयोष्ठौ

ते + ओष्ठौ = त ओष्ठौ

1.14

ए +

ते + औषधिः = तयौषधिः

ते + औषधिः = त औषधिः

No.

पूर्ववर्ण

परवर्ण्

Example by General Rule

Option

2.1

ऐ +

कस्मै + अददात् = कस्मायददात्

कस्मै + अददात् = कस्मा + अददात्

2.2

ऐ +

कस्मै + आनन्दः = कस्मायनन्दः

कस्मै + आनन्दः =

कस्मा + आनन्दः

2.3

ऐ +

कस्मै + इच्छन्ति = कस्मायिच्छन्ति

कस्मै + इच्छन्ति =

कस्मा इच्छन्ति

2.4

ऐ +

कस्मै + ईशः = कस्मायीशः

कस्मै + ईशः = कस्मा ईशः

2.5

ऐ +

कस्मै + उपायः = कस्मायुपायः

कस्मै + उपायः =

कस्मा + उपायः

2.6

ऐ +

कस्मै + ऊर्जा = कस्मायूर्जा

कस्मै + ऊर्जा = कस्मा + ऊर्जा

2.7

ऐ +

कस्मै + ऋक् = कस्मायृक्

कस्मै + ऋक् = कस्मा ऋक्

2.8

ऐ +

कस्मै + ॠकाराः = कस्मायॄकाराः

कस्मै + ॠकाराः =

कस्मा ॠकाराः

2.9

ऐ +

लृ

कस्मै + ॡकाराः = कस्मायॣकाराः

कस्मै + ॡकाराः =

कस्मा ॡकाराः

2.10

ऐ +

कस्मै + ॡकाराः = कस्मायॣकाराः

कस्मै + ॡकाराः =

कस्मा ॡकाराः

2.11

ऐ +

कस्मै + एजन्ति = कस्मायेजन्ति

कस्मै + एजन्ति =

कस्मा एजन्ति

2.12

ऐ +

कस्मै + ऐरावतः = कस्मायैरावतः

कस्मै + ऐरावतः =

कस्मा ऐरावतः

2.13

ऐ +

कस्मै + ओजः = कस्मायोजः

कस्मै + ओजः =

कस्मा + ओजः

2.14

ऐ +

कस्मै + औषधिः = कस्मायौषधिः

कस्मै + औषधिः =

कस्मा औषधिः

No.

पूर्ववर्ण

परवर्ण्

Example by General Rule

Option

3.1

ओ +

को + अपि = कोऽपि

This is specific instance, no option

3.1a

ओ +

गो + अन्वयः = गवन्वयः

See Notes below.

3.2

ओ +

प्रभो + आगच्छतु = प्रभवागच्छतु

प्रभो + आगच्छतु =

प्रभ आगच्छतु

3.3

ओ +

प्रभो + इदम् = प्रभविदम्

प्रभो + इदम् =

प्रभ इदम्

3.4

ओ +

प्रभो + ईश = प्रभवीश

प्रभो + ईश = प्रभ ईश

3.5

ओ +

प्रभो + उपकरोतु = प्रभवुपकरोतु

प्रभो + उपकरोतु =

प्रभ उपकरोतु

3.6

ओ +

प्रभो + ऊर्ध्वम् = प्रभवूर्ध्वम्

प्रभो + ऊर्ध्वम् = प्रभ ऊर्ध्वम्

3.7

ओ +

प्रभो + ऋषि = प्रभवृषि

प्रभो + ऋषि = प्रभ ऋषि

3.8

ओ +

प्रभो + ॠकाराः = प्रभवॄकाराः

प्रभो + ॠकाराः =

प्रभ ॠकाराः

3.9

ओ +

लृ

प्रभो + ॡकाराः = प्रभवॢकाराः

प्रभो + ॡकाराः =

प्रभ ॡकाराः

3.10

ओ +

प्रभो + ॡकाराः = प्रभवॣकाराः

प्रभो + ॡकाराः =

प्रभ ॡकाराः

3.11

ओ +

प्रभो + एकः = प्रभवेकः

प्रभो + एकः = प्रभ एकः

3.12

ओ +

प्रभो + ऐश्वर्यम् = प्रभवैश्वैर्यम्

प्रभो + ऐश्वैर्यम् =

प्रभ ऐश्वर्यम्

3.13

ओ +

प्रभो + ओष्ठे = प्रभवोष्ठे

प्रभो + ओष्ठे = प्रभ ओष्ठे

3.14

ओ +

प्रभो + औदार्यम् = प्रभवौदार्यम्

प्रभो + औदार्यम् = प्रभ औदार्यम्

Note on 3.1a

In the संधि गो + अन्वयः = गवन्वयः the ओ of गो is not at the end of a word. It is at the end of a component of a compound word गवन्वयः.

Since गवन्वयः is a compound word, संधि of गो + अन्वयः is compulsory.

Since it is at the end of a component of a compound word गवन्वयः, not at the end of a word, एङः पदान्तादति (६।१।१०९) does not apply. The सूत्रम् very clearly specifies पदान्तात्. That is how every part of a सूत्रम् is important. A सूत्रम् is really a specification, a rule.

Since गवन्वयः is a compound word, the संधि of गो + अन्वयः can also not be ग अन्वयः as per लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९)

So संधि गो + अन्वयः has to be only as गवन्वयः as per the general rule एचोऽयवायावः । (६/१/७८).

By the way विग्रह meaning

  1. गो = cow

  2. अन्वयः = going behind

  3. Hence गवन्वयः =

    1. going behind a cow

    2. one, who goes behind a cow.

  4. By 3a, गवन्वयः means the action of going behind a cow.

  5. By 3b गवन्वयः means cowherd himself and in a specific instance गवन्वयः means Lord Krishna !

In the lessons thus far, I have not discussed समास-s. This example is a good suggestion to discuss them soon.

No.

पूर्ववर्ण

परवर्ण्

Example by General Rule

Option

4.1

औ +

तौ + अक्षरौ = तावक्षरौ

तौ + अक्षरौ = ता + अक्षरौ

4.2

औ +

तौ + आगतौ = तावागतौ

तौ + आगतौ = ता + आगतौ

4.3

औ +

तौ + इच्छतः = ताविच्छतः

तौ + इच्छतः = ता इच्छतः

4.4

औ +

तौ + ईशौ = तावीशौ

तौ + ईशौ = ता ईशौ

4.5

औ +

तौ + उपायौ = तावुपायौ

तौ + उपायौ = ता + उपायौ

4.6

औ +

तौ + ऊर्जे = तावूर्जे

तौ + ऊर्जे = ता + ऊर्जे

4.7

औ +

तौ + ऋषी = तावृषी

तौ + ऋषी = ता ऋषी

4.8

औ +

तौ + ॠकारौ = तावॄकारौ

तौ + ॠकारौ = ता ॠकारौ

4.9

औ +

लृ

तौ + ॡकारौ = तावॢकारौ

तौ + ॡकारौ = ता ॡकारौ

4.10

औ +

तौ + ॡकारौ = तावॣकारौ

तौ + ॡकाराः = ता ॡकारौ

4.11

औ +

तौ + एजतः = तावेजतः

तौ + एजतः = ता एजतः

4.12

औ +

तौ + ऐन्द्रौ = तावैन्द्रौ

तौ + ऐन्द्रौ = ता ऐन्द्रौ

4.13

औ +

तौ + ओजस्विनौ = तावोजस्विनौ

तौ + ओजस्विनौ =

ता + ओजस्विनौ

4.14

औ +

तौ + औषधी = तावाषधी

तौ + औषधी = ता औषधी

Following table presents a good, at-a-glance view of the rules discussed in the 4 matrices of  स्वरसंधि-s in Lessons 21, 22 and 23.

Matrix No.

General Rule

No. of संधि-s

Special superseding rule(s)

1

अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101)

20

2

आद्गुणः (6-1-87)

8

एत्येधत्यूठ्सु (6-1-89)

उरण् रपरः (1-1-51)

8

उपसर्गादृति धातौ (6-1-91)

वृद्धिरेचि । (६/१/८८)

8

एङि पररूपम्। (६/१/९४)

3

इको यणचि (६/१/७७)

96

4

एचोऽयवायावः। (६/१/७८)

56

लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९)

एङः पदान्तादति। (६/१/१०९)

Total

196

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 22

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 22

सरलं संस्कृतम् – द्वाविंशतितमः पाठः |

 

In this lesson we shall study Matrix 3 for 8 rows for इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ and ॡ. The rule for all these 8 rows is stated by a single सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६/१/७७)

 

It should be noted that in every row there would be two instances of सवर्णदीर्घसंधि as per अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101). For these instances, only सवर्णदीर्घसंधि would apply, because it supersedes इको यणचि (६/१/७७)

Hence there are (8×12 =) 96 संधि-s possible.

 

संधि-s as per this rule are also called as यण्संधि-s.

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 3

It will be appreciated that it is difficult to give examples of all 96 possible संधि-s within the matrix itself. These are compiled below.

(1) Examples for row इ +

यदि + अपि = (यद् + इ + अ + पि = यद् + य् + अ + पि) = यद्यपि।

इति + आदेशः = इत्यादेशः

इति + उत्सवः = इत्युत्सवः

अति + ऊष्णम् = अत्यूष्णम्

इति + ऋकारः = इत्यृकारः

इति + ॠकारः = इत्यॄकारः

इति + ॡकारः = इत्यॢकारः

इति + ॡकारः = इत्यॣकारः

इति + एतत् = इत्येतत्

इति + ऐश्वर्यम् = इत्यैश्वर्यम्

इति + ओजः = इत्योजः

इति + औषधिः = इत्यौषधिः

(2) Examples for row ई +

नदी + अस्ति = (नद् + ई + अ + स्ति = नद् + य् + अ + स्ति) = नद्यस्ति।

लक्ष्मी + आगमनम् = लक्ष्म्यागमनम्

लक्ष्मी + उत्सवः = लक्ष्म्युत्सवः

नदी + ऊर्जा = नद्यूर्जा

लक्ष्मी + ऋणम् = लक्ष्म्यृणम्

श्री + ॠकारः = श्र्यॄकारः

श्री + ॡकारः = श्र्यॢकारः

श्री + ॡकारः = श्र्यॣकारः

लक्ष्मी + एषा = लक्ष्म्येषा

लक्ष्मी + ऐश्वर्यम् = लक्ष्म्यैश्वर्यम्

लक्ष्मी + ओजः = लक्ष्म्योजः

पिप्पली + औषधिः = पिप्पल्यौषधिः

(3) Examples for row उ +

सु + अस्ति = (स् + उ + अ-स्ति = स् + व् + अ-स्ति) = स्वस्ति

सु + आगतम् = (स् + उ + आ + गतम् = स् + व् + आ + गतम्) = स्वागतम्।

मधु + इदम् = मध्विदम्

गुरु + ईश्वरः = गुर्वीश्वरः

गुरु + ऋषिः = गुर्वृषिः

साधु + ॠकारः = साध्वॄकारः

साधु + लृकारः = साध्वॢकारः

साधु + ॡकारः = साध्वॣकारः

साधु + एतत् = साध्वेतत्

साधु + ऐश्वर्यम् = साध्वैश्वर्यम्

साधु + ओजः = साध्वोजः

साधु + औषधिः = साध्वौषधिः

(4) Examples for row ऊ +

वधू + अपि = (वध् + ऊ + अ + गमनम् = वध् + व् + अ + पि) = वध्वपि

वधू + आगमनम् = वध्वागमनम्

वधू + इच्छा = वध्विच्छा

चमू + ईर्षा = चम्वीर्षा

अमू + ऋकारौ = अम्वृकारौ

अमू + ॠकारौ = अम्वॄकारौ

अमू + लृकारौ = अम्वॢकारौ

अमू + ॡकारौ = अम्वॣकारौ

चमू + एषा = चम्वेषा

चमू + ऐक्यम् = चम्वैक्यम्

चमू + ओजः = चम्वोजः

चमू + औद्धत्यम् = चम्वौद्धत्यम्

(5) Examples for row ऋ +

पितृ + अग्रजः = (पित् + ऋ + अ-ग्रजः) = पित् + र् + अ-ग्रजः = पित्रग्रजः |

पितृ + आदेशः = पित्रादेशः

पितृ + इच्छा = (पित् + ऋ + इ + च्छा = पित् + र् + इ + च्छा) = पित्रिच्छा।

कॄ + इति = (क् + ॠ + इ + ति = क् + र् + इ + ति)  = क्रिति ।

भ्रातृ + ईर्षा = भ्रात्रीर्षा

पितृ + उत्सवः = पित्रुत्सवः

पितृ + ऊर्मिः = पित्रूर्मिः

Hardly any examples with लृ and ॡ

पितृ + एष्टिः = पित्रेष्टिः

पितृ + ऐश्वर्यम् = पित्रैश्वर्यम्

पितृ + ओजः = पित्रोजः

पितृ + औदार्यम् = पित्रौदार्यम्

(6) No Examples for row ॠ + because there are no words ending with ॠकार

(7) Examples for row लृ +

घस्लृ + अङ्गम् = घस्लङ्गम् |

घस्लृ + आदेशः (घस् + लृ + आ + देशः = घस् + ल् + आ + देशः) = घस्लादेशः|

(8) No Examples for row ॡ + because there are no words ending with ॡकार.

It would have been noted that 96 possible was a theoretical calculation. Practically, I have managed to compose only 62 examples. Examples with ऋ ॠ लृ and ॡ in particular had to be ‘managed’.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 21

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 21

सरलं संस्कृतम् – एकविंशतितमः पाठः |

Even though I have been discussing स्वरसंधि-s in previous lessons, it has always been on my mind that there should be a structured, tabulated view, sort of a Matrix view. After quite some effort and study, I am glad that I have been able to compile primarily the general rules for all the 196 possible combinations of स्वरसंधि-s in just 4 matrices.

I would like to present them across three lessons matrices 1 and 2 in this lesson 21, Matrix 3 in next lesson No. 22 and Matrix 4 in lesson No. 23.

Here is Matrix 1 covering स्वरसंधि-s as per सूत्रम् – अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101). Examples of all 20 स्वरसंधि-s are also given.

– Note, just one सूत्रम् with just three words becomes the rule covering 20 स्वरसंधि-s ! That is पाणिनि !!

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 1

These संधि-s are also called as सवर्णदीर्घसंधि-s. These are 5 blocks, of 4 संधि-s each, diagonally across 10 rows.

To proceed further, it becomes logical to proceed by rows, firstly by the first two rows for अ + and आ +.

Here is the matrix 2 for the first two rows.

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 2

As can be seen, in Matrix 2,

  1. There are 8 संधि-s under columns for इ, ई, उ, ऊ. These are as per पाणिनिसूत्रम् आद्गुणः (6-1-87). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as गुणसंधि-s.

  2. Next there are 8 more under columns for ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ as per उरण् रपरः (1-1-51).

  3. Further there are 8 more under columns for ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. These are as per वृद्धिरेचि (६/१/८८). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as वृद्धिसंधि-s

I would think that explaining the rules and patterns, by explaining the पाणिनिसूत्र-s would eminently be beyond the scope of “Simple Sanskrit”. But in case of संधि-rules in particular,

  1. It is interesting how a short and crisp सूत्रम् specifies the rule for so many patterns.

  2. one needs to also know special cases, when a particular rule is superseded by another subsequent rule. There is a सूत्रम् even to say that, when applicable, a subsequent सूत्रम् supersedes a previous सूत्रम् !! For those interested, the सूत्रम् is विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (१-४-२)

In this matrix 2

  1. There is a box under the columns for ऋ, ॠ, लृ and ॡ, mentioning the सूत्रम् – उपसर्गादृति धातौ (6-1-91). This सूत्रम् supersedes the सूत्रम् उरण् रपरः (1-1-51) applicable for these columns. Hence, by virtue of this superseding सूत्रम्, in the special cases of अ/आ-ending उपसर्ग-s followed by धातु-s having initial वर्ण ऋ, there is वृद्धिः आर् instead of अर्. Note संधि between उपसर्ग and धातु is compulsory.

  2. There is also another box under the columns for ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, noting सूत्रम् – एङि पररूपम् (६/१/९४) Sanskrit-explanation of this is अवर्णान्तात् उपसर्गात् एङादौ धातौ परतः पूर्वपरयोः स्थाने पररूपमेकादेशः भवति, संहितायां विषये, meaning if अ-ending उपसर्ग is followed by धातु-s having initial वर्ण ए or ओ, then

    1. such संधि of अ + ए does not become ऐ it becomes ए only, e.g. प्र + एजते (प्र् + {अ + ए} + जते = प्र् + {ए} + जते) = प्रेजते

    2. likewise संधि of अ + ओ does not become औ, it becomes ओ only, e.g. उप + ओषति (उप् + {अ + ओ} + षति = उप् + {ओ} + षति) = उपोषति

    3. The box applies only for columns for ए and ओ, not for all the 4 columns. So, these are very special संधि-s of अ + ए and अ + ओ.

    4. Such संधि-s are also called as पररूपसंधि-s

It is important to bear in mind the rule, telling the instances, when it is compulsory to make a संधि.

संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः |

नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते ||

By पदच्छेद,

  1. संहिता एकपदे नित्या

  2. नित्या धातु-उपसर्गयोः

  3. नित्या समासे

  4. वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षां अपेक्षते

संहिता नित्या = संहिता i.e. संधि (is to be done) नित्या, always = it is compulsory to make a संधि

  1. एकपदे = The resultant word is to be used as one word only, e.g. कश्चित् Actually the word is a संधि of कः + चित्

  2. धातूपसर्गयोः = Between धातु and उपसर्ग, e.g. in अपेक्षते there is उपसर्ग अप and धातु ईक्षते These have to be said only as अपेक्षते as per the गुणसंधि of अ + ई = ए See column for ई in Matrix 2.

  3. समासे = The word धातूपसर्गयोः is a compound word having component words धातु and उपसर्ग. Because it is a compound word, there has to be संधि of उ + उ = ऊ, a सवर्णदीर्घसंधि as per अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः in Matrix 1.

वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षां अपेक्षते = In a sentence it is discretionary. For example, one may say त्वं एव माता or त्वमेव माता.

We shall see Matrix 3 in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-