Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 30

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 30

 

An important aspect of procedure of detailing विग्रह of a समास is to first get to the bare minimum form of the compound word. The bare minimum form is often the form in प्रथमा विभक्ति.

 For example first word in first verse in गीता is धर्मक्षेत्रे. This is of course a compound word. But the form धर्मक्षेत्रे is सप्तमी विभक्ति एकवचनम् of the noun धर्मक्षेत्रम्. So we should do विग्रह of the word धर्मक्षेत्रम् and not of the formatted word धर्मक्षेत्रे.

 This may not be always necessary, especially if the word is already in प्रथमा विभक्ति. That was the case for बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या.

 Words like प्रतिदिनम्, साश्चर्यम् also are already in प्रथमा विभक्ति.

 But doing विग्रह of a समास would need being conscious of the meaning intended to be conveyed.

 Note प्रतिदिनम् = every day साश्चर्यम् = with wonder. “Every day” would be an answer to a question “When ?” Similarly “with wonder” would be an answer to a question “how ?” So प्रतिदिनम् and साश्चर्यम् have an adverbial intent, which in Sanskrit is called as अव्ययीभावः

 विग्रह of a समास is primarily an exercise in detailing the meaning of the word. And विग्रह should do that.

 विग्रह of प्रतिदिनम् is detailed as दिने दिने.

विग्रह of साश्चर्यम् is detailed as आश्चर्येण सह.

 अव्ययीभाव-समास-s are another type of समास-s.

 Both these words प्रतिदिनम् and साश्चर्यम् have a prefix उपसर्ग. In detailing विग्रह of प्रतिदिनम् as दिने दिने what is detailed is really the meaning lent by the prefix प्रति. Likewise in detailing विग्रह of साश्चर्यम् as आश्चर्येण सह, what is detailed is really the meaning lent by the prefix स. So in these words, the prefixes are almost like component words पद-s of the compound words.

 Need to be conscious of the meaning intended can be explained also by considering a word विमलम् in two different sentences – (1) विमलं वस्त्रं धारय Wear a clean cloth (2) वस्त्रं विमलं क्षालय Wash the cloth clean.

 As can be seen, in विमलं वस्त्रं धारय, the word is adjective of the noun वस्त्रम्. In the other sentence, it is adverb of the verb क्षालय. Should we do different विग्रह for the same word ? My answer would be ‘Yes’. Basically some people may question whether every word, which has a prefix उपसर्ग and a noun नाम, should be treated as a compound word. Again, my answer would be ‘Yes’. I say so with the basic premise in mind, that विग्रह of a समास is primarily an exercise in detailing the meaning of the word.

 In विमलं वस्त्रं धारय I would decipher the विग्रह as विगतः मलः यस्मात् तत् (बहुव्रीहिः)

 In वस्त्रं विमलं क्षालय I would decipher the विग्रह as विगतः मलः अस्मात् तथा (बहुव्रीहिः)

 Even if one should be conscious of the meaning intended to be conveyed, it is important to be open-minded and receptive to different meanings likely to be derived by different विग्रह of a given समास. Another person may think of a different meaning. Why not grant it ?

 For example, in the word धर्मक्षेत्रम्, धर्म = ?? क्षेत्रम् = field. Note, I am mentioning “धर्म = ??” Do we not know the meaning of the word धर्म ? We do, but the word has many, many shades of meaning. One common meaning of धर्म is religion. But what is ‘religion’ ? It is a challenging question to answer.

 I would rather go by the meaning धर्म = righteousness. So धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field of righteousness.

Now, what can make a battlefield a field of righteousness ? Possibly there was history associated with that particular battlefield, that in any battle fought there, only that side prevailed, which had righteousness with it. The battle between पाण्डव-s and कौरव-s was also to be fought to decide, which side had righteousness. Because of its past history the battlefield had come to be known as धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field of righteousness.

 Rather, since the battle was to be fought to decide which side had righteousness, it was the field (for) decision about righteousness. The word धर्म has this other shade of meaning as धर्म = justice. Then we can say धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field (of) righteousness OR field (for) justice about righteousness.

 Since the two prepositions ‘of’ and ‘for’ connote षष्ठी and चतुर्थी विभक्ति-s respectively, विग्रह of धर्मक्षेत्रम् can be धर्मस्य क्षेत्रम् OR धर्माय क्षेत्रम्.

 On that battlefield there was also the person whose name was धर्म. Being a battlefield, there were two parties and there was the allotted field for each party. So by another meaning of क्षेत्रम् = domain, meaning of धर्मक्षेत्रम् becomes “the domain of the person whose name was धर्म”. So even by the विग्रह as धर्मस्य क्षेत्रम्, there can be two meanings of धर्मक्षेत्रम् – (1) धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field of righteousness (2) धर्मक्षेत्रम् = domain of the person whose name was धर्म.

 विग्रह-s of समास-s make Sanskrit literature very engaging and enjoyable, revealing, refreshing and vibrant, especially when one gets to derive a range of meanings from the same given words.

 The drama स्वप्नवासवदत्तम् by भास opens with सूत्रधार briefing the audience of the main characters of the drama. For that briefing, the सूत्रधार sings a श्लोक, which has a compound word आसवदत्ताबलौ. This word can have three different meanings ! In the panel below can be seen an excerpt, giving all the three interpretations, as detailed by Shri. A. B. Gajendragadkar, the then Professor of Sanskrit in Elphinstone College, Mumbai, in his book published in 1938, downloaded by me from the internet.

*

First of all, the word आसवदत्ताबलौ is adjective of the strong arms of King उदयन, who is the hero of the drama.

 (1) आसवदत्ताबलौ = आसवेन दत्तं आबलं याभ्यां तौ (In आबलम्, आ = समन्तात्, सर्वतोमुखम् इति अर्थः). So, आसवदत्ताबलौ = (arms) which have gained all-round strength by आसव (= an intoxicating drink, wine). It is a known fact that an intoxicating drink gives to warriors reckless courage and under its influence that perform deeds of valor.

 (2) आसवदत्ताबलौ = आसवेन दत्तं अबलं याभ्यां तौ. Here अबलम् = न बलम् इति अबलम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुष) Then the meaning becomes “(arms) to which languor or lassitude or weakness has been imparted by wine.”

 (3) आसवदत्ताबलौ =

  1. दत्तः आसवः यस्यै सा = आसवदत्ता (बहुव्रीहिः) (she अबला), to whom drink has been given

  2. आसवदत्ता अबला याभ्यां तौ = आसवदत्ताबलौ (बहुव्रीहिः) (arms) by which drink has been given to a lady.

 Important point to be also noted is that in दत्ताबलौ, there is a संधि (संहिता). And in compound words, it is compulsory to coalescence, wherever coalescence is applicable. संहिता .. नित्या समासे But here the challenge is of separating the components of a coalesced word. दत्ताबलौ can be split either as दत्त + अबलौ or दत्त + आबलौ.  And that renders different meanings !

 There is another charming and different meaning possible for the phrase in the श्लोक – उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ताबलौ together, a single word ! The component words to be considered are उदय, नव, इन्दु, सवर्णा, वासवदत्ता, बलौ = (arms), which got strength from वासवदत्ता (heroine of the drama) whose complexion was similar to that of (just) rising new moon. This meaning brings to mind a famous proverb, “Behind every successful person, there is strong support of a woman.”

 In the prior discussion the word आसवदत्ताबलौ was obtained by split of उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ताबलौ as उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णौ आसवदत्ताबलौ. But the other charming meaning is derived by not doing this splitting.

 Yet another charming meaning ….

 Keeping in mind that King उदयन is the hero of the drama, उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ता can be interpreted to mean वासवदत्ता whose complexion was similar सवर्णा, to that of उदयन (or) वा इन्दु moon, (वेन्दु = वा इन्दु).

 Since the drama starts off with सूत्रधार saying this श्लोक, one can consider that सूत्रधार is not only introducing the hero and the heroine by their names but also describing them, how they are, … ! That is a specimen of smartness of Sanskrit poets, here, भास. It takes great intelligence and literary skill to weave so many different meanings in a single word, right ?

 Important point, which is to be noted is that विग्रह of a समास need not be only one specific विग्रह. समास-s are often very inviting, inviting you to indulge in different interpretations !

 Such is the case also with उपसर्ग-s. In श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता one comes across a word अकर्म. This उपसर्ग अ is interesting. It lends a negative meaning to the noun, to which it is prefixed. So, न कर्म इति अकर्म (नञ्-तत्पुरुष). But in Apte’s dictionary, the first word अ is detailed giving also an interesting detail that negativity of meaning has itself six shades ! The detail given says, “.. तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च ऩञर्थाः षट् प्रकीर्तिताः ॥ ..” So meanings of the word अकर्म have to be understood with all the six shades of negativity –

  1. कर्मणा सादृश्यम् तदकर्म = Seeming like कर्म, (but not really कर्म) is अकर्म !

  2. कर्मणः अभावः तदकर्म = Absence of कर्म is अकर्म.

  3. कर्मणः अन्यत्वं तदकर्म = Different from (apart from or other than) कर्म is अकर्म

  4. कर्मणः अल्पता तदकर्म = Shortcoming in कर्म (doing कर्म not wholeheartedly or only half-heartedly or doing कर्म half way, incomplete) is अकर्म

  5. कर्मणः अप्राशस्त्यम् तदकर्म = Impropriety or haphazardness of कर्म is अकर्म

  6. कर्मणः विरोधः तदकर्म = Causing hindrance to कर्म or doing opposite of कर्म is अकर्म !!!

 And one can derive a definition of कर्म (What is कर्म ?) in the reverse mode to say, What is not अकर्म is कर्म !!!

 Is not philosophy of कर्म a great but very subtle philosophy ?

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Advertisements

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 29

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 29

Composing more than one component words and making a single word, which procedure is known as समास, is a specialty of Sanskrit. This is not to say that such composition of a single word from more than one words together is not found in other languages. Examples in English – outbreak, sunrise, sunset, in-laws, etc.

Yet it becomes specialty of Sanskrit because of number of component words, that can be put together. I was most impressed when I first came across a line in मेघदूतम् by कालिदास. बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या. The complete line is a single word of 17 letters. The total word and the letters therein even fully conform to the मन्दाक्रान्ता meter of the verse. There are eight component words – बाह्य, उद्यान, स्थित, हर, शिरस्, चन्द्रिका, धौत and हर्म्या ! And all together the word is an adjective of अलकानगरी !! English transcription of the word would be bAhyodyAnasthitaharashirashchandrikAdhautaharmyA, as many as 48 letters, even when using A instead of aa. Is it not very challenging to read Sanskrit in the transcripted mode ? This is one example, why it is good to learn the script of the language, right when beginning to learn a new language.

Again the eight component words, which are put together have an interrelationship between them, which needs to be detailed, so that one can then understand, how the word becomes an adjective of अलकानगरी. Detailing the interrelationship between component words is called as विग्रह of the समास. It is better to start विग्रह of one pair of component words.

For example

  1. बाह्योद्यान is बाह्य + उद्यान. बाह्य = external उद्यान = garden. So, बाह्योद्यान = external garden. This is an adjective-noun relationship. Sanskrit phrase would be बाह्यं उद्यानम् This is विग्रह of बाह्योद्यान

  2. In बाह्योद्यानस्थित, स्थित = put up. So बाह्योद्यानस्थित = put up (in) the external garden. I have shown the preposition ‘in’ in parentheses. The preposition is really the explanation of the interrelationship between बाह्योद्यान and स्थित. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘in’ is सप्तमी विभक्ति. Hence बाह्योद्याने स्थित becomes विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थित.

  3. Next we shall take बाह्योद्यानस्थित and हर. This again is an adjective-noun relationship. Sanskrit phrase would be बाह्योद्यानस्थितः हरः

  4. Now बाह्योद्यानस्थितहर and शिरस्. हर = Shiva and शिरस् = head. Obvious relationship between हर and शिरस् is head (of) Shiva. Here also the preposition ‘of’ is really the explanation of the interrelationship between हर and शिरस्. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘of’ is षष्ठी विभक्ति. Hence हरस्य शिरस् becomes विग्रह of हरशिरस्. Rather we have बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरस् = बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरस्य शिरस्

  5. We can proceed to connect up बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरस् and चन्द्रिका. चन्द्रिका means crescent. The well-known relationship between हरशिरस् and चन्द्रिका is “crescent (on) the head of Shiva”. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘on’ is सप्तमी विभक्ति. Hence विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिका should be बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरसि चन्द्रिका. Overall meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिका is “crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”

  6. Next बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिका and धौत. Here धौत means “washed”, “covered”, “lit”. Obvious meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत is “lit (by) crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘by’ is तृतीया विभक्ति. Hence विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत becomes बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकया धौत

  7. Now lastly we have to connect बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत and हर्म्या. In the component हर्म्या the root word is हर्म्यम्

    1. The word is explained in Apte’s dictionary (See – http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/contextualize.pl?p.6.apte.1691431) is – हर्म्यम् [हृ-यत् मुट् च] 1 A palace, mansion, any large or palatial building; हर्म्यपृष्ठं समारूढः काको$पि गरु- डायते Subhāṣ.; बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या Me.7;

    2. As can be seen exactly this reference “बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या Me.7” is quoted in the dictionary.

    3. The obvious meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्यम् is “mansion lit by the cresent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”.

    4. And the relationship between बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत and हर्म्यम् is again adjective-noun relationship. So विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्यम् becomes बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतं हर्म्यम् which fits the meaning “mansion lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”

    5. But the compound word is not ending as ..हर्म्यम्. The ending is हर्म्या, which is a feminine ending. So the total meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या is pointing to a feminine noun. There is such feminine noun in the verse. The related portion of the verse is गन्तव्या ते वसतिरलका नाम यक्षेश्वराणाम् | बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या || The feminine noun is वसतिः meaning “place”, “residential complex”, “township”, “city”. Obviously बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या is adjectival to the feminine noun वसतिः. Then the interpretation of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या should be (place, which has) “mansion lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”. Sanskrit way of explaining “.. (place, which has) ..” would be यस्यां सा. Using this the विग्रह would be बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्यम् यस्यां सा meaning “place which has mansion lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”. English meaning of the single word बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या becomes a phrase having 19 words !

    6. By a finer consideration, we can grant that there may not be only one mansion there. And all of them would be lit by the crescent. So we can modify the विग्रह to use plural as mansions and then say बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतानि हर्म्याणि यस्यां सा = place which has mansions lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”

As can be seen, interrelationships between component words are of different types. Here we have seen adjective-noun relationship, विभक्ति-relationship, relationship explained by a phrase such as यस्यां सा.

Sanskrit names of these relationships are –

  1. adjective-noun relationship = कर्मधारय

  2. विभक्ति-relationship = तत्पुरुष

  3. relationship explained by a phrase such as यस्यां सा = बहुव्रीहिः

There are some more types also and also their sub-types. We shall study them one by one.

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 28

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 28

There seems to be a commonplace understanding that अनुस्वार is an option for writing the अनुनासिक-s. It is difficult to say, whether this commonplace understanding is correct or not from the standpoint of grammar.

Here are some simple, commonplace examples

  • अङ्ग / अंग

  • सञ्जय / संजय

  • पण्डित / पंडित

  • अनन्त / अनंत

  • चम्पा / चंपा

These examples endorse the commonplace understanding. But in the above examples, the अनुस्वार does not connote any one specific अनुनासिक. Rather it connotes all the अनुनासिक-s ! And there is a grammatical pattern or relationship between the अनुस्वार and the अनुनासिक being connoted. The अनुनासिक is of the same वर्ग as of the वर्ण after the अनुस्वार. As can be seen

  • in अङ्ग / अंग, ङ् and ग are of क-वर्ग

  • in सञ्जय / संजय, ञ् ज are of च-वर्ग

  • in पण्डित / पंडित, ण् ड are of ट-वर्ग

  • in अनन्त / अनंत, न् त are of त-वर्ग

  • in चम्पा / चंपा, म् प are of प-वर्ग

पाणिनि explains this by the rules

अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः । (८/४/५८) and वा पदान्तस्य । (८/४/५९)

  • अनुस्वारस्य = of अनुस्वार

  • ययि = in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) वर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार यय् (= वर्ण-s in 8 शिवसूत्र-s from 5 to 12).

  • Note, this excludes वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 13 and 14.

  • परसवर्णः = should be अनुनासिक of the same वर्ग as of the वर्ण, which is पर to the अनुस्वार, i.e. which is after the अनुस्वार

  • वा = applies also to

  • पदान्तस्य। = अनुस्वार at the end of a पद.

This means that a stand-alone word or a sentence or line of a verse should not end with अनुस्वार. These should end only with the अनुनासिक.

In the previous lesson one example given for अनुनासिक becoming अनुस्वार was –

  • इमाँल्लोकान् (18-17 इमान् लोकान्)

It was also mentioned that, here न् of इमान् becomes अनुस्वार, which has a slightly different accent than of न् of इमान्

It was also mentioned there that when to write अनुस्वार  and how to pronounce it are points, which merit specific discussion.

In all the examples अङ्ग / अंग, सञ्जय / संजय, पण्डित / पंडित, अनन्त / अनंत, चम्पा / चंपा whether to write अनुनासिक or अनुस्वार seems to be more the WRITING option, not necessarily a rule for pronunciation. We can assume that these words will be pronounced only appropriately, even if written either way. Nevertheless, the pronunciation of अनुस्वार in इमाँल्लोकान् would have a slightly different accent than of न् of इमान्. So, there is a contention that अनुस्वार is not just a writing option for writing the अनुनासिक-s, but connotes a different accent also.

The following सूत्रम् is the rule for अनुनासिक म् to be अनुस्वार. Of course, “conditions apply”.

मोऽनुस्वारः (८/३/२३) Note, मोऽनुस्वारः = मः अनुस्वारः

मः अनुस्वारः = (Make) मः (=of म) the अनुस्वार

The applicable condition is हलि परतः when म्-कार is followed by a consonant.

Examples –

रामं वन्दे, गुहायां तपति, मालायां सूत्रम्, गृहं गच्छति, पुस्तकं पश्य, ताभ्यां देहि, नद्यां जलम्

The logic or application of the rule can be extended to derive a corollary, that म्-कार at the end of a sentence or at the end of a line of poetry should not be written as अनुस्वार. At the end of a sentence or at the end of a line of poetry, there is nothing after the म्-कार, so, no परवर्ण् at all. So, म्-कार should remain म्-कार !

In the context of this discussion about अनुस्वार, comes to mind the word संस्कृत itself. In the word संस्कृत

  • we have (स्-अ म् स् क् ऋ त् अ).

  • May it be written as सम्स्कृत or as संस्कृत ? Would these have different pronunciation ? Does it then appeal that the अनुनासिक म् be better written as अनुस्वार ?

  • That suggests that one should understand the rule about when an अनुनासिक is better written as अनुस्वार.

  • In some texts one may find the अनुस्वार written as ँ्.

  • So संस्कृत could as well be written as स ँ्स्कृत.

Here is another interesting example from गीता –

यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः or यथा नदीनाम्बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः (11-28)

One can deliberate on some interesting nuances.

  • It may again be noted that, whether it is written as यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः or यथा नदीनाम्बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः the difference would be primarily in writing. It makes no difference in pronunciation.

  • For a finer observation, the म् of बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः cannot be written as बहवोंबुवेगाः even if it would get pronounced as such only.

  • It cannot be written as बहवोंबुवेगाः, because, it will then miss the अवग्रह-symbol ऽ, which is essential here !

Note, this option of अनुस्वार applies for अनुनासिक, when it is

  • at the end of a word and is followed by व्यञ्जनम् of the next word

    • not when the word is stand-alone

  • also not of अनुनासिक at the end of a sentence or

  • of अनुनासिक at the end of a line in a poem.

For example in यं यं वापि स्मरन्भावं त्यजत्यन्ते कलेवरम् । (गीता 8’6)

  • यं यं and स्मरन्भावं are with अनुस्वार

  • म् of कलेवरम् needs to be म् only.

  • न् of त्यजत्यन्ते could as well be written as त्यजत्यंते !

Change to अनुस्वार happens not only for म्-कार, but also for न्-कार by the सूत्रम्

नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि । ८।३।२४ Note, नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि = नः च अपदान्तस्य झलि

  • नः च = also of न्

  • अपदान्तस्य = when not at the end of a word

  • झलि = when followed by व्यन्जनम् of प्रत्याहार झल् (i.e. any of the consonants in शिवसूत्र-s 7 to 14)

For example, वासांसि (गीता 2-22), छंदांसि (15-1)

Rules about अनुस्वार are part of rules of treatment of अनुनासिक-s or of संधि-s with अनुनासिक-s in पूर्ववर्ण-position.

One special rule in this respect is –

नश्छव्यप्रशान् (नः छवि अप्रशान्) (८/३/७)

नः = of

छवि = when followed by वर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार छव् (= छ्, ठ्, थ्, च्, ट्, त्)

अप्रशान् = Not when followed by अ or not for the word प्रशान् (This detail about अप्रशान् is beyond the scope of Simple Sanskrit)

When a word ending with नकार is followed by (प्रत्याहार छव् =) छ्, ठ्, थ्, च्, ट्, त्, नकार is written by अनुस्वार. Also,  सकार gets added before परवर्ण. A वर्ण coming in or getting added is called as आगम, rather as सुडागम (=सुट् + आगम). Note, सुट् stands for स् when स् gets added as an आगम.

तान् + तान् = (त् + आ + न् + त् + आन् = त् + आँ + स् + त् + आन् / त् + आ + ं + स् + त् + आन्) = ताँस्तान् / तांस्तान्

Examples from गीता – सखींस्तथा (1-26 सखीन् + तथा = सखीं + स् + तथा = सखींस्तथा), प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा (1-33), कामांस्तु (2-5), also संस्कृत (सम् + कृत = सं + स् + कृत)

The अनुस्वार here may be found in some texts written as  ँ्. So, सखी ँ्स्तथा, प्राणाँ्स्त्यक्त्वा, कामा ँ्स्तु.

Having mentioned संस्कृत (सम् + कृत = सं + स् + कृत), I should also bring to notice two words संकर and संस्कार. Both have their derivation from सम् + कृ. But in संकर there is no आगम of स्. In संस्कार there is आगम of स्, same as in संस्कृत. Also संकर could as well be written as सङ्कर. Rather, it should better be written so.

The आगम of स् from नश्छव्यप्रशान् suffers modification by स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०)

That is, when the following letter परवर्ण is either च् or छ्, the आगम of स् is converted to श्

Example from गीता – प्रज्ञावादांश्च (2-11)

Other examples – श्लोकान् + टीकाभिः = (श्लोक् + आ + न् + ट् + ईकाभिः = श्लोक् + आँ + स् + ट् + ईकाभिः / श्लोक् + आ + ं + स् + ट् + ईकाभिः) = श्लोकाँ ष् टीकाभिः/श्लोकां ष् टीकाभिः = श्लोकाँष्टीकाभिः/श्लोकांष्टीकाभिः ।

Note: When the following letter is either ट् or ठ्, the आगम of स् is converted to ष् according to ष्टुना ष्टुः

All the above discussion is about अनुनासिक being पूर्ववर्ण. However, it is interesting to see when अनुनासिक is परवर्ण्, The सूत्रम् is –

यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा । (८/४/४५)

यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा = यरः अनुनासिके अनुनासिकः वा

यरः = प्रत्याहार यर् (वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 5 to 13) That includes all व्यञ्जन-s, except ह्

अनुनासिके = when followed by अनुनासिक

अनुनासिकः = becomes अनुनासिक.

वा = optionally

So, when a व्यञ्जन, except ह्, (Note, प्रत्याहार यर् does not include ह्) is followed by an अनुनासिक, then the व्यञ्जन becomes अनुनासिक of its own वर्ग. The letter वा makes it clear, that application of this rule is optional.

वाङ्मयम् / वाग्मयम्, षण्मुखः / षड्मुखः (actually षट्+मुखः)

In both these examples व्यन्जनम् in पूर्ववर्ण-position is कठोर. अनुनासिक in परवर्ण-position has मृदु characteristics. So by कठोर + मृदु, the कठोर पूर्ववर्ण् becomes मृदु by झलां जशोऽन्ते.

  • वाक् + मयम् = वाग् – मयम् Hence वाग्मयम्. OR

    • वाक् + मयम् = वाङ् – मयम् = वाङ्मयम्

  • Similarly षट् + मुखः = षड् – मुखः Hence षड्मुखः OR

    • षट् + मुखः = षण् – मुखः = षण्मुखः

If a प्रत्यय has an अनुनासिक at its beginning and since beginning of प्रत्यय  is in परवर्ण-position, it follows the व्यन्जनम् in पूर्ववर्ण्-position, then the rule is NOT optional. It is mandatory to change the व्यन्जनम् to अनुनासिक. It is mandatory, because by affixing a suffix, by affixing a प्रत्यय, what is being formed is एकं पदम्. For such instances the rule is संहिता एकपदे नित्या

Examples – चिन्मयम् (चित् + मयम्, त् → न्), तन्मात्रम् (तत् + मात्रम्, त् → न्). Here मयम्, मात्रम् are प्रत्यय-s with अनुनासिक म् at the beginning.

We have discussed अनुनासिक-संधि-s both when अनुनासिक is in पूर्ववर्ण-position or in परवर्ण-position. We have also discussed use of अनुस्वार, when writing.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 27

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 27

To proceed further with व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, Table 2 in the previous Lesson No. 26 is a good table to keep a track of how we proceed.

Case 5 discussed in Lesson 26 was, for example the case of खर् + खर्, i.e. both पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण being खर्.

व्यञ्जनसंधि-s of type व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम्

खर्

यश्

ह्

खव्

कय्

शर्

यण्

ञम्

झश्

खर्

खव्

कय्

शर्

यश्

यण्

ञम्

झश्

झल्=

झश्+खर्+ह्

But as was mentioned, there are special cases.

Case 6 – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०).

Explanation of स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०) can be read at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/sarvanisutrani/8.4.39.htm

The explanation is – सकार-तवर्गयोः शकारचवर्गाभ्यां योगे शकारचवर्गौ आदेशौ भवतः। Since this explanatory statement is in Sanskrit, I guess, it would help to explain it in English.

  • There are three words here स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः
  • स्तोः is sixth case singular षष्ठी, एकवचनम् of स्तु, meaning “of स् and तु (ie त्-वर्ग)”
  • श्चुना is third case singular तृतीया, एकवचनम् of श्चु, meaning “by श् and चु (ie च्-वर्ग)”
  • श्चुः is first case singular प्रथमा, एकवचनम् of श्चु, meaning “become श् and चु (ie च्-वर्ग)”
  • Hence,  when पूर्ववर्ण-letters are स् or any letter from त्-वर्ग, and are followed by (i.e. परवर्ण is letter from) श्-वर्ग (प्रत्याहार शर् – श्, ष्, स्) and च्-वर्ग (च् छ् ज् झ् ञ्) respectively, then the पूर्ववर्ण-letters are substituted by letters of श्-वर्ग and च्-वर्ग respectively.

Examples –

  • स्याज्जनार्दन (In 1’36 in गीता) The संधिविच्छेद is  स्यात् जनार्दन (त्, → ज्),

    • Here पूर्ववर्ण is त् is followed by ज्, which is a letter of च्-वर्ग. So त् is replaced by ज्, letter of च्-वर्ग,

    • Note, as per Case (4) discussed in the previous lesson, it should have been स्याद्+जनार्दन So there is a dilemma here, whether to make the संधि as स्याद्जनार्दन or स्याज्जनार्दन. For resolving such dilemmas, there is a diktat विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (विप्रतिषेधे = in the event of a dilemma परं = the latter कार्यम् = to be done, followed, applied.) In Case 4 the सूत्रक्रमाङ्क was 8’2’39. Here in Case 6 the सूत्रक्रमाङ्क is 8’4’40. Obviously 8’4’40 is much later / latter. Hence this latter one has to be applied. So स्यात् + जनार्दन = स्याज्जनार्दन.

More examples –

  • यज्ज्ञात्वा (4-16, 4-35 also 9-1 यत् + ज्ञात्वा)

    • It is to be noted that ज्ञ is ज् + ञ. So ज्ञ has ज् at its beginning.

      • It is also to be noted that in the dictionary words starting with ज्ञ will be found in the alphabetical order of words starting with ज्.

      • In north India, people seem to be pronouncing ज्ञ as ग्य. But ज्ञ does not have ग् at its beginning.

    • Hence here also त् is followed by ज्, which is a letter of च्-वर्ग. So त् is replaced by ज्, letter of च्-वर्ग

  • मच्चित्तः (18-57, 58, मत् + चित्तः, त् → च्)

  • उच्छिष्टम् (17-10 उत् + शिष्टम्)

    • Here त् is followed by श्. So त् is replaced by च्

    • श् of परवर्ण also is replaced by छ् !

Case 7 – ष्टुना ष्टुः। (८/४/४१)

Explanation of ष्टुना ष्टुः। (८/४/४१) can be read at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/sarvanisutrani/8.4.40.htm

  • There are two words ष्टुना ष्टुः But since this सूत्रम् (८/४/४१) is in continuation of the earlier सूत्रम् (८/४/४०), we carry forward the word स्तोः from there. This process of carrying forward is called as अनुवृत्ति. By this it becomes three words in this सूत्रम् also. So the सूत्रम् completed with अनुवृत्ति becomes स्तोः ष्टुना ष्टुः. Let us now do विभक्ति-वचन analysis for all the three words.
  • स्तोः is sixth case singular षष्ठी, एकवचनम् of स्तु, meaning “of स् or तु (ie त्-वर्ग)”
  • ष्टुना is third case singular तृतीया, एकवचनम् of ष्टु, meaning “with ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग)”
  • ष्टुः is first case singular प्रथमा, एकवचनम् of ष्टु, meaning “becomes ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग)”
  • Meaning, when सकार comes in contact with ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग) letters, षकार is substituted in the place of सकार and when तवर्ग letters  comes in contact with ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग letters , ट वर्ग letters are substituted in the place of त वर्ग letters  respectively.

Some examples –

  • उत् + डयनम् = उड्डयनम्।

  • षण् + नवतिः = षण्णवतिः।

  • रामस् + टीकते = रामष्टीकते।

  • भवत् + टिप्पणी = भवट्टिप्पणी।

  • एतद् + ढक्का = एतड्ढक्का।

Case 8 – तोर्लि (८-४-६०)

This is sort of further special case, applicable when पूर्ववर्ण-letters are of त्-वर्ग (त् थ् द् ध् न्), and are followed by ल्. In such instances पूर्ववर्ण-letters of त्-वर्ग are substituted by ल्.

Example in गीता –

  • आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः (8-16 आब्रह्मभुवनात् लोकाः, त् → ल्)

  • श्रुतिमल्लोके (13-14 श्रुतिमत् लोके)

  • इमाँल्लोकान् (18-17 इमान् लोकान्)

    • This is sort of a special case, because here न् of इमान् becomes अनुस्वार, which has a slightly different accent than of न् of इमान्

अनुस्वार, when to write it and how to pronounce it are points, which merit specific discussion. We shall come to it separately later.

Case 9 – Looking back at the Table having seen in Case (5) that खर् + खर् (कठोर + कठोर) produces primarily a संयुक्ताक्षरम् (even in the special cases), natural curiosity will be about the result of यश् + यश् (मृदु + मृदु). The most common result here also is primarily a संयुक्ताक्षरम् !

For example in the word नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते (गीता 2-3), य् + य् + उ = य्यु. Actually य्यु in this word नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते merits some detailing.

  • The word itself is a सन्धि (न + एतत् + त्वयि + उपपद्यते)

  • What is to be noted is that त् of एतत् and next “त् and व” of त्वयि become संयुक्ताक्षरम् त् + त् + व = त्त्व. This is case 5.

  • Further in सन्धि of त्वयि + उपपद्यते, the वर्ण्-s involved are त् + व, य् + इ + उ from उपपद्यते. As per rule of स्वरसन्धि, य् + इ + उ becomes य् + य् + उ. After that य् + य् + उ becomes य्यु. This is case 9.

Important point to be noted is that when studying व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, actually when studying any संधि for that matter, the consideration is to understand the phonetics, the resultant sound, when two वर्ण-s come together.

It should be also noted that वर्ण is not always अक्षर. One अक्षर can have many वर्ण्-s as was shown in कार्त्स्न्यम्.

In many words such as सर्व, कार्य, शल्य, माल्य, दिव्य, पूर्व, ब्रह्म, वह्नि, the वर्ण-s in पूर्ववर्ण position are य् व् र् ल् ह्. The resultants are all संयुक्ताक्षर-s.

Before going over to next case, it may be noted that Case 4 झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) suggests that a harsh consonant, in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) a soft consonant becomes soft !

Case 10 – A soft consonant (प्रत्याहार यश्) becomes harsh in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) a harsh consonant (प्रत्याहार खर्) !

Example given in प्रभुपादव्याकरणम् is सुहृद् + सताम् = सुहृत्सताम् Note द् + स becomes त् + स.

Case 11 – झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम् । (८/४/६२)

When झय् letters (first four letters of any वर्ग) are followed by हकार, ह् is optionally replaced by पूर्वसवर्ण (a letter similar to the preceding letter). पूर्वसवर्ण will always be the fourth letter of the same वर्ग, to which the preceding झय् letter belongs.

For example –

  • वणिग् + हसति = वणिग्घसति / वणिग्‍हसति

    • Because application of the rule is optional, both the results are acceptable.

  • अच् + हलौ = अज्झलौ / अज्‍हलौ

  • षड् + हयाः = षड्ढयाः / षड्‍हयाः

  • तद् + हितम् = तद्धितम् / तद्‍हितम्

  • अब् + ह्रदः = अब्भ्रदः / अब्‍ह्रदः

Case 12 खरि च (८-४-५५) झलां (८-४-५३) चरः (८-४-५४)

When पूर्ववर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार झल् are followed by परवर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार खर् the पूर्ववर्ण-s change to corresponding वर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार चर् (च् ट् त् क् प् श् ष् स्).

Example in गीता

  • युयुत्सवः (1-1)

    • the word is derived from धातुः युध् with suffix सु.

    • Here पूर्ववर्ण् ध् is from प्रत्याहार झल्.

    • The परवर्ण् स् of प्रत्यय सु is from प्रत्याहार खर्.

    • So पूर्ववर्ण् ध् changes to त् of प्रत्याहार चर्

    • basically the मृदुव्यञ्जनं changes to कठोर/कर्कश-व्यञ्जनं of its own वर्ग. Finally we have युयुध् + सु = युयुत्सु.

This is an internal संधि, happening in the formation of the word when affixing a suffix, as has been mentioned as एकपदे in संहितैकपदे नित्या.

With a plan to discuss topic of अनुस्वार separately, above 12 cases substantially cover important types of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s for Simple Sanskrit.

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 26

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 26

व्यञ्जनसंधि-s Part 1- व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः

Now the व्यञ्जनसंधि-s !

In व्यञ्जनसंधि-s पूर्ववर्ण is certainly a व्यञ्जनम् a consonant. परवर्ण may be a vowel or a consonant.

Basically, whether a  संधि is a स्वरसंधि or विसर्गसंधि or व्यञ्जनसंधि is decided by the feature of the पूर्ववर्ण, whether पूर्ववर्ण is a स्वर, स्वर + विसर्ग, or व्यञ्जनम् .

  • in the case of स्वरसंधि-s पूर्ववर्ण is स्वर, परवर्ण is also a स्वर
  • in the case of विसर्गसंधि-s पूर्ववर्ण is स्वर + विसर्ग, परवर्ण is स्वर or व्यञ्जनम्
  • in the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s पूर्ववर्ण is व्यञ्जनम्, परवर्ण is स्वर or व्यञ्जनम्

So, in the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, possible number of परवर्ण-s can be 33 व्यञ्जनानि and 14 स्वर-s. So the number of possible one-to-one combinations of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s can be as many as (33 व्यञ्जनानि as पूर्ववर्ण-s) x 46 (33 व्यञ्जनानि and 13 स्वर-s as परवर्ण-s) = 1518 व्यञ्जनसंधि-s ! That is a large number, especially to explain by as many examples.

Putting them into groups and patterns would help to reduce the variety.

Basically, व्यञ्जनसंधि-s can be classified into two broad classes –

  1. पूर्ववर्ण व्यञ्जनम् + परवर्ण स्वर (33×13 = 429)
  2. पूर्ववर्ण व्यञ्जनम् + परवर्ण व्यञ्जनम् (33×33 = 1089)

Let us start with the class व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः.

Case (1) एकादेश-व्यञ्जनसंधि-s

Recalling what we studied in the case of most स्वरसंधि-s, the resultant sound on mixing of पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण is a single resultant sound. For example  अ + आ = आ, अ + उ = ओ, इ +ऊ = यू. Resultant sound being a single sound is called as एकादेश.

In the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s also, when परवर्ण is a स्वर, it will naturally make व्यञ्जनम् at the

पूर्ववर्ण position complete with that स्वर. So, it becomes एकादेश.

Here are some examples from गीता –

  1. किकुर्वत (1-1) = किम् + अकुर्वत Note म् + अ = म
    1. दृष्टवासि (11-53) = दृष्टवान् + असि Note न् + अ = न
  2. तमाहुः पण्डितं बुधाः (4-19) तमाहुः = तम् + आहुः Note म् + आ = मा
  3. वाक्यमिमाह (1-21) = वाक्यम् + इदम् + आह Note म् + इ = मि also म् + आ = मा There are 2 successive संधि-s
    1. कुरूनिति (1-25) = कुरून् + इति Note न् + इ = नि
  4. युद्धमीदृशम् (2-32) = युद्धम् + ईदृशम् Note म् + ई = मी
    1. ब्रह्माणमीशम् (11-15) = ब्रह्माणम् + ईशम् Note म् + ई = मी
  5. एवमुक्तो (1-24) = एवम् उक्तो Note म् + उ = मु
    1. स्वजनमुद्यताः (1-45) = स्वजनम् उद्यताः Note म् + उ = मु
    2. श्रीभगवानुवाच (2-10/11) = श्रीभगवान् + उवाच Note न् + उ = नु
  6. सर्वमेदृतम् (10-14) = सर्वम् + एतद् + ऋतम् Note म् + ए = मे also द् + ऋ = दृ There are 2 successive संधि-s
  7. पापमेव (1-36) = पापम् एव Note म् ए
    1. गुणानेतान् (14-20, गुणान् एतान्) Note न् + ए = ने
    2. यानेव (2-6, यान् एव) Note न् + ए = ने
  8. पवित्रमोङ्कार (9-17) = पवित्रम् + ओंकार Note म् + ओ = मो
  9. अहमौषधम् (9-16) = अहम् + औषधम् Note म् + औ = मौ

All the above संधि-s are so very natural, that there is not much of any प्रक्रिया to be explained. Some people would like to contend that these are not संधि-s at all.

I would like to follow a simplistic concept that, whatever can be split into its components, should be considered as संधि. Actually there are many internal संधि-s, in view of the rule संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः, नित्या समासे.

Splitting the components, called as पदच्छेद, often helps to understand the derivation of a word. For example,

  • Sanskrit word for sunrise is सूर्योदय which is a compound word, having two component words सूर्य and उदय. Because in a compound word it is compulsory to do संधि, नित्या समासे Hence सूर्य + उदय = सूर्योदय.
  • Also  उदय is itself उत् + अय, where उत् = up, अय = going, moving. So, by संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः the word has to be उत् + अय = उदय = going up, moving up, rising. That is how सूर्योदय means sunrise.

While above examples of संधि-s of “व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः”-type, are simple or straightforward, there are interesting conditional variations.

As said earlier, though number of possible व्यञ्जनसंधि-s can be as large as 1518 putting them into groups and patterns would help to reduce the variety. It becomes easy to understand the patterns by understanding the सूत्र-s of अष्टाध्यायी.

Case 2 – ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् (८/३/३२)

Now, there is a set method of understanding a सूत्रम्. First we do पदच्छेद-s. To do पदच्छेद-s, we shall have to know all the संधि-rules. But we have so far studied only the स्वरसंधि-s and विसर्गसंधि-s, not the व्यञ्जनसंधि-s. So, for now, take the पदच्छेद-s, as I shall give.

ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् = ङमः ह्रस्वात् अचि ङम्-उट् नित्यम्

After पदच्छेद, we understand the विभक्ति-वचन of every word.

ङमः is 6’1 i.e. 6th विभक्ति, 1 वचन of ङम्

ह्रस्वात् is 5’1 i.e. 5th विभक्ति, 1 वचन of ह्रस्व

अचि is 7’1 i.e. 7th विभक्ति, 1 वचन of अच्

ङम्-उट् is 1’1 i.e. 1st विभक्ति, 1 वचन of ङम्-उट्

नित्यम् is 0’0 because it is an indeclinable i.e. अव्यय.

In the next step of understanding a सूत्रम्, it would be good to know that particular विभक्ति signifies a particular sense.

The sixth विभक्ति denotes undergoing a change.

The fifth विभक्ति denotes “when preceded by”.

The seventh विभक्ति denotes “when followed by”.

So, here, ङमः ह्रस्वात् अचि ङम्-उट् नित्यम् would mean

ङमः = ङम् will suffer change

ह्रस्वात् = when preceded by ह्रस्व

अचि = when followed by अच्

ङम्-उट् = addition of ङम् Note, उट् means “addition of”

नित्यम् = always.

By paraphrasing, the meaning of the सूत्रम् becomes ङम् when preceded by ह्रस्व

and when followed by अच् will suffer change as addition of ङम् always.

  • Here ङम् is a प्रत्याहार and denotes all वर्ण-s starting from ङ until म्. So ङम् denotes ङ्, ण् and न्.
  • ह्रस्व means short vowel
  • Also अच् is a प्रत्याहार denoting all वर्ण-s starting from अ until च्. This range from अ until च् covers all vowels.

We can rewrite the meaning and understand that as per this सूत्रम्, ङ्, ण् and न्, when preceded by a short vowel and when followed by any vowel will always suffer addition of ङ्, ण् and न्. That means ङ्, ण् and न् will become doubled.

Let us understand this by an example. प्रहसन् + इव = प्रहसन्निव. Here पूर्ववर्ण is अनुनासिक न्. It is preceded by short vowel ह्रस्वस्वर अ in स. Hence अनुनासिक न् has become doubled. The doubled न् mixes with इ and becomes न्नि.

Note that in the examples of case (1), पूर्ववर्ण is अनुनासिक, mostly म् न्. This सूत्रम् does not provide for doubling of म्. But there is न् in some examples, which is not doubled. The reason is that the स्वर preceding the अनुनासिक न् is not ह्रस्व. For example, (a) दृष्टवान् + असि = दृष्टवानसि (there is आ before न्) (b) कुरून् + इति = कुरूनिति (there is ऊ before न्).

Examples from गीता, where न् is doubled, because स्वर preceding the अनुनासिक न् is ह्रस्व –

  • विषीदन्निदं 1-28 (विषीदन् इदं), प्रहसन्निव 2-10 (प्रहसन् इव), कुर्वन्नपि 5-7 (कुर्वन् अपि), जिघ्रन्नश्नन् 5-8 (जिघ्रन् अश्नन्), गृह्नन्नुन्मिषन् 5-9 (गृह्णन् उन्मिषन्), निमिषन्नपि 5-9 (निमिषन् अपि), तन्निष्ठाः 5-17 (तत्+निष्ठाः), युञ्जन्नेवम् 6-28 (युञ्जन् एवम्),
  • In ईशावास्योपनिषत् the second mantra starts with the word कुर्वन्नेवेह.
    • The पदच्छेद of this word is कुर्वन् एव इह
    • Note कुर्वन् + एव = कुर्वन्नेव as per ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् (८/३/३२)
    • कुर्वन्नेव + इह = कुर्वन्नेवेह has अ + इ = ए (व + इ = वे) as per आद्गुणः (6’1’87) as studied in Lesson 21.

Case 3 – झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९)

Let us understand this सूत्रम् also, following the set method.

झलां जशोऽन्ते = झलाम् जशः अन्ते

  • झलाम् is 6’3 (6th विभक्ति 3=बहुवचनम्) of झल् Note झल् starts at झ in शिवसूत्रम् (8) and covers 24 out of 33 consonants until the end-marker ल् in शिवसूत्रम् (14),
    • excepting य् व् र् ल् the अन्तस्थ-s in शिवसूत्र-s (5 and 6) and the nasals अनुनासिक-s ञ् म् ङ् ण् न् in शिवसूत्रम् (7)
  • जशः is 1’3 (प्रथमा विभक्ति बहुवचनम्) of जश् Note जश् starts at ज in शिवसूत्रम् (10) and covers all consonants until the end-marker श् of the same शिवसूत्रम् (10). Hence जश् means ज् ब् ग् ड् द् i.e. third consonant in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively.  
  • अन्ते is 7’1 (सप्तमी विभक्ति एकवचनम्) of अन्त meaning at the end of a word

It is important to note that झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) is not exactly a संधि-rule. It applies, even when there is no संधि, because, it checks whether the वर्ण at the end of a word is a झल्. If it is a झल्, it will change to जश्. That can be why the pronouns तत् and एतत् are also quoted to be तद् and एतद्

There would be a curiosity as to how as many as 24 consonants of झल् will change to only 5 of जश्. So, one needs to know, which of 24 will change to which 5 of जश्. As is logical,

  • The four च् छ् ज् झ् of च-वर्ग will change to ज्. That means ज् will not change.
  • The four प् फ् ब् भ् of प-वर्ग will change to ब् That means ब् will not change.
  • The four क् ख् ग् घ् of क-वर्ग will change to ग् That means ग् will not change.
  • The four ट् ठ् ड् ढ् of ट-वर्ग will change to ड् That means ड् will not change.
  • The four त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग will change to द् That means द् will not change.

The curiosity will then be what श् ष् स् of शिवसूत्रम् (13) and ह् of शिवसूत्रम् (14) will change to. We shall explore this later on.

These changes influence संधि-प्रक्रिया-s also.

Case (3) when झल् is followed by a vowel, the following vowel mixes into the जश्.

Note the following examples

  • वागीशः (वाक्-ईशः) Here क् is first replaced by ग्, Then ग् + ई = गी
  • अजन्तः (अच्-अन्तः) Here च् is first replaced by ज्, Then अज् + अन्तः = अजन्तः Note, since प्रत्याहार अच् = all स्वर-s, अजन्त = स्वरान्त i.e. vowel-ending)
  • षट् + आनन = षडानन Here ट् is first replaced by ड् Then ड् + आ = डा
  • from गीता – मत्+अर्थे=मदर्थे (1’9), तत्+अस्माकं=तदस्माकं (1’10), अन्यत्+अस्ति=अन्यदस्ति (2’42),  यत्+ऋच्छया=यदृच्छया (2’32), यावत्+एतान्=यावदेतान् (1’22) 

So, with 24 पूर्ववर्ण-s from झल् and 13 vowels as परवर्ण-s, number of possible combinations can be 312. This सूत्रम् – झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) becomes the formula for 312 सन्धि-s of Case (3).

Actually, there is a सूत्रम् – झलां जश् झशि (8’4’53) has झलां and जश् common to झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) We can say that झलां जश् झशि is an extension of झलां जशोऽन्ते. We shall discuss this in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 25

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 25

As was explained in the previous Lesson 24, शिवसूत्रम् १२ – क प य् is helpful in understanding that when विसर्ग is followed by क or प, then विसर्ग stays. Intuitively we have started discussing the विसर्गसंधि-s !

Understanding संधि-s is basically understanding the phonetic result, when there is combined pronunciation of पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण.

In विसर्गसंधि-s the पूर्ववर्ण is a vowel with its expiration i.e. विसर्ग. So, we can say that पूर्ववर्ण-s in विसर्गसंधि-s would be अः आः इः ईः उः ऊः ऋः ॠः लृः एः ऐः ओः औः (13). That makes a good justification to discuss विसर्गसंधि-s immediately next after स्वरसंधि-s.

The परवर्ण can be any of the 13 vowels or any of the 33 consonants in शिवसूत्र-s 5 to 14. Hence mathematically there can be 13×46=598 varieties of विसर्गसंधि-s.

Since the varieties of विसर्गसंधि-s are too large in number, it would be good treat them in at least two sections (a) when परवर्ण is a vowel (b) when परवर्ण is a consonant.

For विसर्गसंधि-s when परवर्ण is a vowel, although the varieties will be 13×13=169, there is some  pattern, by which even the large number of varieties will yet be still simple to understand.

I am quoting most examples from गीता, because anyone can verify the examples.

Case 1 – When पूर्ववर्णः is अः

  • (1’1) when परवर्णः is अ e.g. (1) प्रथमः + अध्यायः = प्रथमोऽध्यायः (2) कूर्मः + अङ्गानि = कूर्मोऽङ्गानि (गीता 2’58)
    • Note प्रक्रिया has following steps. (i) अः = अ + विसर्ग ⇒  विसर्गस्य उकारः विसर्ग changes to उ and then अ + उ = ओ (ii) परवर्णस्य अकारस्य लोपः अवग्रहः च The अकार in परवर्ण position vanishes and is indicated by the “S” sign, called as अवग्रह.
  • (1’2) when परवर्ण is any other vowel other than अ  
    • प्रक्रिया is simple that विसर्ग vanishes, विसर्गस्य लोपः
    • परवर्ण is आ e.g. निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् (2-45) युक्त आसीत (2-61) मन आधत्स्व (12-8) दैव आसुरः (16-6) प्रोक्त आसुरं (16-6)
    • परवर्ण is इ e.g. अन्तवन्तः + इमे = अन्तवन्त इमे (गीता 2’18)
    • परवर्ण is उ e.g. (1) धृतराष्ट्रः + उवाच = धृतराष्ट्र उवाच (गीता 1’1) (2)संजय उवाच (गीता 1-2) (3) ध्यायन्त उपासते (गीता 12-6)
    • परवर्ण is ऊ e.g. (1) अत ऊर्ध्वं (12-8)
    • परवर्ण is ए e.g. (1) काम एषः (3-37) क्रोध एषः (3-37) (3) भूयः + एव = भूय एव (गीता 10’1)
    • Note, after विसर्गस्य लोपः we are left with अ + any other vowel other than अ. There can be a स्वरसन्धि. But that स्वरसन्धि is not to be done. We must not say भूयः + एव = भूय एव = भूयैव
  • (1’3)  Not only that पूर्ववर्णः is अः, but the word having this पूर्ववर्णः अः is either सः or एषः and
    • परवर्ण is अ then the सन्धि is as per (1’1) e.g. सः + अपि = सोऽपि (गीता 18’71)
    • परवर्ण is any वर्ण, any vowel or consonant, except अ, then विसर्ग vanishes, विसर्गस्य लोपः e.g.  (1) सः शब्दः = स शब्दः (गीता 1’13) (2) एषः धर्मः = एष धर्मः (3) सः घोषः = स घोषः (गीता 1’19) स कौन्तेयः (1-27) स बध्यते (4-14) स पश्यति (5-5) स युक्तः (5-23) स सुखी (5-23) स योगी (5-24)
  • (1’4) परवर्ण is a consonant of प्रत्याहार हश् i.e. (ह् य् व् र् ल्)’ (ञ् म् ङ् ण् न्)” (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्)^ (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्)* then  प्रक्रिया has from case (1’1) the step (i) अः = अ + विसर्ग ⇒ विसर्गस्य उकारः विसर्ग changes to उ and then अ + उ = ओ e.g. युयुधानः + विराटः = युयुधानो विराटः (गीता 1’4) सौभद्रः + द्रौपदेयाः = सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाः (गीता 1’6); घोषः धार्तराष्ट्राणाम् = घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणाम् (गीता 1’19) वासः + भवति = वासो भवति (1-44) श्रेयः + भोक्तुम् = श्रेयो भोक्तुम् (2-5) नः + गरीयः + यद्वा = नो गरीयो यद्वा (2-6) नः जयेयुः = नो जयेयुः (2-6) प्रसन्नचेतसः + हि = प्रसन्नचेतसो हि (2-65) रजः + गुणः = रजोगुणः (3-37) कायशिरः + ग्रीवम् = कायशिरोग्रीवम् (6-13) विश्वतः + मुखम् = विश्वतोमुखम् (9-15) शिरः + मुखम् = शिरोमुखम् (13-13)
    • Note, consonants of प्रत्याहार हश् have been shown in 4 groups  
    • (ह् य् व् र् ल्)’ these consonants are considered to be semi-vowels. When studying स्वरसन्धि-s we have seen that there is one-to-one correspondence between the vowels इ उ ऋ लृ of प्रत्याहार इक् and the consonants य् व् र् ल् of प्रत्याहार यण्. This correspondence was also summarized in the स्वरसन्धिसूत्रम् – इको यणचि (6’1’77)
    • (ञ् म् ङ् ण् न्)” are all nasal consonants the fifth letters in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively.
    • (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्)^ Pronunciation of these consonants has sound of ह् inbuilt. These are fourth letters in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively. These are also called as महाप्राण मृदु consonants.
    • (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्)* These are third letters in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively. These are also called as अल्पप्राण मृदु consonants.
  • (1’5) परवर्ण is ख् क् or फ् प् the विसर्ग stays विसर्गः तिष्ठति e.g. (1) चेकितानः + काशिराजः = चेकितानः काशिराजः (गीता 1’5) (2) कामः कामात् (गीता 2-62) (3) शब्दः + खे = शब्दः खे (गीता 7’8) (4) कुरुवृद्धः + पितामहः = कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः (गीता 1’12) (5) सर्वशः + पृथिवीपते = सर्वशः पृथिवीपते (गीता 1’18) (6) माधवः + पाण्डवः = माधवः पाण्डवः (गीता 1’14)
    • Since सन्धि is some change in pronunciation, we can say that here there is no सन्धि. Grammarians however contend that there is some change in pronunciation. Actually if one would listen to one’s own pronunciation, one would gather that the pronunciation of the विसर्ग replicates the sound of the परवर्ण
      • The sound effect when परवर्ण is ख् or क् is called as जिह्वामूलीय a term particularly applied to the Visarga before क् and ख्
      • The sound effect when परवर्ण is फ् or प् is called as उपध्मानीय the term for the aspirate Visarga before the letters प् and फ्
  • (1’6) When परवर्ण is श् ष् or स् then also विसर्ग stays विसर्गः तिष्ठति e.g. (1) आत्मनः + श्रेयः = आत्मनः श्रेयः (गीता 16’22) (2) भवन्तः + सर्वे = भवन्तः सर्वे (गीता 1’11) (3) अहः + शुक्लः = अहः शुक्लः (गीता 8’24) (4) शुक्लः + षण्मासाः = शुक्लः षण्मासाः (गीता 8’24) (5) ततः + शङ्खाः = ततः शङ्खाः (गीता 1’13) (6) नकुलः + सहदेवः = नकुलः सहदेवः (गीता 1’16) तपःसु (8-28) अधःशाखं (15-1)
    • Actually if one would listen to one’s own pronunciation, one would gather that the pronunciation of the विसर्ग replicates the sound of the परवर्ण i.e. the sound of श् ष् or स्.
    • So “विसर्ग stays” is the rule primarily for writing, not exactly for pronunciation.
  • (1’7) When परवर्ण is छ् or च् the विसर्ग changes to श् e.g. (1) कः + चन = कश्चन (गीता 6’2) (2) कः + चित् = कश्चित् (गीता 6’40) (3) विभ्रष्टश्छिन्नाभ्रम् (गीता 6’38)
  • (1’8) When परवर्ण is ठ् or ट् the विसर्ग changes to ष् e.g. (1)
  • (1’9) When परवर्ण is थ् or त् the विसर्ग changes to स् e.g. (1) शब्दः + तुमुलः = शब्दस्तुमुलः (गीता 1’13) (2) कुतः + त्वा = कुतस्त्वा (गीता 2’2)

Thus 46 variants of विसर्गसंधि-s when पूर्ववर्णः is अः fall into 9 patterns.

Case 2 – When पूर्ववर्णः is आः and

  • (2’1) परवर्ण is any vowel
    • प्रक्रिया is simple that विसर्ग vanishes, विसर्गस्य लोपः
    • (1) बालाः अत्र = बाला अत्र
    • (2) मणिगणा इव (गीता 7’7) नित्ययुक्ताः + उपासते = नित्ययुक्ता उपासते (गीता 12’2)
  • (2’2) परवर्ण is a consonant of प्रत्याहार हश् i.e. (ह् य् व् र् ल्)’ (ञ् म् ङ् ण् न्)” (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्)^ (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्)* then also
    • प्रक्रिया is simple, that विसर्ग vanishes, विसर्गस्य लोपः
    • e.g.  (1) शूराः महेष्वासाः भीमार्जुनसमाः युधि = शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि (गीता 1’4) (2) नायकाः मम = नायका मम (गीता1’7) (3)  देहाः नित्यस्य = देहा नित्यस्य (गीता 2’18) (4) बहुशाखाः हि = बहुशाखा हि (गीता 2’41)
  • (2’3) परवर्ण is क् ख् or प् फ् the विसर्ग stays विसर्गः तिष्ठति though grammatically the pronunciation of the विसर्ग is जिह्वामूलीय or उपध्मानीय e.g. (1) मामकाः पाण्डवाः (गीता 1’1) (2) आचार्याः पितरः (गीता 1’34) (3) अवस्थिताः प्रमुखे (गीता 2’6)
  • (2.4) When परवर्ण is श् ष् or स् then also विसर्ग stays विसर्गः तिष्ठति e.g. (1) भोगाः सुखानि (गीता 1’33) उदाराः सर्वे (7-18) मातुलाः श्वशुराः (1-34) श्यालाः संबन्धिनः (1-34)
  • (2.5) When परवर्ण is छ् or च् the विसर्ग changes to श् e.g. (1)
  • (2.6) When परवर्ण is ठ् or ट् the विसर्ग changes to ष् e.g. (1)
  • (2.7) When परवर्ण is थ् or त् the विसर्ग changes to स् e.g. (1) पुत्राः + तथा = पुत्रास्तथा (गीता 1’34)

Thus 46 variants of विसर्गसंधि-s when पूर्ववर्णः is आः fall into 7 patterns only

Case 3 When पूर्ववर्णः is इः or ईः and

  • (3.1) परवर्ण is any vowel
    • प्रक्रिया is विसर्गस्य रेफः Note, grammatical name for the वर्णः र् is रेफः. So, “प्रक्रिया is विसर्गस्य रेफः” simply means विसर्ग becomes र्  
    • eg (1) बुद्धिः + अस्य = बुद्धिरस्य (गीता 3’40) (2) हानिः + अस्य = हानिरस्य (गीता 2’25) (3) मुनिः + उच्यते = मुनिरुच्यते (गीता 2’56) (4) आत्मरतिः + एव = आत्मरतिरेव (गीता 3’17)
    • Also (1) निराशीः + अपरिग्रहः = निराशीरपरिग्रहः (गीता 6’10)
  • (3.2) परवर्ण is a consonant of प्रत्याहार हश् i.e. (ह् य् व् र् ल्)’ (ञ् म् ङ् ण् न्)” (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्)^ (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्)* then also
    • प्रक्रिया is विसर्गस्य रेफः
    • eg अग्निः + ज्योतिः = अग्निर्ज्योतिः (गीता 8’24); बुद्धिः + ज्ञानम् = बुद्धिर्ज्ञानम् (गीता 10’4) [Note the letter ज्ञ is ज् + ञ् + अ];  प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्दन (1-39) प्राप्तिर्धीरः (2’13) निर्द्वन्द्वः (2’45) निर्वेदं (2’52) वह्निर्यथा (3’38)
    • Also (1) निराशीः + निर्ममः = निराशीर्निर्ममः (गीता 3’30) [Note निः + ममः = निर्ममः]
  • (3’3) परवर्ण is क् ख् or प् फ् the विसर्ग stays विसर्गः तिष्ठति though grammatically the pronunciation of the विसर्ग is जिह्वामूलीय or उपध्मानीय e.g. अस्माभिः पापात् (गीता 1’39); स्थितधीः किं (गीता 2’54)
  • (3.4) When परवर्ण is श् ष् or स् then also विसर्ग stays विसर्गः तिष्ठति e.g. (1) प्रीतिः स्यात् (गीता 1’36) निःश्रेयसकरौ (5-2) शाश्वतीः समाः (6’41) औषधीः सर्वाः (15’13)
  • (3.5) When परवर्ण is छ् or च् the विसर्ग changes to श् e.g.
    • (1) पूर्ववर्णः इः परवर्णः च् निः + चित्य = निश्चित्य (गीता 3’2)
  • (3.6) When परवर्ण is ठ् or ट् the विसर्ग changes to ष् e.g. (1)
  • (3.7) When परवर्ण is थ् or त् the विसर्ग changes to स् e.g. (1) सौमदत्तिस्तथा (1-8) बुद्धिस्तदा

Cases 4 to 13 – The seven patterns when पूर्ववर्णः is इः or ईः are identical when पूर्ववर्ण-s are उः ऊः ऋः ॠः लृः एः ऐः ओः औः Some examples are

  • Pattern 1 – परवर्ण is any vowel प्रक्रिया is विसर्गस्य रेफः
    • when पूर्ववर्णः is उः e.g. (1) जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी (2) क्रतुरहम् दुरासदम् बन्धुरात्मा  अघायुरिन्द्रियारामः (3) उत्सीदेयुरिमे (4) आहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः
    • भूर्मा (2’47)
    • when पूर्ववर्णः is एः e.g. मुनेरभ्यासः
    • when पूर्ववर्णः is ऐः e.g. पूर्वैः + अपि = पूर्वैरपि (गीता 4’15); योगैरपि; शनैरुपरमेत् (गीता 6’25)
    • when पूर्ववर्णः is ओः  e.g. (1) उभयोः + अपि = उभयोरपि (गीता 2’16) (2) अणोः + अणीयान् = अणोरणीयान् (गीता 8’9) (3) वायोः इव = वायोरिव (गीता 6’34)
  • Pattern 2 – परवर्ण is a consonant of प्रत्याहार हश् i.e. (ह् य् व् र् ल्)’ (ञ् म् ङ् ण् न्)” (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्)^ (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्)* then also प्रक्रिया is विसर्गस्य रेफः e.g.
    • पूर्ववर्णः उः – मृत्युर्ध्रुवं (2’27) चिकिर्षुर्लोकसंग्रहम् (3’25) वायुर्नावम् (2’67) आहुर्योगं (6’2)
    • पूर्ववर्णः ऐः – तैः + हृतज्ञानाः = तैर्हृतज्ञानाः (गीता 7’20) श्वेतैर्हयैः (1’14) हयैर्युक्ते (1’14) कैर्मया (1’22) दोषैः + एतैः = दोषैरेतैः (गीता 1’43); एतैर्विमोहयति (3’40)
    • पूर्ववर्णः ओः – उभयोर्मध्ये (1’21) तयोर्न (3’34)
  • Pattern 3 – परवर्ण is क् ख् or प् फ् the विसर्ग stays विसर्गः तिष्ठति though grammatically the pronunciation of the विसर्ग is जिह्वामूलीय or उपध्मानीय e.g.
    • दध्मुः पृथक् (गीता 1’18); विदुः कृत्स्नं (गीता 7’29); आहुः पण्डितं (गीता 4’19)
    • बुद्धेः परम् (गीता 3’43)
    • एतैः कुलघ्नानाम् (गीता 1’43); कर्मेन्द्रियैः कर्मयोगं (गीता 3’7); सांख्यैः प्राप्यते (गीता 5’5); पूर्वैः पूर्वतरम् (गीता 4’15)
    • हेतोः किम् (गीता 1’35)
  • Pattern 4 – When परवर्ण is श् ष् or स् then also विसर्ग stays विसर्गः तिष्ठति e.g. (1) वायुः सर्वत्रगः (9-6) उच्चैः शङ्खम् (1-12) शनैः शनैः (गीता 6’25) सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योः समः (2-48)
  • Pattern 5 – When परवर्ण is छ् or च् the विसर्ग changes to श्
    • पूर्ववर्णः उः परवर्णः च् e.g. (1) धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः (5-4-2) युधामन्युश्च (5-4-3) चक्षुश्च;
    • इन्द्रियैश्चरन्
  • Pattern 6 – When परवर्ण is ठ् or ट् the विसर्ग changes to ष् e.g. तैः + टीका = तैष्टीका 
  • Pattern 7 – When परवर्ण is थ् or त् the विसर्ग changes to स् e.g. (1)हन्युस्तन्मे (1-46) वियुक्तैस्तु (2-64) कामैस्तैस्तैः (7-20) तयोस्तु (5-2)

In Matrices 5 and 6 below is summarized all the above study of all 13×46 = 598 विसर्गसन्धि-s  विसर्गसन्धयः Matrix 5 + 6

As can be seen, for all the 13×46 = 598 विसर्गसंधि-s, the प्रक्रिया-s are only the following

  1. विसर्ग becomes उ i.e. विसर्गस्य उकारः
    1. With लोपः of परवर्ण if परवर्ण is अ See Matrix 5,
    2. With only उ-कार of विसर्ग
  2. विसर्ग vanishes; विसर्गस्य लोपः
  3. विसर्ग becomes र् विसर्गस्य रेफः
  4. विसर्ग stays विसर्गः तिष्ठति –
    1. with pronunciation of विसर्ग as जिह्वामूलीय or उपध्मानीय as in columns E and F
    2. with pronunciation of विसर्ग nearing the pronunciation of परवर्ण-s, when they are श् ष् स् as in column G
  5. विसर्ग becomes श् विसर्गस्य श्-आदेशः as in column H
  6. विसर्ग becomes ष् विसर्गस्य ष्-आदेशः as in column I
  7. विसर्ग becomes स् विसर्गस्य स्-आदेशः as in column J

The प्रक्रिया-s 4, 5, 6 and 7 in columns E, F, G, H, I and J applicable to 13 परवर्ण-s क्, ख्, प्, फ्, श् ष् स् च् छ् ट् ठ् त् थ् are common for all पूर्ववर्ण-s i.e. 13×13 = 169 विसर्गसंधि-s.

Understanding संधि-s, not just विसर्गसंधि-s is important, certainly for understanding the resultant sound-effect when a पूर्ववर्ण and a परवर्ण are in close proximity with each other. But it is also important to understand the converse of it. One gets most Sanskrit texts with the संधि-s already effected. To interpret the texts, one needs to first decipher or do dissection of the संधि-s. This is called as पदच्छेद. To cite a couple of examples

  1. First line of श्लोक 1’4 in गीता reads अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि By पदच्छेद the line is अत्र शूराः महेष्वासाः भीमार्जुनसमाः युधि Note there are 3 विसर्ग-s, which have vanished !
  2. First line of श्लोक 8’24 in गीता reads अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम् By पदच्छेद the line is अग्निः ज्योतिः अहः शुक्लः षण्मासाः उत्तरायणम् As can be noted
    1. अग्निः + ज्योतिः = अग्निर्ज्योतिः
      1. पूर्ववर्ण is इः परवर्ण is ज्
      2. विसर्गस्य रेफः
    2. अग्निर्ज्योतिः + अहः = अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः
      1. पूर्ववर्ण is इः परवर्ण is अ
      2. विसर्गस्य रेफः Hence अग्निर्ज्योतिर् + अहः = अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः
    3. अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः + शुक्लः = अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः
      1. पूर्ववर्ण is अः परवर्ण is श् Hence विसर्गः तिष्ठति
    4. (अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः) + षण्मासाः = अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासाः
      1. पूर्ववर्ण is अः परवर्ण is ष् Hence विसर्गः तिष्ठति
    5. (अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासाः) + उत्तरायणम्
      1. पूर्ववर्ण is आः परवर्ण is उ Hence विसर्गस्य लोपः
      2. So, finally with five विसर्गसंधि-s, what we get to read is अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम्
    6. We have to do पदच्छेद-s. Then only, we would be able to see the individual words distinctly and then interpret the श्लोक.
    7. It is important to note that Sanskrit texts can have such cascades of संधि-s, making long, unbroken texts. They all have to be dissected.
  3. By the way, what we have in the श्लोक is enumeration of what direction, what surroundings, what time will make death of an elevated soul, even more benevolent. The dictated direction, surroundings and time are –  the direction should be अग्निः i.e. southeast, the surroundings should be ज्योतिः / ज्योतिष् i.e. bright, not dull, sulken or dark, the time should be अहः daytime, शुक्लः the day should be of first fortnight, of increasing phase of the moon, month be of any of षण्मासाः six months of उत्तरायणम् i.e. when sun-rise would be traversing northwards at the horizon. भीष्मपितामह had the boon to choose time to breathe his last. Even after having been felled on the battleground, he held his breath for almost 8/10 days, until commencement of उत्तरायणम्. Maybe, he even had his body placed in the southeast corner of the battleground and had lights placed around his body. Isn’t this picture of even a fallen soldier sublime ?

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 24

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 24

Having discussed स्वरसंधि-s in lessons 21, 22 and 23, logically the next step should be to discuss व्यञ्जनसंधि-s and then विसर्गसंधि-s. But it comes to mind that I should devote this lesson to शिवसूत्राणि, also known as माहेश्वरसूत्राणि or प्रत्याहारसूत्राणि.

In Lesson 21, I had made a statement “.. I would think that explaining the rules and patterns, by explaining the पाणिनिसूत्र-s would eminently be beyond the scope of “Simple Sanskrit”. ..” One may ask, “Does it become good to discuss शिवसूत्राणि as a part of Simple Sanskrit ?

I would think it is not only good, rather helpful to discuss शिवसूत्राणि. For one thing शिवसूत्राणि are not as complex as पाणिनिसूत्र-s. They are just 14 lists of Sanskrit alphabets or वर्ण-s. But the arrangement of वर्ण-s is different from the way one learns them when learning the देवनागरी script.

The arrangement is different because in शिवसूत्राणि the वर्ण-s are arranged by their phonetic characteristics.

In the script also the वर्ण-s have some logic of phonetic characteristics, such as place from where the वर्ण emanates, viz. from throat कण्ठ्य (क-वर्ग), from teeth दन्त्य (च-वर्ग), from gums तालव्य (त-वर्ग), from the roof मूर्धन्य (ट-वर्ग), from lips ओष्ठ्य (प-वर्ग). Every वर्ग has a set of 5 वर्ण-s again in an order, first two वर्ण-s are कठोर, next two are मृदु and fifth one is nasal अनुनासिक.

In शिवसूत्राणि वर्ण-s are in an order, such that it becomes easy to explain or understand how two वर्ण-s mix with each other, which is what happens in संधि-s. That is the reason, why it becomes not only good, rather helpful to discuss शिवसूत्राणि in the context of संधि-s.

Let me enumerate the शिवसूत्राणि.

क्रमाङ्कः

सूत्रम्

वर्णसंख्या

अ इ उ ण्

ऋ लृ क्

ए ओ ङ्

ऐ औ च्

ह य व र ट्

ल ण्

ञ म ङ ण न म्

झ भ ञ्

घ ढ ध ष्

१०

ज ब ग ड द श्

११

ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व्

१२

क प य्

१३

श ष स र्

१४

ह ल्

कुलतः

४३

Some important observations –

(1) The consonant at the end of each सूत्र is only an end-marker. So it is not counted in number of वर्ण-s in a सूत्र.

(2) First 4 सूत्र-s cover all vowels though –

  • दीर्घस्वर-s आ ई ऊ ॠ ॡ are not in the list. They are to be taken as contained in their short representatives अ इ उ ऋ लृ

  • When one learns the script the vowels ए ऐ ओ औ are in such order. Here the order is ए ओ ऐ औ.

    • By the order in the script अ आ इ ई उ ऊ … अ is short, आ is long. One may get an impression that ए is short and ऐ is long. Also ओ is short and औ is long. This is wrong.

      • ए is conjoint of अ/आ with इ/ई

      • ऐ however is a conjoint of अ/आ with ए, conjoint with a conjoint or second level conjoint.

      • Similarly ओ is conjoint of अ/आ with उ/ऊ

      • औ however is conjoint of अ/आ with ओ, conjoint with a conjoint or second level conjoint.

      • As can be appreciated ऐ is not long of ए, because ए can itself be pronounced long, say when calling somebody aloud or calling from a long distance ए ऽ ऽ !

  • By finer analysis, grammar considers that most vowels can be pronounced in 18 ways, all of which cannot be represented in scripting. That could be a reason, why Vedas are said to have been transmitted only orally for hundreds or thousands of years, Guru getting the shishya to pronounce every pronunciation only in the manner, which will bring the benevolent effect of every mantra. The benevolent effect will come, only when pronunciation is perfect. By the way the 18 ways of pronouncing a vowel are from the pronunciation being

    • nasal or not nasal अनुनासिक / अननुनासिक

    • short, long or extended ह्रस्व दीर्घ प्लुत

    • stressed, unstressed (level) or low उदात्त स्वरित अनुदात्त

    • 2x3x3 = 18

(3) Among 43 वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्राणि, there are

  • 9 vowels स्वराः in सूत्र-s 1 to 4 and

  • 34 consonants व्यञ्जनानि in सूत्र-s 5 to 14 –

    • actually 33, because ह is repeated in सूत्र-s 5 and 14.

    • In शिवसूत्राणि all consonants have अ vowel mixed in them. This is only to facilitate pronunciation of the शिवसूत्र-s,

(4) In the script वर्ण-s are learnt in the order य र ल व …. ह. In सूत्र-s the order is ह य व र in सूत्र 5 and ल in सूत्र 6. Why the order in सूत्र-s is more appropriate for learning संधि-s can be appreciated by recalling Matrix 3 in Lesson 22.

All संधि-s there were explained by a single सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६/१/७७). This सूत्रम् has 3 प्रत्याहार-s इक् यण् and अच्.

  • प्रत्याहार is the name of a set of वर्ण-s. The elements of the set are all those वर्ण-s, starting with the beginning वर्ण of the प्रत्याहार up to the end-marker.

  • Hence इक् = इ उ ऋ लृ

  • यण् = य व र ल and

  • अच् = अ इ उ ऋ लृ ए ओ ऐ औ

  • From Matrix 3 we can see that there is a nice and intelligent one-to-one correspondence between इ उ ऋ लृ of इक् and य व र ल of यण्.

    • In यण्-संधि-s इ becomes य्, उ becomes व्, ऋ becomes र् and लृ becomes ल्

      • when an element of इक् is followed by and mixes with an element of अच् except when

      • the superseding सूत्रम् अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः applies

(5) Learning विसर्गसंधि-s also becomes easy with शिवसूत्रम् १२ – क प य्. When विसर्ग is followed by क् or प् then the विसर्ग stays.

  • For example in गीता (1) मामकाः पाण्डवाः in श्लोकः 1-1 (2) चेकितानः काशिराजः in श्लोकः 1-5 (3) माधवः पाण्डवः in श्लोकः 1-14 (4) दध्मुः पृथक् in श्लोकः 1-18 (5) कामः कामात् in श्लोकः 2-62 (6) स्थितधीः किं in श्लोकः 2-54

गीता by itself is a good study-material to learn संधि-s of almost all types !

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 23

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 23

सरलं संस्कृतम् – त्रिविंशतितमः पाठः |

Last among matrices of स्वरसन्धि-s is Matrix 4 for the rows of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. Although this is the order, in which one learns these vowels, for learning संधि-s, they are better put in the sequence ए, ओ and ऐ, औ. The logic is that among these four conjoint vowels, ए, ओ are of गुण-character and ऐ, औ are of वृद्धि-character.

Basically we would be studying स्वरसन्धि-s, wherein we have ए, ओ and ऐ, औ in the पूर्ववर्ण-position and we may have any of the 14 vowels – अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, लॄ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ in the परवर्ण-position. So we have to study 4*14 = 56 स्वरसन्धि-s.

Matrix 4

The general rule for these संधि-s is by the सूत्रम् एचोऽयवायावः। (६/१/७८). It would be good to understand the meaning of this सूत्रम्.  एचोऽयवायावः = एचः अय्-अव्-आय्-आवः

एचः = of एच् = of ए, ओ, ऐ and औ = in place of ए, ओ, ऐ and औ

अय्-अव्-आय्-आवः = take अय्-अव्-आय्-आव् respectively. That is, replace ए, ओ, ऐ and औ by अय्-अव्-आय्-आव् respectively.

Let us take example of ते + आगताः When doing any संधि, we should keep alphabetical analysis in mind. As is obvious, here we have  त् + ए + आ (गताः). We are looking for संधि of ए + आ. As per एचोऽयवायावः we should replace ए by अय्. By that we would have त् + अय् + आ (गताः) The result then becomes तयागताः, right ?

संधि-s as per this rule are also called as यान्तावान्तादेशसन्धि-s. But some other rules also apply in specific instances.

To explain all these 56 स्वरसन्धि-s by examples is going to be quite some exercise. Anyway, there is no shortcut to success !

Case 1 ए + अ For example ते + अत्र By एचोऽयवायावः it should be तयत्र. But ए + अ is an exception. Here the general rule एचोऽयवायावः is superseded by एङः पदान्तादति। (६/१/१०९). संधि-s as per this rule are called as पूर्वरूपसंधि-s. In ते + अत्र the alphabetical analysis is त् + ए + अ(त्र). Between ए + अ, ए is पूर्वरूप or पूर्ववर्ण. That stays. The पररूप or परवर्ण is अ. That vanishes or becomes invisible and is not to be pronounced. So संधि of ते + अत्र becomes तेत्र. When writing there has been a practice of giving an indication of the invisible अ by a symbol ‘s’. This symbol is called as अवग्रह. So, when one sees अवग्रह, one should read तेsत्र with a little prolongation of the ए sound, as if one is also pronouncing अ. So, the symbol ‘s’ means “prolong a little bit, the previous vowel sound”.

Case 2 ए + आ Example for this has already been given. ते + आगताः By alphabetical analysis we have  त् + ए + आ (गताः). Then by एचोऽयवायावः we replace ए by अय्. By that we have त् + अय् + आ (गताः) The result then becomes तयागताः  

Now there is also an OPTION for this संधि. The option is by the rule लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९). लोपः means something gets dropped off. What drops off in this instance is य् from अय् or आय्, also व् from अव् or आव्. So, ते + आगताः ⇒ त् + अय् + आ (गताः) ⇒ त् + अ + आ (गताः) ⇒ त आगताः. It ought to be noted that having dropped य् we get त आगताः. We MUST NOT make further संधि of त आगताः as त + आगताः = तागताः.

Cases 3 to 14 ए + इ, ए + ई … ए + औ All these cases work similar to Case 2, meaning एचोऽयवायावः is the general rule and लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९) is also OPTIONAL. All the twelve cases are explained below by examples

Case 3 ए + इ e.g. ते + इच्छन्ति = तयिच्छन्ति or त + इच्छन्ति.

Case 4 ए + ई e.g. ते + ईशाः = तयीशाः or त ईशाः

Case 5 ए + उ e.g. ते + उपविष्टाः = तयुपविष्टाः or त उपविष्टाः

Case 6 ए + ऊ e.g. ते + ऊर्ध्वम् = तयूर्ध्वम् or त ऊर्ध्वम्

Case 7 ए + ऋ e.g. ते + ऋषयः = तयृषयः or त ऋषयः

Case 8 ए + ॠ e.g. ते + ॠकाराः = तयॄकाराः or त ॠकाराः This example is just composed to explain the संधि. In Sanskrit texts, one would not find any word starting with ॠ

Case 9 ए + लृ e.g. ते + लृकाराः = तयॢकाराः or त लृकाराः This example is just composed to explain the संधि. In Sanskrit texts, one would not find any word starting with लृ

Case 10 ए + ॡ e.g. ते + ॡकाराः = तयॣकाराः or त ॡकाराः This example is just composed to explain the संधि. In Sanskrit texts, one would not find any word starting with ॡ

Case 11 ए + ए e.g. ते + एजन्ति = तयेजन्ति or त एजन्ति

Case 12 ए + ऐ e.g. ते + ऐश्वर्यम् = तयैश्वर्यम् or त ऐश्वर्यम्

Case 13 ए + ओ e.g. ते + ओजः = तयोजः or त ओजः

Case 14 ए + औ e.g. ते + औषधिः = तयौषधिः or त औषधिः

I am a fan of श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता not only because one can learn eternal and universally valid philosophy from it, but also because one can learn Sanskrit, when studying it. There is a phrase in 1’33, which is a good example of Cases 3 and 1. The phrase is त इमेऽवस्थिताः Actually most Sanskrit texts and many Sanskrit words have संधि-s already done. So, the first step in exploring the meaning of a Sanskrit text becomes to decipher or segregate the components. This is called as पदच्छेदनम्. I have already hinted that त इमेऽवस्थिताः has Cases 3 and 1 inherent. Maybe, it would be a good idea to put in such exercises on पदच्छेदनम् in the flow of this lesson.

Cases 15 to 28 for ऐ + अ, ऐ + आ, …. ऐ + औ will all be by एचोऽयवायावः and optionally by लोपः शाकल्यस्य. Here are examples of not all 14 cases but of a few cases. I shall give some cases as exercises.

Case 15 ऐ + अ e.g. कस्मै + अददात् = कस्म् + ऐ + अददात् = कस्म् + आय् + अददात् = कस्मायददात् or कस्मा अददात्

Case 16 ऐ + आ e.g. कस्मै + आनन्दः = ? or ?

Case 17 ऐ + इ e.g. कस्मै + इच्छन्ति = कस्म् + ऐ + इच्छन्ति = कस्म् + आय् + इच्छन्ति = कस्मायिच्छन्ति or कस्मा इच्छन्ति

Case 18 ऐ + ई e.g. कस्मै + ईशः = ? or ?

Case 19 ऐ + उ e.g. कस्मै + उपायः = कस्म् + ऐ + उपायः = कस्म् + आय् + उपायः = कस्मायुपायः or कस्मा उपायः

Case 20 ऐ + ऊ e.g. कस्मै + ऊर्जा = ? or ?

Case 21 ऐ + ऋ e.g. कस्मै + ऋषित्वम् = कस्म् + ऐ + ऋषित्वम् = कस्म् + आय् + ऋषित्वम् = कस्मायृषित्वम् or कस्मा ऋषित्वम्

Cases 22, 23 and 24 for ऐ + ॠ, ऐ + लृ, ऐ + लॄ need not be discussed, because, in Sanskrit texts, one would not find any words starting with ॠ, लृ or लॄ.

Case 25 ऐ + ए e.g. कस्मै + एजन्ति = कस्म् + ऐ + एजन्ति = कस्म् + आय् एजन्ति = कस्मायेजन्ति or कस्मा एजन्ति One good example of this case also is of how one gets चतुर्थी एकवचनम् for रै (meaning wealth). The suffix प्रत्यय for चतुर्थी एकवचनम् is ए. So we have to do रै + ए = र् + आय् + ए = राये. One comes across this word राये in the last stanza of ईशावास्योपनिषत् – अग्ने नय सुपथा राये अस्मान् (O fire ! for wealth, lead us by the righteous path). Such संधि occuring in the process of formation of a word is called as internal संधि. We must not do पदच्छेदनम् for such internal संधि-s.

Case 26 ऐ + ऐ e.g. कस्मै + ऐश्वर्यम् = ? or ?

Case 27 ऐ + ओ e.g. कस्मै + ओजः = कस्मायोजः or कस्मा ओजः

Case 28 ऐ + औ e.g. (a) रै + औ = र् + ए + औ = र् + आय् + औ = रायौ. Note, औ is suffix for formatting प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of words. By रै + औ = रायौ we have रायौ as प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of रै (b) कस्मै + औषधिः = ? or ?

Cases 29 to 42 shall be for ओ + अ, ओ + आ, … ओ + औ.

Case 29 ओ + अ This संधि is similar to that of ए + अ, that is, the rule एङः पदान्तादति। (६/१/१०९) applies. For example सो + अपि = सोऽपि. But there would be instances when only एचोऽयवायावः (६/१/७८) applies. Take for example forming a compound word to say “following a cow”. The word for cow is गो and for “following” is अन्वयः. So we have to do compounding of गो + अन्वयः. This compounding will be only by संधि as गो + अन्वयः = ग् + ओ + अन्वयः = ग् + अव् + अन्वयः = गवन्वयः We cannot do गो + अन्वयः = गोऽन्वयः. This is because the rule एङः पदान्तादति applies, only if ओ is in पदान्त i.e. at the end-position of a word. In the process of making a compound word, गो + अन्वयः the ओ of गो would not remain at the end of the word.

By the way, to understand the meaning of a compound word, one has to decipher how the component words are related to each other. This is called as विग्रह. In गवन्वयः we have

  1. गो = cow
  2. अन्वयः = going behind or one who goes behind
  3. Hence गवन्वयः =
    1. the action of going behind a cow
    2. one, who goes behind a cow, i.e. a cowherd and in a specific instance गवन्वयः means Lord Krishna !

In the lessons thus far, I have not discussed समास-s. This example is a good suggestion to discuss them soon.

Cases 30 to 42 ओ + आ, ओ + इ … will be in the case of compound words, only by एचोऽयवायावः (६/१/७८) and in the case of uncompounded words by एचोऽयवायावः (६/१/७८) or optionally by लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९). In Sanskrit there are not many words like गो, which have ending vowel ओ. So, as examples of cases 30 to 42, we can have compound words with गो as first component. In Sanskrit सम्बोधन-एकवचनम् of उ-कारान्त masculine words would have ending vowel ओ. For example प्रभु ⇒ प्रभो, भानु ⇒ भानो, गुरु ⇒ गुरो, etc. Let us see a few examples and have some for exercise.

Case 30 ओ + आ e.g. (a) गो + आ = ग् + ओ + आ = ग् + अव् + आ = गवा Note, आ is suffix for formatting तृतीया एकवचनम् of words. By गो + आ = गवा we have गवा as तृतीया एकवचनम् of गो. Similarly we get गो + आम् = गवाम् as षष्ठी बहुवचनम् of गो. (b) गो + आगमनम् = ग् + ओ + आगमनम् = ग् + अव् + आगमनम् = गवागमनम् meaning coming of cow. (c) प्रभो + आगच्छतु = प्रभ् + ओ + आगच्छतु = प्रभ् + अव् + आगच्छतु = प्रभवागच्छतु or प्रभ आगच्छतु |

Case 31 ओ + इ e.g. (a) गो + इ = ग् + ओ + इ = ग् + अव् + इ = गवि Note, इ is suffix for formatting सप्तमी एकवचनम् of words. By गो + इ = गवि we have गवि as सप्तमी एकवचनम् of गो (b) गो + इच्छा = ग् + ओ + इच्छा = ग् + अव् + इच्छा = गविच्छा meaning wish of a cow or wish for a cow. (c) प्रभो + इच्छतु = प्रभ् + ओ + इच्छतु = प्रभ् + अव् + इच्छतु = प्रभविच्छतु or प्रभ इच्छतु |

Case 32 ओ + ई e.g. (a) गो + ईशः = ? meaning master of cow(s) i.e. a cowherd. (b) प्रभो + ईशः = ? or ?

Case 33 ओ + उ e.g. (a) गो + उत्सवः = ग् + ओ + उत्सवः = ग् + अव् + उत्सवः = गवुत्सवः meaning festival for the cows and bulls and the oxen. In India, there has been a tradition especially among the farmers, of observing गवुत्सवः a festival for the oxen, for them to acknowledge the great labor lent by the oxen. The festival is observed on श्रावण-अमावस्या or भाद्रपद-अमावस्या.  (b) प्रभो + उपायः = प्रभ् + ओ + उपायः = प्रभ् + अव् + उपायः = प्रभवुपायः or प्रभ उपायः

Case 34 ओ + ऊ e.g. (a) गो + ऊर्जा = गवूर्जा meaning the strength of a bull. (b) प्रभो + ऊर्जा = ? or ?

Case 35 ओ + ऋ e.g. (a) गो + ऋषित्वम् = ग् + ओ + ऋषित्वम् = ग् + अव् + ऋषित्वम् = गवृषित्वम् This is fitting adoration of Nandi, who was given the special distinction of being the carrier of Lord Shiva, in acknowledgement of his exemplary conduct. (b) प्रभो + ऋषित्वम् = प्रभ् + ओ + ऋषित्वम् = प्रभ् + अव् + ऋषित्वम् = प्रभवृषित्वम् or प्रभ ऋषित्वम्

Cases 36, 37 and 38 for ओ + ॠ, ओ + लृ, ओ + लॄ need not be discussed, because, in Sanskrit texts, one would not find any words starting with ॠ, लृ or लॄ.

Case 39 ओ + ए e.g. गो + ए = ग् + ओ + ए = ग् + अव् + ए = गवे Note, ए is the suffix for formatting चतुर्थी एकवचनम् of words. By गो + ए = गवे we have गवे as चतुर्थी एकवचनम् of गो (b) गो + एजनम् = गवेजनम् Because एजनम् means movement, this word गवेजनम् can mean the special characteristics of oxen that by slightest excitement, there will be a shiver on their skin. (b) प्रभो + एजन्ति = प्रभ् + ओ + एजन्ति = प्रभ् + अव् + एजन्ति = प्रभवेजन्ति or प्रभ एजन्ति

Case 40 ओ + ऐ e.g. (a) गो + ऐश्वर्यम् = गवैश्वर्यम् Some bulls have a grace, even by their horns. Grace of a bull is गवैश्वर्यम्. (b) प्रभो + ऐश्वर्यम् = ? or ?

Case 41 ओ + ओ e.g. (a) गो + ओस् = ग् + ओ + ओस् = ग् + अव् + ओस् = गवोस् = गवोः Note, ओस् is the suffix for formatting षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of words. गवोः is षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of गो (b) प्रभो + ओजः = प्रभ् + ओ + ओजः = प्रभ् + अव् + ओजः = प्रभवोजः or प्रभ ओजः

Case 42 ओ + औ e.g. (a) गो + औ = गवौ i.e. प्रथमा or द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of गो (b) प्रभो + औषधिः = ? or ?

Cases 43 to 56 for औ + अ, औ + आ, …. औ + औ will all be by एचोऽयवायावः and optionally by लोपः शाकल्यस्य. Here are examples of not all 14 cases but of a few cases. We shall have some cases as exercises.

Case 43 औ + अ e.g. (a) नौ + अस् = न् + औ + अस् = न् + आव् + अस् = नावस् = नावः Note, अस् is suffix for formatting प्रथमा बहुवचनम् of words. So नावः is प्रथमा बहुवचनम् of नौ. (b) तौ + अक्षरौ = तावक्षरौ or ता अक्षरौ (c) In गीता in श्लोक 2’8, there is the word भूमावसपत्नम्. What would be its पदच्छेदनम् ?

Case 44 औ + आ e.g. (a) नौ + आ = न् + औ + आ = न् + आव् + आ = नावा Note, आ is suffix for formatting तृतीया एकवचनम् of words. So नावा is तृतीया एकवचनम् of नौ. (b)  नौ + आसनम् = नावासनम् becomes a compound word meaning seat in a boat. (c) तौ + आगतौ (meaning, “those two have come”) = ? or ?

Case 45 औ + इ e.g. (a) नौ + इ = न् + औ + इ = न् + आव् + इ = नावि Note, इ is suffix for formatting सप्तमी एकवचनम् of words. So नावि is सप्तमी एकवचनम् of नौ. (b) तौ + इच्छतः (meaning “They two wish”) = ? or ?

Case 46 औ + ई e.g. (a) नौ + ईशः = नावीशः becomes a compound word meaning master, captain of a boat (b) तौ + ईशौ (meaning “those two masters”) = ? or ?

Case 47 औ + उ e.g. (a) नौ + उत्सवः = नावुत्सवः becomes a compound word meaning festival of boats. There is long tradition of boat race festivals in Kerala, in Tripura, even in Laos. (b) तौ + उपविशतः (meaning “those two sit”) = ? or ?

Case 48 औ + ऊ e.g. तौ + ऊर्जे (meaning the two energies) = तावूर्जे or ता ऊर्जे

Case 49 औ + ऋ e.g. तौ + ऋषी = तावृषी or ता ऋषी

Cases 50, 51 and 52 for औ + ॠ, औ + लृ, औ + लॄ need not be discussed, because, in Sanskrit texts, one would not find any words starting with ॠ, लृ or लॄ.

Case 53 औ + ए e.g. (a)  नौ + ए = न् + औ + ए = न् + आव् + ए = नावे Note, ए is suffix प्रत्यय for चतुर्थी एकवचनम्. So नावे is चतुर्थी एकवचनम् of नौ. (b) नौ + एजनम् = नावेजनम् becomes a compound word meaning “movement of the boat” since एजनम् means movement. (c) तौ + एजतः = तावेजतः or ता एजतः  

Case 54 औ + ऐ e.g. तौ + ऐश्वर्ये (meaning the two splendours) = ? or ?

Case 55 औ + ओ e.g. (a) नौ + ओस् = न् + ओ + ओस् = न् + अव् + ओस् = नावोस् = नावोः Note, ओस् is the suffix for formatting षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of words. नावोः is षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of नौ (b) द्वौ + ओष्ठौ (meaning “two lips”) = ? or ?

Case 56 औ + औ e.g. (a) नौ + औ = न् + औ + औ = न् + आव् + औ = नावौ Note, औ is suffix for formatting प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of words. So नावौ is प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of नौ. (b) तौ + औषधी (meaning the two medicines) = ? or ?

Exercises – Among विभक्तिप्रत्यय-s case-suffixes following have a vowel at their beginning. Since suffixes affix after the word, in the case of the suffixes having vowels at the beginning, the vowels become परवर्ण-s. So it would become a good exercise to get शब्दरूपाणि of words रै, गो and नौ in following cases.

  1. प्रत्यय for प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् is औ.
  2. प्रत्यय for प्रथमा बहुवचनम् is अस् (अः)
  3. प्रत्यय for तृतीया एकवचनम् is आ.
  4. प्रत्यय for चतुर्थी एकवचनम् is ए.
  5. प्रत्यय for पञ्चमी and षष्ठी एकवचनम् is अस् (अः).
  6. प्रत्यय for षष्ठी and सप्तमी द्विवचनम् is ओस् (ओः)
  7. प्रत्यय for सप्तमी एकवचनम् is इ.

Some of these have been already discussed also. No harm doing them again as exercises.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 22

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 22

सरलं संस्कृतम् – द्वाविंशतितमः पाठः |

In this lesson we shall study Matrix 3 for 8 rows for इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ and ॡ. The rule for all these 8 rows is stated by a single सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६/१/७७)

It should be noted that in every row there would be two instances of सवर्णदीर्घसंधि as per अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101). For these instances, only सवर्णदीर्घसंधि would apply, because it supersedes इको यणचि (६/१/७७)

Hence there are (8×12 =) 96 संधि-s possible.

संधि-s as per this rule are also called as यण्संधि-s.

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 3

It will be appreciated that it is difficult to give examples of all 96 possible संधि-s within the matrix itself. These are compiled below.

(1) Examples for row इ +

  1. यदि + पि = (यद् + इ + अ + पि = यद् + य् + अ + पि) = यद्यपि।
  2. इति + देशः = इत्यादेशः
  3. इति + त्सवः = इत्युत्सवः
  4. अति + ष्णम् = अत्यूष्णम्
  5. इति + कारः = इत्यृकारः
  6. इति + कारः = इत्यॄकारः
  7. इति + कारः = इत्यॢकारः
  8. इति + कारः = इत्यॣकारः
  9. इति + एतत् = इत्येतत्
  10. इति + श्वर्यम् = इत्यैश्वर्यम्
  11. इति + जः = इत्योजः
  12. इति + षधिः = इत्यौषधिः

(2) Examples for row ई +

  1. नदी + स्ति = (नद् + ई + अ + स्ति = नद् + य् + अ + स्ति) = नद्यस्ति।
  2. लक्ष्मी + गमनम् = लक्ष्म्यागमनम्
  3. लक्ष्मी + त्सवः = लक्ष्म्युत्सवः
  4. नदी + र्जा = नद्यूर्जा
  5. लक्ष्मी + णम् = लक्ष्म्यृणम् । Some people consider that ऋ becomes अर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes लक्ष्म्यर्णम्
  6. लक्ष्मी + ॠकारः = लक्ष्म्यॄकारः Some people consider that ॠ becomes आर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes लक्ष्म्यार्णम्. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  7. लक्ष्मी + ॡकारः = लक्ष्म्य्लृकारः Some people consider that ॡ becomes अल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes लक्ष्म्यल्णम्. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  8. लक्ष्मी + ॡकारः = लक्ष्म्य्लॄकारः Some people consider that ॡ becomes आल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes लक्ष्म्याल्णम्. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  9. लक्ष्मी + एषा = लक्ष्म्येषा
  10. लक्ष्मी + ऐश्वर्यम् = लक्ष्म्यैश्वर्यम्
  11. लक्ष्मी + ओजः = लक्ष्म्योजः
  12. पिप्पली + औषधिः = पिप्पल्यौषधिः

(3) Examples for row उ +

  1. सु + अस्ति = (स् + उ + अ-स्ति = स् + व् + अ-स्ति) = स्वस्ति
  2. सु + आगतम् = (स् + उ + आ + गतम् = स् + व् + आ + गतम्) = स्वागतम्।
  3. मधु + इदम् = मध्विदम्
  4. गुरु + ईश्वरः = गुर्वीश्वरः
  5. गुरु + ऋषिः = गुर्वृषिः Some people consider that ऋ becomes अर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes गुर्वर्षिः
  6. साधु + ॠकारः = साध्वॄकारः Some people consider that ॠ becomes आर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes साध्वार्कारः. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  7. साधु + लृकारः = साध्वॢकारः Some people consider that ॡ becomes अल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes साध्वल्कारः. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  8. साधु + ॡकारः = साध्वॣकारः Some people consider that ॡ becomes आल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes साध्वाल्कारः. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  9. साधु + एतत् = साध्वेतत्
  10. साधु + ऐश्वर्यम् = साध्वैश्वर्यम्
  11. साधु + ओजः = साध्वोजः
  12. साधु + औषधिः = साध्वौषधिः

(4) Examples for row ऊ +

  1. वधू + अपि = (वध् + ऊ + अ + गमनम् = वध् + व् + अ + पि) = वध्वपि
  2. वधू + आगमनम् = वध्वागमनम्
  3. वधू + इच्छा = वध्विच्छा
  4. चमू + ईर्षा = चम्वीर्षा
  5. अमू + ऋकारौ = अम्वृकारौ Some people consider that ऋ becomes अर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes अम्वर्कारौ. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  6. अमू + ॠकारौ = अम्वॄकारौ Some people consider that ॠ becomes आर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes अम्वार्कारौ. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  7. अमू + लृकारौ = अम्वॢकारौ Some people consider that ॡ becomes अल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes अम्वल्कारः. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  8. अमू + ॡकारौ = अम्वॣकारौ Some people consider that ॡ becomes आल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes अम्वाल्कारः. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  9. चमू + एषा = चम्वेषा
  10. चमू + ऐक्यम् = चम्वैक्यम्
  11. चमू + ओजः = चम्वोजः
  12. चमू + औद्धत्यम् = चम्वौद्धत्यम्

(5) Examples for row ऋ +

  1. पितृ + अग्रजः = (पित् + ऋ + अ-ग्रजः) = पित् + र् + अ-ग्रजः = पित्रग्रजः |
  2. पितृ + आदेशः = पित्रादेशः
  3. पितृ + इच्छा = (पित् + ऋ + इ + च्छा = पित् + र् + इ + च्छा) = पित्रिच्छा।
  4. कॄ + इति = (क् + ॠ + इ + ति = क् + र् + इ + ति)  = क्रिति ।
  5. भ्रातृ + ईर्षा = भ्रात्रीर्षा
  6. पितृ + उत्सवः = पित्रुत्सवः
  7. पितृ + ऊर्मिः = पित्रूर्मिः
  8. Hardly any examples with लृ and ॡ
  9. पितृ + एष्टिः = पित्रेष्टिः
  10. पितृ + ऐश्वर्यम् = पित्रैश्वर्यम्
  11. पितृ + ओजः = पित्रोजः
  12. पितृ + औदार्यम् = पित्रौदार्यम्

(6) No Examples for row ॠ + because there are no words ending with ॠकार

(7) Examples for row लृ +

  1. घस्लृ + अङ्गम् = घस्लङ्गम् |
  2. घस्लृ + आदेशः (घस् + लृ + आ + देशः = घस् + ल् + आ + देशः) = घस्लादेशः|

(8) No Examples for row ॡ + because there are no words ending with ॡकार.

It would have been noted that 96 possible was a theoretical calculation. Practically, I have managed to compose only 62 examples. Examples with ऋ ॠ लृ and ॡ in particular had to be ‘managed’ by concoction.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 21

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 21

सरलं संस्कृतम् – एकविंशतितमः पाठः |

Even though I have been discussing स्वरसंधि-s in previous lessons, it has always been on my mind that there should be a structured, tabulated view, sort of a Matrix view. After quite some effort and study, I am glad that I have been able to compile primarily the general rules for all the 196 possible combinations of स्वरसंधि-s in just 4 matrices.

I would like to present them across three lessons matrices 1 and 2 in this lesson 21, Matrix 3 in next lesson No. 22 and Matrix 4 in lesson No. 23.

Here is Matrix 1 covering स्वरसंधि-s as per सूत्रम् – अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101). Examples of all 20 स्वरसंधि-s are also given.

– Note, just one सूत्रम् with just three words becomes the rule covering 20 स्वरसंधि-s ! That is पाणिनि !!

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 1

These संधि-s are also called as सवर्णदीर्घसंधि-s. These are 5 blocks, of 4 संधि-s each, diagonally across 10 rows.

To proceed further, it becomes logical to proceed by rows, firstly by the first two rows for अ + and आ +.

Here is the matrix 2 for the first two rows.

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 2

As can be seen, in Matrix 2,

  1. There are 8 संधि-s under columns for इ, ई, उ, ऊ. These are as per पाणिनिसूत्रम् आद्गुणः (6-1-87). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as गुणसंधि-s.

  2. Next there are 8 more under columns for ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ as per उरण् रपरः (1-1-51).

  3. Further there are 8 more under columns for ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. These are as per वृद्धिरेचि (६/१/८८). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as वृद्धिसंधि-s

I would think that explaining the rules and patterns, by explaining the पाणिनिसूत्र-s would eminently be beyond the scope of “Simple Sanskrit”. But in case of संधि-rules in particular,

  1. It is interesting how a short and crisp सूत्रम् specifies the rule for so many patterns.

  2. one needs to also know special cases, when a particular rule is superseded by another subsequent rule. There is a सूत्रम् even to say that, when applicable, a subsequent सूत्रम् supersedes a previous सूत्रम् !! For those interested, the सूत्रम् is विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (१-४-२)

In this matrix 2

  1. There is a box under the columns for ऋ, ॠ, लृ and ॡ, mentioning the सूत्रम् – उपसर्गादृति धातौ (6-1-91). This सूत्रम् supersedes the सूत्रम् उरण् रपरः (1-1-51) applicable for these columns. Hence, by virtue of this superseding सूत्रम्, in the special cases of अ/आ-ending उपसर्ग-s followed by धातु-s having initial वर्ण ऋ, there is वृद्धिः आर् instead of अर्. Note संधि between उपसर्ग and धातु is compulsory.

  2. There is also another box under the columns for ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, noting सूत्रम् – एङि पररूपम् (६/१/९४) Sanskrit-explanation of this is अवर्णान्तात् उपसर्गात् एङादौ धातौ परतः पूर्वपरयोः स्थाने पररूपमेकादेशः भवति, संहितायां विषये, meaning if अ-ending उपसर्ग is followed by धातु-s having initial वर्ण ए or ओ, then

    1. such संधि of अ + ए does not become ऐ it becomes ए only, e.g. प्र + एजते (प्र् + {अ + ए} + जते = प्र् + {ए} + जते) = प्रेजते

    2. likewise संधि of अ + ओ does not become औ, it becomes ओ only, e.g. उप + ओषति (उप् + {अ + ओ} + षति = उप् + {ओ} + षति) = उपोषति

    3. The box applies only for columns for ए and ओ, not for all the 4 columns. So, these are very special संधि-s of अ + ए and अ + ओ.

    4. Such संधि-s are also called as पररूपसंधि-s

It is important to bear in mind the rule, telling the instances, when it is compulsory to make a संधि.

संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः |

नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते ||

By पदच्छेद,

  1. संहिता एकपदे नित्या

  2. नित्या धातु-उपसर्गयोः

  3. नित्या समासे

  4. वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षां अपेक्षते

संहिता नित्या = संहिता i.e. संधि (is to be done) नित्या, always = it is compulsory to make a संधि

  1. एकपदे = The resultant word is to be used as one word only, e.g. कश्चित् Actually the word is a संधि of कः + चित्

  2. धातूपसर्गयोः = Between धातु and उपसर्ग, e.g. in अपेक्षते there is उपसर्ग अप and धातु ईक्षते These have to be said only as अपेक्षते as per the गुणसंधि of अ + ई = ए See column for ई in Matrix 2.

  3. समासे = The word धातूपसर्गयोः is a compound word having component words धातु and उपसर्ग. Because it is a compound word, there has to be संधि of उ + उ = ऊ, a सवर्णदीर्घसंधि as per अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः in Matrix 1.

वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षां अपेक्षते = In a sentence it is discretionary. For example, one may say त्वं एव माता or त्वमेव माता.

We shall see Matrix 3 in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-