Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 14

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 14

सरलं संस्कृतम् – चतुर्दशः पाठः |

We are presently studying, how one gets क्रियापदानि the verbs, conjugations of a verbal root धातु. It should be borne in mind that conjugations of a धातु are influenced by the गण to which a धातु belongs and also by the पद-characteristics of the धातु, i.e. whether  परस्मैपद or आत्मनेपद or उभयपद.

Actually the गण of a धातु is mentioned either by its serial order प्रथमगण, द्वितीयगण, … दशमगण or by given a name of the गण Names for गण-s are –
१ भ्वादि (भू + आदि) २ अदादि (अद् + आदि) ३ जुहोत्यादि (जुहोति + आदि) ४ दिवादि (दिव् + आदि)
५ स्वादि (सु + आदि) ६ तुदादि (तुद् + आदि) ७ रुधादि (रुध् + आदि) ८ तनादि (तन् + आदि)
९ क्र्यादि (क्री + आदि) १० चुरादि (चुर् + आदि)

  • आदि = starting from. भू + आदि = starting from भू or with भू as the foremost.
  • Only for the third गण the name has the inflection of the root verb जुह् in वर्तमानकाले, प्रथम-पुरुषे एकवचनम्
  • This may also provoke a deliberation as to, why a particular धातु is considered as the foremost for a particular गण. But this will get into the realm of grammarians’ logic. That would be beyond the scope of ‘Simple Sanskrit’,

 The ten commonly used लकार-s are

(1) लट् = वर्तमानकाल = Present Tense
(2) लङ् = अनद्यतन-भूतकाल = Past tense
(3) लुङ् = तृतीय-(अथवा सामान्य)-भूतकाल = Aorist Past tense
(4) लिट् = परोक्ष-भूतकाल = Past unseen by the speaker
(5) विधिलिङ् = विध्यर्थ = Mood equivalent to “should” in English
(6) लोट् = आज्ञार्थ = Imperative Mood
(7) आशीर्लिङ् = आशीर्वादार्थ = Benedictine Mood, as in “May God bless you !”
(8) लृट् = द्वितीय-(अथवा स्य)-भविष्यत्काल = Future Tense
(9) लुट् = प्रथमभविष्यत्काल = Future Tense not in common use
(10) लृङ् = भविष्यत्काल = Future Tense not in common use

Out of the ten लकार-s, we have studied the following four.
(1) लट् = वर्तमानकाल = Present Tense – See Lesson 1 for परस्मैपदी Lesson 10 for आत्मनेपदी धातु-s
(2) लङ् = अनद्यतन-भूतकाल = Past tense – See Lessons 9 and 10
(4) लिट् = परोक्ष-भूतकाल = Past action, unseen by the speaker – See Lessons 9 and 10
(6) लोट् = आज्ञार्थ = Imperative Mood – See Lesson 2 for परस्मैपदी Lesson 10 for आत्मनेपदी धातु-s

Mr. Neelesh Bodas has done tremendous work in giving conjugations of various धातु-s in different लकार-s. For example, one gets conjugations of धातु कृ (८ उ) at <>

An interesting example of use of लट्-भविष्यत्काल of various धातु-s is found in the सुभाषितम्

रात्रिर्गमिष्यति भविष्यति सुप्रभातम् !

भास्वानुदेष्यति हसिष्यति पन्कजश्रीः !

इत्थं विचारयति कोषगते द्विरेफे !

हा हन्त हन्त नलिनीं गज उज्जहार !!

Detailed study of this सुभाषितम् can be seen in Lesson No. 8 of “Learning Sanskrit by fresh Approach” at संस्कृताध्ययनम् ।

It can be seen that study of all conjugations of even one धातु becomes quite an involving study. A bookseller Mr. T. R. Krishnachar once spent his time in compiling forms/inflections of a large number (662) धातु-s. It became a book with the title बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः ! Recently the book has been re-published by शारदा-पीठम्, शृङ्गेरी. An on-line version is available. For example details for धातु भू are at the page linked.