Contents of Simple Sanskrit

Lesson 1 – 15 Pronouns, 16 verbs, 240 simple sentences in Present tense सार्वनामिककर्तृपदैः वर्तमानकाले वाक्यानि

Lesson 2 – a) 9 more pronouns, 9 more verbs (b) Imperative Total 1200 simple sentences (अ) भवत्सर्वनाम्नः कर्तृपदानि (आ) आज्ञार्थः

Lesson 3 – (a) Interrogatives using masculine declensions of pronoun किम् (अ) किमिति सर्वनाम्नः पुंल्लिङ्गरूपैः प्रश्नाः (b) विभक्ति-s and their Correspondence with prepositions (आ) विभक्त्यर्थाः (c) Negative and affirmative (इ) नकारार्थः

Lesson 4 – Declensions of most common pronouns in all three genders and in all seven विभक्ति-s i.e. cases सर्वनाम्नां लिङ्गविभक्तिवचनभेदैः रूपाणि

Lesson 5 – Declensions of अकारान्त nouns of masculine and neuter genders अकारान्तपुंल्लिङ्गनपुंसकलिङ्गशब्दानां विभक्तिवचनभेदैः रूपाणि

Lesson 6 – Declensions of आकारान्त, इकारान्त words of masculine, neuter and feminine genders आकारान्त-इकारान्तलिङ्गत्रयशब्दानां रूपाणि

Lesson 7 – (a) Numbers – cardinals and ordinals संख्याशब्दाः (b) Telling the time  समयवाचनम् (c) Notes on measurement of Time कालमापनविषये टिप्पण्यः (d) Measurement of Length, Volume, Weight – आयतिमापनम् घनफलमापनम् भारमापनम् (e) Arithmetic operations गणिते विधयः

Lesson 8 – Interrogatives related to numbers and quantities  

Lesson 9 – (a) Simple past अनद्यतन- (लङ्)-भूतकालः including आत्मनेपदम् (b) verbal derivatives – Past passive participles क्त-कृदन्तानि (c) Use of वत्-प्रत्ययान्त (क्तवतु)-कृदन्तानि (d) “after + gerund” e.g. “after doing” कृदन्तानि 

Lesson 10 – आत्मनेपदम् and लकार-s Causative प्रयोजकः

Lesson 11 – कृदन्त-s with different कृत्-suffixes – indeclinables अव्ययानि such as त्वान्त/ल्यबन्त क्त, क्तवतु, विध्यर्थवाचकानि यत्/ण्यत्-तव्यत्-अनीयर् e.g. कार्य कर्तव्य करणीय, तुमन्ताव्ययानि infinitives e.g. ‘to do’ or ‘for doing’ Examples of शतृ-कृदन्त-s in पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन् … (गीता ५-८+९)

Lesson 12 – सनादि (णिच् यङ्- etc.) उपधातु-s

Lesson 13 – Active / Passive कर्तरि → (कर्मणि / भावे)

Lesson 14 – गण-s and लकार-s of धातु-s

Lesson 15 – संधि-s or संहिता-s

Lesson 16 – शिवसूत्राणि and स्वर-सन्धि-s Part 1

Lesson 17 – स्वर-सन्धि-s Part 2

Lesson 18 – स्वर-सन्धि-s Part 3

Lesson 19 – स्वर-सन्धि-s Part 4

Lesson 20 – Some thoughts on Sanskrit, the language

Lesson 21 – स्वर-सन्धि-s Part 1

Lesson 22 – स्वरसंधि-s Matrix 3 इको यणचि

Lesson 23 – स्वरसंधि-s Matrix 4 एचोऽयवायावः + लोपः शाकल्यस्य  

Lesson 24 – शिवसूत्राणि

Lesson 25 – विसर्ग-संधि-s

Lesson 26 – व्यञ्जन-संधि-s Part 1

Lesson 27 – व्यञ्जन-संधि-s Part 2

Lesson 28 – अनुनासिक-संधि-s and अनुस्वार-s

Lesson 29 – Introduction to Compound Words समास-s

Lesson 30 – विग्रह i.e. deciphering compound words  

Lesson 31 – Compound words समासाः (अ) अव्ययीभावः (आ) तत्पुरुषः

Lesson 32कर्मधारय and द्विगु समास-s

Lesson 33 – बहुव्रीहि-समासाः

Lesson 34 – Composing compound words – a) लुक् (b) अलुक्

Lesson 35 – Active / Passive कर्तरि → (कर्मणि / भावे)

Lesson 36 – सनादि (णिच् यङ्- etc.) उपधातु-s –

Lesson 37 – Different ways for “Don’t enter the temple wearing your footwear”.

Some more topics, which may be studied –

  • Idiomatic / Linguistic Ornamentation i.e. भाषालङ्कार  – शब्दालङ्कार, अर्थालङ्कार
  • Prosody i.e.Meters काव्यालङ्कारेति  छन्दांसि (वृत्तानि)

This “Contents of Simple Sanskrit” is compiled now, only on Tuesday April 23, 2019 i.e. after 7 years of having composed and posted the very first Lesson 1 on April 11, 2012. It comes to mind that, there is scope to edit some lessons, especially to eliminate duplications as in Lessons 16 and 24, etc.

At this blog, there are other posts in the category as “Only Four Types of Words”. That is another approach or view of understanding and learning Sanskrit as a language. That approach is also a “Simple Sanskrit” approach.

Compiling this “Contents of Simple Sanskrit” is becoming a review of this blog as a whole. Maybe, this review will prompt restructuring of the blog as a whole and may result in an improved presentation of Simple Sanskrit. There have been many appreciations of the existing contents and many people have been following them. So an improved presentation shall have to be done without disturbing existing contents. I hope and pray, that I shall be able to handle that challenge.

शुभमस्तु !



Lesson 27

Simple Sanskrit Lesson 27

In the previous lesson # 26 we discussed व्यञ्जनसन्धि-s of the type व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः i.e. when पूर्ववर्ण is a consonant and परवर्ण is a vowel. Now we shall study  व्यञ्जनसन्धि-s of the type व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम्. Since these व्यञ्जनसन्धि-s are for 33 consonants as पूर्ववर्ण-s, these with 33 consonants as परवर्ण-s, there become 33×33 = 1089 possible combinations.

It will be easier to look at them by keeping in mind शिवसूत्र-s 5 to 14, enumerated below for ready reference.

  • शिवसूत्रम् 5 – ह य व र ट् Here, since ट् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are ह् य् व् र्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 6 – ल ण् Here, since ण् is only the end-marker, the actual consonant to be studied is ल्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 7 – ञ म ङ ण न म् Here, since म् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are ञ् म् ङ् ण् न्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 8 – झ भ ञ् Here, since ञ् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are झ् भ्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 9 – घ ढ ध ष् Here, since ष् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are घ् ढ् ध्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 10 – ज ब ग ड द श् Here, since श् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are ज् ब् ग् ड् द्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 11 – ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व् Here, since व् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are ख् फ् छ् ठ् थ् च् ट् त्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 12 – क प य् Here, since य् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are क् प्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 13 – श ष स र् Here, since र् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are श् ष् स्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 14 – ह ल् Here, since ल् is only the end-marker, the actual consonant to be studied is ह्

Let us start by taking the 33 consonants in शिवसूत्र-s 5 to 14 to be in पूर्ववर्ण-position, one by one. There will be 33 possible सन्धि-combinations each, with all the 33 consonants being in परवर्ण-position. What we have to explore is, what the resultant sound सन्धि-s of all these would be.

Case 4 :- Let us start with ह् in पूर्ववर्ण-position, ह् being from शिवसूत्रम् 5 – ह य व र ट्

  1. For ह् + ह् → No good example comes to mind.
  2. For ह् + य् → (a) ह्यस् / ह्यः ind. [गते अहनि नि˚] Yesterday. (b) विमुह्यति = distracts / gets distracted.
  3. For ह् + व् → ह्वे (means ‘to call’); आह्वे = To make an appeal; to broadcast
  4. For ह् + र् → ह्रदः (A deep lake, a large and deep pool of water)
  5. For ह् + ल् → आह्लादः pleasure, joy
  6. For ह् + ञ् → No good example comes to mind.
  7. For ह् + म्  → ब्रह्मन् (when masculine ब्रह्मा the deity; when neuter ब्रह्मन् the ब्रह्मतत्त्व the principle)
  8. For ह् + ङ् → No good example comes to mind.
  9. For ह् + ण् → पराह्णः = afternoon पूर्वाह्णः = forenoon
  10. For ह् + न् → वह्निः = fire
  11. From as many examples as above, one can conclude that with ह् in पूर्ववर्ण-position, with most consonants in परवर्ण-position, the resultant sound will be of a conjunct letter. सूत्रम् – हलोऽनन्तराः संयोगः (1’1’7) defines the resultant sound of a conjunct letter and distinguishes it to be different from Sandhi. Rather, if the resultant sound is a conjunct letter, the process is not to be considered as a Sandhi-process.
  12. Having said this, we may recall that in most Sandhi’s, of the type व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः, which we studied in the previous lesson #26,  (linked here for ready reference) the vowel in the परवर्ण-position only caused the consonant in the पूर्ववर्ण-position to be pronounced along with the vowel mixed into it. This process is not much different from the process of formation of a conjunct letter. So, should one take those Sanshi’s also as not being Sandhi’s ? The answer would be, that, at the point where a (consonant+vowel) letter is formed, if the letter needs to be split separating the consonant to be a separate word and vowel to be the beginning of another word, then it is a Sandhi-process.
  13. In व्यञ्जनम् +व्यञ्जनम्  instances also, if the conjunct letter needs to be split into two words, then it is a Sandhi-process. In all the examples given above, the conjunct letter formed can not be split into two separate words. So, they are not Sandhi’s. Let us look at the example of निहत्य धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्दन | पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः (गीता 1’36)
    • In the first line there are 8 conjunct letters – त्य र्त ष्ट्रा न्नः प्री स्या ज्ज र्द
      1. त्य is part of the word निहत्य. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      2. र्त is part of a word धार्तराष्ट्रान्. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      3. ष्ट्रा is part of a word धार्तराष्ट्रान्. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      4. न्नः Here the word धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः will split into two separate words धार्तराष्ट्रान्+नः So, न्नः is not just a conjunct letter.  
      5. प्री is part of a word प्रीतिः. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      6. स्या is part of a word स्यात्. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      7. At ज्ज the word स्याज्जनार्दन needs to be split into two separate words स्यात् and जनार्दन.
      8. र्द is part of a word जनार्दन. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      9. As such, in the word जनार्दन there is internal Sandhi of जन+अर्दन. So, the letter ना is actually a सवर्णदीर्घ Sandhi of न+अ.
    • The entire second line, as written, appears to be a single word and does have four conjunct letters – श्र स्मा न्ह त्वै Actually the complete line will split into 7 words – पापम् एव आश्रयेत् अस्मान् हत्वा एतान् आततायिनः So, there are 6 Sandhi’s.
      1. पापम्+ एव = पापमेव Note, the letter मे is not just a consonant with a vowel. It is a Sandhi-result of म्+ ए
      2. पापमेव+ आश्रयेत् = पापमेवाश्रयेत् Note, the letter वा is not just a consonant with a vowel. It is a Sandhi-result of व+ आ
      3. पापमेवाश्रयेत् + अस्मान् = पापमेवाश्रयेस्मान् Note, the letter द is not just a consonant with a vowel. It is a Sandhi-result of त् + अ.
      4. पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान् + हत्वा = पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वा Note, the letter न्ह is not just a conjunct letter.
      5. पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वा + एतान् = पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतान् Note, the letter त्वै is a Sandhi result of त्वा + ए
      6. पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतान् + आततायिनः = पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः Note, the letter ना not just a consonant with a vowel. It is a Sandhi result of न् + आ.
  14. Now when discussing Sandhi’s with ह् as पूर्ववर्ण and another consonant as परवर्ण, there is a curious case of ह् + त्. See e.g. मुह् + त (suffix for past passive participle) → मुग्ध or मूढ. Note, त is from the कृत्-प्रत्यय क्त. Obviously मुह् + त → मुग्ध and मुह् + त → मूढ are two different processes and hence they result in different resultant sounds. Important point to be noted is that a resultant sound resulting from mixing of two consonant sounds is a “PROCESS”. It is like a chemical process say, NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O. The result may be
    • two different syllables as in मुह् + त → मुग्ध (मु-ग्-ध) or
    • only ढ as in मुह् + त → मूढ, of course with long मू in place of short मु.

अष्टाध्यायी takes note of both these processes.

First of all मुह्+क्त  by ‘लशक्वतद्धिते’ (1.3.8) there is a कित्. Hence मुह्+क्त becomes मुह्+त.

    • मुह्+त  becomes मुग्ध  by  
      1. वा द्रुहमुहष्णुहष्णिहाम् ८।२।३३) वा घः => मुघ्+त
      2. झषस्तथोर्धोधः  (8’2’40) मुघ्+‌ध
      3. झलां जश् झशि (8|4|53 ।) मुग्+ध = मुग्ध।
    • Alternatively, just as 2H2 + O2 results into a single compound 2H2O मुह्+त  becomes मूढ by
      1. For मुह् + त  => by घत्वाभावे हो ढः (8’2’31) इति ढत्वम्।=> मुढ् + त
      2. झषस्तथोर्धोधः (8’2’40) मुढ् + ध
      3. ष्टुना ष्टुः (8’4’41) मुढ् + ढ
      4. ढो ढे लोपः (8’3’13) मुढ
      5. ढ्-लोपे पूर्वस्य (6’3’111) मूढ — QED (!)

It is important to hence note that many व्यञ्जनसंधि-s may involve PROCESSES and more than one सूत्र-s may apply, one after another, so much similar to the way, chemicals are produced in chemical plants.

Case 5 :- Let us now study सन्धि-s with य् in पूर्ववर्ण-position.

  1. With परवर्ण ह् – No good example comes to mind.
  2. With परवर्ण य् – न्याय्य [(नि+आ+अय् = न्याय्) इति धातुः तस्य यत्-कृदन्तम् (न्याय् + य = न्याय्य justifiable)]
  3. With परवर्ण व् – No good example comes to mind.
  4. With परवर्ण र् – No good example comes to mind.
  5. With परवर्ण ल् – No good example comes to mind.
  6. With य् in पूर्ववर्ण-position, “No good example comes to mind.” seems to apply for almost all other consonants
  7. With य् in पूर्ववर्ण-position and any other consonant in परवर्ण-position, the resultant will be a conjoint letter, not a सन्धि.

Case 6 Let us now study सन्धि-s with व् in पूर्ववर्ण-position.

  1. With परवर्ण ह् – No good example comes to mind.
  2. With परवर्ण य् – कर्तव्य
  3. With परवर्ण व् – No good example comes to mind.
  4. With परवर्ण र् –
    1. व्रज् I. 1 P. (व्रजति) 1 To go, walk, proceed, to graze
    2. व्रणः व्रणम् [व्रण्-अच्] 1 A wound, sore, bruise, hurt
  5. With परवर्ण ल् – No good example comes to mind.
  6. With व् in पूर्ववर्ण-position and any other consonant in परवर्ण-position, the resultant will be a conjunct letter, not a सन्धि.

Case 7 Let us now study सन्धि-s with र् in पूर्ववर्ण-position.

  1. With परवर्ण ह् – results in a conjunct letter as in अर्ह् (अर्-ह्)  means “to deserve”, “to merit” e.g. रावणो नार्हते पूजाम् (= रावणः न अर्हते पूजाम्)
  2. With परवर्ण य् – results in a conjunct letter as in आर्य (आर्-य) a. [ऋ-ण्यत्]
  3. With परवर्ण व् – results in a conjunct letter as in e.g. गर्वः सर्व उर्वशी, उर्वरित
  4. With परवर्ण र् – There is a good example for र्+र् in सज्जनषट्पदैर्रहरहः a word in a श्लोक, which eulogizes both भगवद्गीता and महाभारतम्.  
  5. With परवर्ण ल् – No good example comes to mind.
  6. With र् in पूर्ववर्ण-position and any other consonant in परवर्ण-position, the resultant will be a conjunct letter, not a सन्धि. The phrase रत्नैर्महार्हैस्तुतुषुर्न देवाः (The gods were not happy with great jewels) has conjuncts of र्+म at र्म, र्+ह at र्है, and र्+न at र्न. 

Case 8 Let us now study सन्धि-s with ल् (in शिवसूत्रम् 6 – ल ण्) in पूर्ववर्ण-position.

  1. With परवर्ण ह् – No good example comes to mind.  
  2. With परवर्ण य् – शल्यः
  3. With परवर्ण व् – No good example comes to mind.
  4. With परवर्ण र् – No good example comes to mind.
  5. With परवर्ण ल् – मल्लः
  6. With ल् in पूर्ववर्ण-position and any other consonant in परवर्ण-position, the resultant will be a conjunct letter, not a सन्धि.

Case 9 The next set of पूर्ववर्ण-s would be ञ् म् ङ् ण् न् from शिवसूत्रम् 7 – ञ म ङ ण न म्

These are all nasals अनुनासिक-s, the fifth letters in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग  respectively. Actually in the context of these सन्धि-s सूत्रम् – अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः (8’4’58) makes an interesting study. विभक्ति-वचन analysis of the three words is =>

अनुस्वारस्य (6’1 of अनुस्वार) ययि (7’1 of यय्) परसवर्णः (1’1)

ययि = when followed by consonants connoted by प्रत्याहार यय् ie (य् व् र् ल्), (ञ् म् ङ् ण् न्) (झ् भ्) (घ् ढ् ध्) (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) (ख् फ् छ् ठ् थ् च् ट् त्) (क् प्)

अनुस्वारस्य = nasal sound will change to

परसवर्णः = nasal letter अनुनासिक appropriate to the परवर्ण.

Actually nasal sound is nasal sound. So there will not be any difference in pronunciation. The सूत्रम् specifies which of the five अनुनासिक-s – ञ् म् ङ् ण् न् – should be written when writing the nasal sound. For example

  1. In अङ्क डङ्ख अङ्ग सङ्घ the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ङ्, because it is अनुनासिक of क-वर्ग. Hence it is सवर्ण with all consonants of क-वर्ग. Hence, when the परवर्ण is क् ख् ग् घ् the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ङ्.
  2. In पञ्च (=five) उञ्छ् [= To glean, gather (bit by bit)] अञ्ज् (= to clarify eyesight) the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ञ्, because it is अनुनासिक of च-वर्ग. Hence it is सवर्ण with all consonants of च-वर्ग. Hence, when the परवर्ण is च् छ् ज् झ् the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ञ्.
  3. In कण्ट् (= to prick like a thorn) कण्ठ् (= to put in or on the throat) अण्ड् (= to become an egg) the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ण्, because it is अनुनासिक of ट-वर्ग. Hence it is सवर्ण with all consonants of ट-वर्ग Hence, when the परवर्ण is ट् ठ् ड् ढ्, the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ण्.
  4. In अन्त मन्थ् मन्द इन्ध् the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक न्, because it is अनुनासिक of त-वर्ग. Hence it is सवर्ण with all consonants of त-वर्ग Hence, when the परवर्ण is त् थ् द् ध् the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक न्.
  5. In सम्पत् गुम्फ् अम्ब सम्भार the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक म्, because it is अनुनासिक of प-वर्ग. Hence it is सवर्ण with all consonants of प-वर्ग Hence, when the परवर्ण is प् फ् ब् भ् the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक म्.
  6. Actually सूत्रम् – मोऽनुस्वारः (8’3’23) also नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि (8’3’24) permit
    1. सम्पत् to be written as संपत्
      1. Note, such writing of म् by अनुस्वार is permitted only when
        1. The म् is followed by a consonant, not by a vowel and
        2. म् is not at the end of a sentence or line of a verse. If it is at the end of a sentence or at the end of a line of verse, it has to be written as म्.
    2. सन्त to be written as संत
    3. In the context of writing अनुस्वार in place of म्-कार, a line in गीता – (11-28) makes an interesting study. The line is यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः or यथा नदीनाम्बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः
      1. It may again be noted that, whether यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः or यथा नदीनाम्बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः is different only in writing. It makes no difference in pronunciation.
      2. For a finer observation, the म् of बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः cannot be written as बहवोंबुवेगाः even if it would get pronounced as such only. It cannot be written as बहवोंबुवेगाः, because it will miss the अवग्रह-symbol ऽ, which is essential here !
  7. It is also interesting to note that from धातुः सम्+कृ we get two nouns संकर and संस्कार. As would be noted, in संस्कार there is an addition of स् between सं and कार. That additive स् is an उट् (means additive आगम). This additive सुट् is called as सुडागम. Use of सुडागम has in it the force of positive effect as in संस्कार. The name of Sanskrit language also is Sanskrit, because positive effects are inherent to it. This is endorsed in the सूत्रम् – (सुट्) संपर्युपेभ्यः करोतौ भूषणे (6’1’137). Note
    1. (सुट्) संपर्युपेभ्यः करोतौ भूषणे = (सुट्) सम्-परि-उप-एभ्यः कृ-ओत्-एतौ भूषणे
    2. सम्-परि-उप-एभ्यः = With prefixes उपसर्ग-s सम्, परि, उप
    3. करोतौ =  (7’1 of करोतु some word derived from कृ)
    4. भूषणे = when effect is positive
    5. सुट् = स्-उट् i.e. additive स्. Note, the word सुट् is brought forward here from सूत्रम् (6’1’135)
  8. सुडागम also happens with न् as पूर्ववर्ण. In this respect we should study सूत्रम् –  (अम्परे) नश्छव्यप्रशान् (8’3’7)
    1. (अम्परे) is brought forward अनुवृत्त from previous सूत्रम्. अम्परे means preceded by अम्. प्रत्याहार अम् connotes all वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 1 to 7.
    2. नश्छव्यप्रशान् = नः (6’1 of न्) छवि (7’1 of छव्) अप्रशान् (excepting प्रशान्)
    3. In छवि (7’1 of छव्) प्रत्याहार छव् connotes छ् ठ् थ् च् ट् त् i.e. when these be परवर्ण-s
    4. By overall meaning, there will be सुडागम, when न्, preceded by अम् is followed by छव्.
    5. Not only that there will be सुडागम, but
      1. the additive स् will change to श् If the परवर्ण is च् or छ् by सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40) e.g. पुमान् + चरति = पुमांश्चरति (गीता 2’71)
      2. the additive स् will change to ष् If the परवर्ण is ट् or ठ् by सूत्रम् – (स्तोः) ष्टुना ष्टुः (8’4’41) e.g. No good example comes to mind.
      3. the additive स् will remain स् If the परवर्ण is त् or थ् e.g. प्राणान् + त्यक्त्वा = प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा (गीता 1’33) विद्वान् + तथा = विद्वांस्तथा (गीता 3’25)

Case 10 Now let us study सन्धि-s with वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 8 to 14 to be पूर्ववर्ण-s. That is actually a big chunk of 24 पूर्ववर्ण-s, connoted by झल् Note झल्

  • starts at झ in शिवसूत्रम् (8) and
  • would go up to the end-marker ल् in शिवसूत्रम् (14).
  • Hence झल् covers 24 out of 33 consonants

Though this is a big chunk of 24 पूर्ववर्ण-s, there is a सूत्रम् – झलां जश् झशि (8’4’53) We shall discuss this सूत्रम् now.

We should start with analyzing and understanding the सूत्र by the prescribed method.

झलां जश् झशि ⇒

  • झलाम् is 6’3 (6th विभक्ति 3=बहुवचनम्) of झल्
    • Note झल् starts at झ in शिवसूत्रम् (8) and covers 24 out of 33 consonants until the end-marker ल् in शिवसूत्रम् (14),
      • झल् excludes 9 वर्ण-s –
        • य् व् र् ल् the 4 अन्तस्थ-s in शिवसूत्र-s (5 and 6) and
        • the 5 nasals अनुनासिक-s ञ् म् ङ् ण् न् in शिवसूत्रम् (7)
  • जश् is 1’1 (प्रथमा विभक्ति एकवचनम्) of जश्
    • Note जश् starts at ज in शिवसूत्रम् (10) and has the end-marker श् of the same शिवसूत्रम् (10).
    • Hence जश् means ज् ब् ग् ड् द् i.e. third consonant in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively.
  • झशि is (7’1 i.e. 7th विभक्ति 1=एकवचनम्) of झश्
    • Note झश् starts at झ in शिवसूत्रम् (8) and covers all consonants until the end-marker श् of the शिवसूत्रम् (10).
    • Hence झश् means consonants in शिवसूत्र-s 8, 9 and 10 i.e. (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्) (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) i.e. third and fourth consonants in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively.

By this analysis meaning of झलां जश् झशि becomes

  • झलां – 24 consonants connoted by प्रत्याहार झल् in पूर्ववर्ण-position will change to
  • जश् – the 5 वर्ण-s ज् ब् ग् ड् द् connoted by प्रत्याहार जश्  
  • झशि – when followed by the 10 (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्) (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) वर्ण-s connoted by प्रत्याहार झश् i.e. these in परवर्ण-position
  • With 24 consonants of प्रत्याहार झल् in पूर्ववर्ण-position and 10 consonants of प्रत्याहार झश् in परवर्ण-position, this सूत्रम् – झलां जश् झशि (8’4’53) covers 240 हल्-सन्धि-s (!)

Since the ज् ब् ग् ड् द् वर्ण-s connoted by प्रत्याहार जश् are from च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively, it is logical to understand that

  1. पूर्ववर्ण-s च् छ् ज् झ् of च-वर्ग if followed by झश् (i.e. झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्, ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) as परवर्ण-s will change to ज्
    1. There is the सूत्रम् – नाज्झलौ (1’1’10). Do we notice the conjunct letter ज्झ (ज्+झ्) here ? Actually break-up of नाज्झलौ is न अच्-हलौ. That means च् of अच् becomes अज्. When this अज् has ह of हलौ thereafter, it gets in an additional ज् in-between. By that we have अज्+ज्+ह Here ज्+ह become झ. In turn we have अज्+झ. Hence अज्झ. Why the additional ज् comes in, is a point we shall come to when discussing ज् followed by ह. But the point here is अच् becomes अज्.
  2. पूर्ववर्ण-s प् फ् ब् भ् of प-वर्ग if followed by झश् (i.e. झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्, ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) as परवर्ण-s will change to ब्
    1. E.g. अप् + ज = अब्ज Note प् in पूर्ववर्ण-position belongs to झल् and ज in परवर्ण position belongs to झश्. Hence प् changes to ब् which belongs to जश्.
      1. Note अप् means water. अब्ज means born in or produced from water, amphibian. See in Apte’s dictionary <अब्ज a. [अप्सु जायते, जन्-ड] Born in or produced from water Ms.5.112. अब्जेषु चैव रत्नेषु 8.1 (All jewels produced during churning of the ocean were अब्ज-s.>
  3. पूर्ववर्ण-s क् ख् ग् घ् of क-वर्ग if followed by झश् (i.e. झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्, ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) as परवर्ण-s will change to ग्
    1. For example दिक्+बन्धः = दिग्बन्धः (= limit of direction, i.e. horizon)
    2. दिक्+दर्शनम् = दिग्दर्शनम् (showing the direction, showing how, in what manner)
  4. पूर्ववर्ण-s ट् ठ् ड् ढ् of ट-वर्ग if followed by झश् (i.e. झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्, ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) as परवर्ण-s will change to ड्
    1. No good examples come to mind.
  5. पूर्ववर्ण-s त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग if followed by झश् (i.e. झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्, ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) as परवर्ण-s will change to द्
    1. सत्+जनः = सज्जनः would make an interesting example to study. The instance here is of त्+ज. By झलां जश् झशि it should become सत्+जनः = सद्+जनः. It would be good to consider that it does become सद्+जनः. But the process does not stop or end here. सद्+जनः further becomes सज्+जनः, since in further process द् becomes ज्. That is dictated by सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40)
    2. Comes to mind another example of आदित्यवज्ज्ञानम् (गीता 5’16) Note <आदित्यवज्ज्ञानम् is आदित्यव(त्+ज्ञा)नम्> Since ज्ञ is ज्+ञ् the (त्+ज्ञा) instance here is (त्+ज्+ञ्+आ). Here also (त्+ज्+ञ्+आ) will first become (द्+ज्+ञ्+आ). Thereafter द् becomes ज् by स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40). Then we have (ज्+ज्+ञ्+आ). In turn आदित्यव(त्+ज्ञा)नम् is finally = आदित्यवज्ज्ञानम्.

Bullets (1) to (5) above, cover 20 of the 24 वर्ण-s of झल्. That leaves us to explore what श् ष् स् in शिवसूत्रम् (13) and ल् in शिवसूत्रम् (14) will change to which of ज् ब् ग् ड् द्, when followed by the 10 (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्) (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) वर्ण-s connoted by प्रत्याहार झश्. So, we need to check 4*10 = 40 instances or examples.

Case 11a – In bullets (5.1) and (5.2) above, there has been mention of  सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40) Let us study this सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः

  • स्तोः = षष्ठी एकवचनम् of स्तु
    • स्तु = स्+तु = the वर्ण स् and वर्ण-s of त-वर्ग, here limited to त् थ् द् ध् excluding न्, because न् is in शिवसूत्रम् (7) and hence not a part of the पूर्ववर्ण-range झल्
    • स्तोः = पूर्ववर्ण स् also पूर्ववर्ण-s त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग will become, will change to
  • श्चुना = तृतीया एकवचनम् of श्चु
    • श्चु = श्+चु = the वर्ण श् and वर्ण-s of च-वर्ग, here limited to ज् झ् excluding च् छ् ञ् because ञ् is in शिवसूत्रम् (7) and च् छ् are in शिवसूत्रम् (11) hence not a part of the परवर्ण-range झश्
    • श्चुना = with the वर्ण श् and वर्ण-s ज् झ् being in परवर्ण-position
  • श्चुः = प्रथमा एकवचनम् of श्चु
    • श्चुः = will become श् and corresponding वर्ण-s of च-वर्ग i.e. च् छ् ज् झ्

Putting together, स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः = (पूर्ववर्ण स् also पूर्ववर्ण-s त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग will become, will change to) (with the वर्ण श् and वर्ण-s ज् झ् being in परवर्ण-position) (will become श् and corresponding वर्ण-s of च-वर्ग)

Here in Case 11a, we have 5 पूर्ववर्ण-s – स् also त् थ् द् ध् and 3 परवर्ण-s, श् ज् झ् hence a श्चुना श्चुः pattern for 15 संधि-s. As an example of this pattern,

  • comes to mind a धातु मस्ज् In Apte’s dictionary <मस्ज् 6 P. (मज्जति, मग्न; caus. मज्जयति; desid. मिमङ्क्षति) 1 To bathe, plunge, dip or throw oneself into water; यद्गोप्रतरकल्पो$भूत् संमर्दस्तत्र मज्जताम् R.15.11; Bv.2.95. -2 To sink, sink into or down, sink under, plunge> Note, in the form मज्जति of मस्ज्, स् when followed by ज् has become ज्. That is why doubled ज्ज there.

Case 11b – Immediately next to सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40) there is सूत्रम् – ष्टुना ष्टुः (8’4’41). For study of this सूत्रम् we need to carry forward i.e. effect अनुवृत्ति of स्तोः. So we need to study (स्तोः) ष्टुना ष्टुः  

  • स्तोः = as detailed earlier, (= पूर्ववर्ण स् also पूर्ववर्ण-s त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग will become, will change to)
  • ष्टुना = तृतीया एकवचनम् of ष्टु
    • ष्टु = ष्+टु  = the वर्ण ष् and वर्ण-s of ट-वर्ग, here limited to ड् ढ् excluding ट् ठ् ण् because ण् is in शिवसूत्रम् (7) and ट् ठ् are in शिवसूत्रम् (11) hence not a part of the परवर्ण-range झश्
    • ष्टुना = with the वर्ण ष् and ड् ढ् being in परवर्ण-position
  • ष्टुः = प्रथमा एकवचनम् of ष्टु
    • ष्टुः = will become ष् and corresponding वर्ण-s of ट-वर्ग, ie will become ष् ट् ठ् ड् ढ्

Putting these together we get स्तोः (पूर्ववर्ण स् also पूर्ववर्ण-s  त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग will become, will change to) ष्टुना (with the वर्ण ष् and ट् ठ् ड् ढ् being in परवर्ण-position) ष्टुः (will become ष् and corresponding वर्ण-s of ट-वर्ग i.e. ट् ठ् ड् ढ्).

Here in case 11b. we have 5 पूर्ववर्ण-s – स् also त् थ् द् ध् and 5 परवर्ण-s, ष् ट् ठ् ड् ढ्, hence a ष्टुना ष्टुः pattern for 25 संधि-s.

  1. For example सत्+टीका = सट्टीका

Having started in case 10, study of संधि-s with झल्-वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 8 to 14 to be पूर्ववर्ण-s, we have considered in Cases 10, 11a and 11b, संधि-s with झश्-वर्ण-s in परवर्ण-position. This has been so, because we have stayed focused on सूत्रम् – झलां जश् झशि (8’4’53).

But the वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 5, 6, 7 can also be in परवर्ण-position.

We shall continue this study in the next lesson.

शुभमस्तु !


Only Four Types of Words – Part 5 – लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः

Only Four Types of Words – Part 5 – लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः

Words of this category have no visible suffix. No visible suffix is not to be understood as there being no suffix. There is पाणिनि सूत्रम् – अदर्शनं लोपः (१-१-६०) which wants us to understand that if something is not visible does not mean that it does not exist. Not being visible is to be understood that it has gone out of sight, means that it got dropped off. It is like a dolphin to have dived below the water surface.

लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः are (1) Interjections and exclamatory words (2) conjunctions (3) adverbs (4) verbal auxiliaries (5) लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः in figures of speech

(1) Interjections and exclamatory words

In English grammar Interjections are words used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion. They are included in a sentence (usually at the start) to express a sentiment such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement, or enthusiasm.

Following information is given at  about interjections

  • An interjection is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.

Examples of interjections (shaded):

  • Hey! Get off that floor!
  • Oh, that is a surprise.
  • Good! Now we can move on.
  • Jeepers, that was close.

Yes and No – Introductory expressions such as yes, no, indeed, and well are also classed as interjections.


  • Indeed, this is not the first time the stand has collapsed.
  • Yes, I do intend to cover the bet.
  • I’m sure I don’t know half the people who come to my house. Indeed, for all I hear, I shouldn’t like to. (Oscar Wilde)
  • Well, it’s 1 a.m. Better go home and spend some quality time with the kids. (Homer Simpson)


Some interjections are sounds. See these examples:

  • Phew! I am not trying that again.
  • Humph! I knew that last week.
  • Um ! my compliments to the chef.
  • Ah! Don’t say you agree with me. When people agree with me, I always feel that I must be wrong. (Oscar Wilde)

In human speech all over the world, hence in all languages, there are interjections. Some sounds are in fact universal.

It would often be difficult to write every sound. In Sanskrit grammar it has been analyzed that a vowel may be uttered in 18 different ways. It may not be possible, rather it would be impossible to write in 18 different ways.

The analysis of 18 different ways of uttering is as follows –

  1. Utterance may be nasal अनुनासिक or plain अननुनासिक (2 main categories)
  2. Whether nasal or not nasal, in both of these, the pronunciation may be short ह्रस्व, long दीर्घ or extended (2×3 = 6 ways)
  3. In each of these six, the pronunciation could be stressed, light or average (6 x 3 = 18)

And many of these 18 different ways could be meaningful. For example,

  • a short nasal अ (अङ्) with an interrogative tone would often mean, “Excuse me, did you say something ? I was not listening.”
  • a long nasal अ (अङ् ऽ ऽ ) would often mean, “Isn’t that naughty ?”
  • a short, plain (not nasal) repetitive अ (अ, अ) would often mean, “Excuse me, I want to say something.”

Interjections and exclamatory words would be too large to list them. Some examples

  • अधर्मोऽभिभवति उत (गीता 1-40)
  • अहो बत महत्पापम् (गीता 1-45)
  • विद्यायां रताः (ईशावास्योपनिषत्)

(2) conjunctions  – There are conjunctions for relating two or more words or phrases with each other. For example –

  • मामकाः पाण्डवाः (गीता 1-1)
  • यत् वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः (गीता 2-6)

(3) Adverbs – There are conjunctions also for relating two or more clauses with each other. Adverbial sub-clauses are either of time or of place or of manner or of reason/purpose. Accordingly the conjunctions are by pairs. There is an interrogative related to each pair, which is mentioned in brackets

  • time (when) यदा-तदा (कदा)
  • place (where) यत्र-तत्र (कुत्र)
  • manner (how) यथा-तथा (कथम्)
  • (why) reason (if-then) /purpose (because-hence) यतः-ततः or हि or यदि-तर्हि (किमर्थम्)

There are more shades in the usage of above adverbs. For example,

  • while यावत् or until तावत्
  • at all times सर्वदा
  • any time कदापि
  • never न कदापि
  • whenever यदाकदापि
  • sometime or other कदाचित् or कदाचन
    • In न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचित् (गीता 2-20) कदाचित् is used in the sense of कदापि
    • with न both कदाचित् and कदाचन i.e. न कदाचित् and न कदाचन get the sense of “never”.
  • day before yesterday, yesterday, today, tomorrow, day after tomorrow. In Sanskrit one has words to cover 3 days previous to today and three days after today – प्रपरह्यः, परह्यः, ह्यः, अद्य, श्वः, परश्वः, प्रपरश्वः
  • now, अधुना/इदानीम् presently सद्यः
  • later अनन्तरम् afterwards पश्चात् soon, sooner
  • before, ahead of पूर्वम् ago, long time ago पुरा
  • again पुनः again and again पुनःपुनः
  • at 5 o’clock पञ्चवादनसमये
    • at quarter past five सपाद-पञ्चवादनसमये
    • at half past five सार्ध्-पञ्चवादनसमये
    • at quarter to six पादोन-षड्वादनसमये

Actually, in Sanskrit, units of measurement of time have been different. The units span the dimension of time from very minute to very huge, from क्षण, लव, निमिष, कला विकला  to युग मन्वन्तर कल्प, even to thousands of युग-s

  • See the mention in गीता that one day of ब्रह्मा is equal to one thousand युग-s सहस्रयुगपर्यन्तम् अहर्यद्ब्रह्मणो विदुः (गीता 8-17)
  • See also this mention of units of time – काष्ठाः कला मुहूर्ताश्च दिवा रात्रिस्तथा लवाः | मासाः पक्षाः षड् ऋतवः कल्पः संवत्सरस्तथा ||श्रीमद्भागवतम् १२-१३७-२१||

The adverb “before” has connotations both for time and place. When the context is of place, i.e. in the sense of “in front of” Sanskrit equivalent is पुरतः or पुरस्तात्

Likewise the word पश्चात् has connotations both for time and place. When the context is of place, i.e. “behind or after”. For example after him = तस्य पश्चात्

  • In गणपत्यथर्वशीर्षस्तोत्रम् there are मन्त्र-s अव पश्चात्तात्, अव पुरस्तात् Here the word पश्चात् has been further modified as पश्चात्तात् meaning “from behind”.
  • Likewise पुरस्तात् means “from the front”. In English the word “front” is a noun.

It would be good to study, how all the words above are detailed in the dictionary. They are all “indeclinable”s अव्ययानि.

But it can be seen that the words कदाचित्, कदाचन, पुरतः, पुरस्तात्, पश्चात्तात् have प्रत्यय-s चित्, चन, तः, तात् and तात् respectively. If there are प्रत्यय-s, it means that the words कदा पुरस् पश्चात् have suffered a change. That means these words are not exactly indeclinable.

In fact I would like to make a closer examination of many of the above indeclinables from a totally different perspective of associated pronouns

Pronoun Conjunction / Adverb of time Conjunction / Adverb of place Conjunction / Adverb of manner Conjunction / Adverb of reason or purpose
यत् यदा / यावत् यत्र / यावत् यथा यतः
तत् तदा / तावत् तत्र / तावत् तथा ततः
Interrogative किम् कदा कुत्र कथम् कुतः किमर्थम्
अदस् (इदम् एतत्) अधुना (इदानीम्) अत्र इत्थम् एवम् अतः
सर्व सर्वदा सर्वत्र सर्वथा सर्वतः
अन्यत् अन्यत्र अन्यथा

The above table brings forth a close connection between the pronouns and the adverbs. So, though the dictionary mentions these as indeclinable, aren’t there obvious patterns or प्रत्यय-s in the formation of these words, may be, प्रत्यय दा for time, प्रत्यय त्र for place, प्रत्यय था for manner प्रत्यय तः for reason or purpose ?

The conjunction सह connects two nouns or pronouns. For example रामेण सह सीता or सीतया सह रामः It should be noted that one of the two nouns needs to be in the third case.

The words समम् and सार्धम् also should be with concerned noun in third case. For example

  • in नास्ति विद्यासमं धनम् – विद्यासमम् = विद्यया समम्
  • सार्धम् ind. Together with, with, in company with (with instr.); वनं मया सार्धमसि प्रपन्नः R.14.63

But these are not exactly लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः.

(4) verbal auxiliaries

In Sanskrit transformation from affirmative to negative is simply done by a verbal auxiliary न or मा. For example,

  • Do not do that = तन्मा कुरु (तत् मा कुरु)
  • That is not to be done = तन्न कर्तव्यम् (तत् कर्तव्यम्)

As mentioned in the above table transformation from affirmative or negative to interrogative is done by

  • using Interrogative किम् e.g. Would you go ? त्वं गच्छसि किम् ?
  • using सुबन्त-s of किम् e.g. Whose son ? कस्य पुत्रः ?
  • using अपि e.g. Would you go ? अपि गच्छसि ? Note, अपि is to be used at the beginning of the sentence.
  • or simply by using an interrogative tone Would you go ? गच्छसि ?

Auspicious beginning is pronounced by and/or अथ

In English direct speech is quoted between quotes “..”. And there are rules for transforming direct speech to indirect. In Sanskrit, there is no Indirect speech. Instead of quotes, one uses इति. For example, He said, “I go” सोऽवददहं गच्छामीति (सः अवदत् अहं गच्छामि इति)

(5) लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः in figures of speech

One common figure of speech is simile. For example

  • Lotus-like eyes कमलम् इव नेत्रम्

Another common figure of speech is metaphor. For example

  • Knowledge is wealth विद्या एव धनम्

There are other usages of these लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्द-s. For example

  • भ्रमतीव (भ्रमति इव) च मे मनः (गीता 1-30) Here इव has the sense of “as if”

In Apte’s dictionary इव is detailed as –

इव ind. 1 Like, as (showing उपमा or comparison); वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ R.1.1; वैनतेय इव विनतानन्दनः K.5. -2 As if, as it were (denoting उत्प्रेक्षा); पश्यामीव पिनाकिनम् Ś.1.6. लिम्पतीव तमोङ्गानि वर्षतीवाञ्जनं नभः Mk.1.34. -3 Little, somewhat, perhaps; कडार इवायम् G. M. -4 (Added to interrogative words), ‘Possibly’, ‘I should like to know’, ‘indeed’; विना सीतादेव्या किमिव हि न दुःखं रघुपतेः U.6.3; क इव of what sort, what like; क इव कालः Māl.2; what a long time has elapsed. -5 इव is frequently used with adverbs, especially with such as involve restriction, by way of emphasis in the sense of even or just so, just, exactly, quite, indeed, very; मुहूर्तमिव but for a moment; किंचिदिव just a little bit; so ईषदिव, नाचिरादिव, &c.; (इव is considered by grammarians as forming compounds with the word after which it stands; इवेन समासो विभक्त्यलोपश्च Vārt. on P.II.4.71. Sk.). -Comp. -उपमा f. A simile in which इव is used. Bk.1.41 is given as an illustration of इवोपमा.

For examples of usages of एव –

  • सर्वे एव महारथाः (गीता 1-6) Here एव has the sense of inclusiveness
  • In a सुभाषितम् – अश्वं नैव गजं नैव व्याघ्रं नैव च नैव च – नैव means ‘not at all’ Here the word एव is used with a sense of emphasis.

In Apte’s dictionary एव is detailed as below, giving 14 different perceptions for meaning and usage of the word –

एव ind. This particle is most frequently used to strengthen and emphasize the idea expressed by a word :– (1) Just, quite, exactly; एवमेव quite so, just so; (2) same, very, identical; अर्थोष्मणा विरहितः पुरुषः स एव Bh.2.4 that very man; (3) only, alone, merely, (implying exclusion); सा तथ्यमेवाभिहिता भवेन Ku.3.63 only the truth, nothing but the truth; so नाम्नैव, स एव वीरः he alone (and not others); (4) already; गत एव न ते निवर्तते Ku.4.3; (5) scarcely, the moment, as soon as; chiefly with participles; उपस्थि- तेयं कल्याणी नाम्नि कीर्तित एव यत् R.1.87 as soon as the name was uttered; इति चिन्तयन्नेव while just thinking &c; (6) also, likewise; तथैव so also; (7) like, as (showing similarity); श्रीस्त एव मेस्तु G. M. (= तव इव); and (8) generally to emphasize a statement; भवितव्यमेव तेन U.4 it will (surely) take place. It is also said to imply the senses of (9) detraction; (10) diminution (11) command; (12) restraint; or (13) used merely as an expletive. (This particle is used in the Vedas in the senses of so, just so, like, indeed, truly, really) (14) Again; एवशब्दश्च पुनरित्यस्मिन्नर्थे भविष्यति । यथा क्षीरेण भुक्त्त्वा देवदत्तः क्षीरेणैव भुञ्जीतेति । भुञ्जीतैवेति पुनरिति गम्यते । ŚB. on MS.1.8.36.

The mention here of the word “तथैव so also” brings out an interesting aspect that लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः can be used in combination. The combined meaning will of course be different from the meaning when the word is used by itself.

Admittedly, with all the above discussion, I could have hinted at only the tip of the iceberg of लुप्तप्रत्ययशब्दाः. They do make an interesting study !

शुभमस्तु |



Only Four Types of Words – Part 4 कृदन्तशब्दाः

Only Four Types of Words – Part 4 कृदन्तशब्दाः

As mentioned towards the end of the previous Part 3, कृदन्तशब्द-s are also obtained from धातु-s.

This word कृदन्तशब्दाः has three components in it कृत् + अन्त + शब्दाः where the middle component अन्त. Here, the part कृदन्त is adjective of शब्दाः It suggests that कृदन्तशब्दाः have at their ending अन्त something which is known as कृत्. What is at the ending of a word is a suffix प्रत्यय, In कृदन्तशब्दाः the suffix प्रत्यय is of कृत्-type. Yes कृत् is a name of the group or class of suffixes. These are suffixes, which, for example, obtain the word कृत् from the धातु कृ.

So, discussion of कृदन्तशब्दाः is primarily understanding types of कृत्-प्रत्यय-s and understanding what type of कृदन्तशब्दाः can be obtained by affixing these कृत्-प्रत्यय-s to धातु-s.

Because कृत्-प्रत्यय-s are affixed to धातु-s and तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s also are affixed to धातु-s, पाणिनि just says कृदतिङ् (३।१।९३) Note, कृदतिङ् = कृत् + अतिङ्, meaning, कृत्-प्रत्यय-s are not तिङ्.

Recently my friend Mr. Vijay Kane got for me a book कृत्-प्रत्ययविश्लेषणम् by डॉ. गोपबन्धु मिश्र. In the book he has detailed as many as 139 कृत्-प्रत्यय-s !

But here, we shall discuss only a select few of them, which are most common and have specific usage in composing sentences, i.e. as Parts of Speech. The select few, which we shall discuss shall be –

  1. शतृ / शानच्, तृच् (3)
  2. ण्वुल् तुमुन् (2)
  3. क्त्वा/ल्यप्, (2)
  4. क्त, क्तवतु (2)
  5. यत्/ण्यत्, तव्यत्, अनीयर् (4)

These are thirteen. I have put them in 5 groups, which, by my understanding makes it simpler, because, then we have to think of only five groups of कृत्-प्रत्यय-s, instead of thinking that we have to study thirteen कृत्-प्रत्यय-s.

Actually, out of these twelve, use of तृच् (in group 2) and of ण्वुल् (in group 5) as Parts of Speech is also not very common, compared to other 11. We shall come to that.

One may ask, “If the eleven कृत्-प्रत्यय-s are more commonly used as Parts of Speech, what is the role or use of other 100+ कृत्-प्रत्यय-s ? The answer is that many of them are etymological, since they are used to form nouns and adjectives. For example

  • there is a कृत्-प्रत्यय – घञ्  One gets masculine nouns by affixing घञ् to धातु-s. e.g. पद् + घञ् → पादः, विश् + घञ् → वेशः, स्पृश् + घञ् → स्पर्शः, सृ + घञ् → सारः, त्यज् + घञ् → त्यागः
  • there is a कृत्-प्रत्यय – क्तिन् One gets feminine nouns by affixing क्तिन् to धातु-s. e.g. शम् + क्तिन् → शान्तिः, कृ + क्तिन् → कृतिः, स्तु + क्तिन् → स्तुतिः
  • there is a कृत्-प्रत्यय – ल्युट् One gets a neuter noun by affixing ल्युट् to धातु-s e.g. युज् + ल्युट् → योजनम्, सेव् + ल्युट् → सेवनम्, पा + ल्युट् → पानम्, भुज् + ल्युट् → भोजनम्

Coming to the thirteen कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in five groups, कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in groups (1), (4) and (5) are used to get adjectives विशेषणानि only. But, when formed, they have such force, that one may often use them as a complete Part of Speech, without any explicit verb क्रियापदम्. For example, one can simply say इदं मया कर्तव्यम् I must do this. The English phrase has the verb ‘must do’. In Sanskrit there is no explicit verb क्रियापदम्. Yet the phrase is meaningful and hence a complete speech, by virtue of the कृदन्त ‘कर्तव्यम्’.

Let us study the select कृत्-प्रत्यय-s group by group.

कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in Group (1) – शतृ/शानच्, तृच्

It ought to be noted that there is a slash ‘/’ between शतृ and शानच्. This is because they apply to परस्मैपदी and आत्मनेपदी धातु-s respectively. So both of them are not सर्वधातुक (applicable to all धातु-s).

Although their names are शतृ, शानच् and तृच्, the actual affixes are अत्, मान तृ. Let us also see the process of affixing these affixes.

1-1 Since प्रत्यय शतृ affixes only to परस्मैपदी धातु-s, the process can be –

  • take तिङ्शब्द of the धातु in present tense वर्तमानकाल third person प्रथमपुरुष plural बहुवचनम् e.g. धातु गम् → गच्छन्ति
  • Take away the तिङ्प्रत्यय अन्ति Hence, गच्छन्ति – अन्ति = गच्छ्
  • Add कृत्-प्रत्यय अत् गच्छ् + अत् = गच्छत् meaning “going”
  • That is the प्रातिपदिक with शतृ-प्रत्यय
  • It is an adjective and would have सुबन्त-शब्द-s in all genders, cases and numbers.
    • गच्छन् बालः boy, who is going
    • गच्छत् दुःखम्, pain, which is going (i.e. receding)
    • गच्छती निशा night, which is going (i.e. ending, passing)

1-2 Since शानच्-प्रत्यय affixes only to आत्मनेपदी धातु-s the process is similar

  • take तिङ्शब्द of the धातु in present tense वर्तमानकाल third person प्रथमपुरुष singular एकवचनम् e.g. धातु भाष् → भाषते
  • Take away the तिङ्प्रत्यय ते भाषते – ते  = भाष
  • Add कृत्-प्रत्यय मान भाष + मान = भाषमाण (= talking, speaking, saying, lecturing ….)
  • That is the प्रातिपदिक with शानच्-प्रत्यय
  • It is an adjective and would have सुबन्त-शब्द-s in all genders, cases and numbers.
    • भाषमाणः नेता = leader, who is speaking (i.e. giving a speech)
    • भाषमाणं क्रीडणम् = toy, that is speaking (i.e. talking)
    • भाषमाणा युवती = young lady, who is speaking (i.e. giving a talk, giving a lecture)

Note that since in passive voice all धातु-s take आत्मनेपदी तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s, one gets शानच्-कृदन्त-s with passive भावकर्मणिप्रयोग inbuilt in the meaning

  • In Geetaa, प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः (अन्वयेन – कर्माणि सर्वशः प्रकृतेः गुणैः क्रियमाणानि =
    • All actions (are) being done by (inherent) characteristics of Nature, i.e.
    • all actions happen by (inherent) characteristics of Nature, i.e.
    • it is inherent of Nature that it makes all actions happen, i.e.
    • nobody should think that an action happened, because he did it, nobody should claim or contend doer-ship of an action).
  • I am prompted to elaborate the meaning of the quotation in as many different ways, also realizing that the use of passive voice is itself so meaningful. In passive voice the doer-ship is transposed. Here doer-ship is transposed to characteristics of Nature. So, nobody is really the doer. “Nobody is really the doer.” is a great philosophical thought. Use of passive voice, whereby doership is transposed is itself smart use of grammar to convey the philosophical thought emphatically.
  • In this quotation क्रियमाण is the शानच्-कृदन्त from the passive voice form of धातु कृ. Note, कृ → करोति (कर्तरि, वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम्) → क्रियते (कर्मणि, वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम्) → क्रियमाण (शानच्-कृदन्तम्) → क्रियमाणानि (विशेषणम् of कर्माणि, hence नपुंसकलिङ्गेन प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम्)

1-3 तृच्-प्रत्ययः – As said above, actual affix is तृ, e.g. दा → दातृ (दाता, दात्री), कृ → कर्तृ (कर्ता, कर्त्री), त्रै → त्रातृ (त्राता, त्रात्री) वच् → वक्तृ (वक्ता, वक्त्री)

  • By its meaning, तृच्-प्रत्यय connotes doer of the action, which is implicit in the meaning of the verb. It is कर्तृवाचक. Because it is adjectival, I have given, in the examples, masculine and also feminine forms.
  • Since तृच्-कृदन्त-s are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.
  • This is NOT a सार्वधातुक प्रत्यय. That is, it cannot be applied to all धातु-s.
  • The criteria for applicability of तृच्-प्रत्यय to a धातु are not as simple, as are the criteria for applicability of शतृ or शानच् प्रत्यय-s.
  • Since it is not सार्वधातुक, for धातु-s, to which this is not applicable, there are other कृत्-प्रत्यय-s, which serve the function of तृच्-प्रत्यय, e.g.
    • पू + ण्वुल् → पावकः, गै + ण्वुल् → गायकः (गायिका)
    • तॄ-णिच् ण्वुल् → तारक Note, here the कृत्-प्रत्यय ण्वुल् is affixed to the causative णिच् of धातु तॄ.
    • May it be noted that ण्वुल् is actually affixed as अक

कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in Group (2) – ण्वुल् तुमुन्

There is some logic in my taking ण्वुल् तुमुन् next to तृच्. The logic is that ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय has usage in the role of both तृच् and तुमुन्. There are two aphorisms सूत्र-s, which endorse this.

  1. ण्वुल्तृचौ ३।१।१३३
  2. तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम् ३।३।१०

In the discussion just above, use of ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय in the role of a तृच्-प्रत्यय i.e. with a कर्तृवाचक meaning is already shown.

Since ण्वुल्-कृदन्त-s with a कर्तृवाचक meaning are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.

The second aphorism तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम् ३।३।१० mentions use of ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय in the sense of क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्. It should be hence understood that a word formed with ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय has in it the sense also of क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्.

For example, we have पू + ण्वुल् → पावकः. Having been derived from धातु पू, the word पावकः has the meaning of the क्रिया and क्रियार्थ as of the धातु पू.

  • Meaning of धातु पू is ‘to purify’.
  • So पावकः is that, which does the क्रिया as of धातु पू That is to say that “पावकः purifies” and
  • पावकः fulfils the क्रियार्थ of धातु पू, That is to say that. “पावकः fulfils purification”.

Thus a word with ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय has many meanings – a कर्तृवाचक meaning, also क्रियावाचक meaning and also क्रियार्थवाचक meaning.

One may ask, if a word with ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय has such multi-tasking capability, why we need separate words with तृच्-प्रत्यय-s and with तुमुन्-प्रत्यय-s. One answer is that words with तृच्-प्रत्यय-s and ण्वुल्-प्रत्यय-s are not सार्वधातुक. तुम् is सार्वधातुक.

Words with तुमुन्-प्रत्यय-s are also needed when we need in the speech a part as an infinitive. For example, in an English phrase as “Fire to purify gold” there is the infinitive “to purify”. The Sanskrit phrase would be सुवर्णं पवितुं पावकः

  • Here, we need the word पावकः to connote fire (the purifier) and
  • we also need the word पवितुम् to connote “to purify”.
  • Just two words सुवर्णं पावकः would be meaningless.
  • Likewise just two words सुवर्णं पवितुम् would also be meaningless.
  • All three words together, सुवर्णं पवितुं पावकः becomes meaningful speech.

It would have been noticed that पवितुम् is तुमन्त from धातु पू. We have infinitives of all verbs. So we have तुमन्त-s of all धातु-s.

Processes of formation of तुमन्त-s are different for different धातु-s. For example, पू → पवितुम्, कृ → कर्तुम्, भू → भवितुम्, गम् → गन्तुम्, दृश् → द्रष्टुम्, गै → गातुम्, पा → पातुम्, पृच्छ् → प्रष्टुम्, भुज् → भोक्तुम्, बन्ध् → बध्नुम्    etc.

There will be तुमन्त-s also of causatives णिजन्त-s of धातु-s. For example, पठ् → पठितुम् → पाठयितुम्, दृश् → द्रष्टुम् → दर्शयितुम्, स्था → स्थातुम् → स्थापयितुम्

From the various examples given, it can be appreciated that to detail the grammatical processes of formation of तुमन्त-s. Learning तुमन्त-s of various धातु-s and practising with them is possibly an easier approach.

कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in Group (3) – क्त्वा/ल्यप्

I have put a slash between क्त्वा and ल्यप्. Actually we can say, that main प्रत्यय is क्त्वा. It is सार्वधातुक. When there is an उपसर्ग prefixed to a धातु, then one affixes the प्रत्यय ल्यप्. Use of कृदन्त of a धातु is when in a speech there are two actions. The प्रत्यय क्त्वा or ल्यप् is used for former of the two actions.

कृदन्त-s having कृत्-प्रत्यय क्त्वा are known as त्वान्त-s and having कृत्-प्रत्यय ल्यप् are called as ल्यबन्त-s. Actual affix for क्त्वा is only त्वा and actual affix for ल्यप् is य.

For example, in a sentence such as “On going home, I shall have meals.” there are two actions – first, going home, secondly having meals. क्त्वा or ल्यप् प्रत्यय is to be applied for the first action of going home. In Sanskrit, the sentence will be अहं गृहं गत्वा भोजनं खादामि. Here we have the त्वान्त – गत्वा from धातु गम्.

In the first chapter of गीता, there is the mention – भीष्मः सिंहनादं विनद्य शङ्खं दध्मौ BheeShma yelled a roar and blew the conch. Here we have the ल्यबन्त – विनद्य. It is a ल्यबन्त, because विनद्य is obtained from धातु विनद् where वि is the उपसर्ग. There are two actions ‘yelled’ and ‘blew the conch’. Of the two actions ‘yelled’ is the former. Hence ल्यबन्त is of this action.

कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in Group (4) – क्त, क्तवतु

(4-1) The कृत्-प्रत्यय क्त is possibly one, which is used the maximum. This is same as the Past Passive Participle in English grammar. But unlike its terminology as “Participle” in English grammar, it is a wholesome adjective कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् Even in English there are instances of its adjectival usages e.g. “Given data”, “Assumed values”, “Swept floor”, “Bygone days”. etc.

The actual affix of कृत्-प्रत्यय क्त is only त. It is सार्वधातुक. But the processes of affixing प्रत्यय क्त are different for different धातु-s. For example कृ → कृत, भू → भूत, गम् → गत, दृश् → दृष्ट, भज् → भक्त, वच् → उक्त, गै → गीत (गीता), रच् → रचित, बन्ध् → बद्ध, वह् → ऊढ, व्यूह् → व्यूढ.

Since क्त-कृदन्त-s are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.

(4-2) Since क्तवतु-प्रत्यय has क्त as its first part and वतु as its second part, the process of affixing क्तवतु-प्रत्यय  is to first get the क्त-कृदन्त and then affix वत्. So the above examples also become examples of क्तवतु-कृदन्त-s by affixing वत् thereafter. So, कृ → कृतवत् (कृतवान्, कृतवती), भू → भूतवत् (भूतवान् भूतवती), गम् → गतवत् (गतवान् गतवती), दृश् → दृष्टवत् (दृष्टवान् दृष्टवती), भज् → भक्तवत् (भक्तवान् भक्तवती), वच् → उक्तवत् (उक्तवान् उक्तवती), गै → गीतवत् (गीतवान् गीतवती)), रच् → रचितवत् (रचितवान् रचितवती), बन्ध् → बद्धवत् (बद्धवान् बद्धवती), वह् → ऊढवत् (ऊढवान् ऊधवती), व्यूह् → व्यूढवत् (व्यूढवान् व्यूढवती)

Use of क्तवतु-कृदन्त is to transform the voice of क्त-कृदन्त, i.e. to transform from passive voice to active voice. For example,

  • The good saying was said by me मया सुभाषितम् उक्तम् (passive voice) → I said the good saying अहं सुभाषितम् उक्तवान् (active voice)
  • The scene was seen by her तया दृश्यं दृष्टम् (passive voice) → She saw the scene सा दृश्यं दृष्टवती (Active Voice)

Since क्तवतु-कृदन्त-s are also adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s. The प्रातिपदिक-s are सुबन्त-s with नपुंसकलिङ्ग प्रथमा विभक्ति एकवचनम्. Given in brackets are पुँल्लिङ्ग and स्त्रीलिङ्ग प्रथमा विभक्ति एकवचनम्.

कृत्-प्रत्यय-s in Group (5) – यत्/ण्यत्, तव्यत्, अनीयर्

(5-1) प्रत्यय-s यत्/ण्यत्. I have put these also with a slash between them, because both are not सार्वधातुक. But the affix which actually gets affixed in both cases is just य.

Examples with यत् are – हन् → वध्य, गद् → गद्य, भू → भव्य, क्षि → क्षय्य (अक्षय्य), आ + चर् → आश्चर्य

Examples with are – सृज् + ण्यत् → सर्ग्य, कृ → कार्य, पठ् → पाठ्यम्, पू → पाव्यम्, त्रप् → त्राप्यम्, पत् → पात्य, वन्द् → वन्द्य, त्यज् → त्याज्य, भुज् → भोज्य

As can be seen from the examples, the प्रत्यय, which gets affixed is simply य, whether it is called as यत् or ण्यत्. Let us say, that these two different names are given by the grammarians. The logic may be in consideration of the difference in processes.

Basically, the meaning of कृदन्त obtained by affixing यत् or ण्यत् is of potential mood, for which in English one uses the auxiliaries ‘may’ ‘might’ By such consideration meaning of कार्य (from कृ = to do) becomes “what may be done”. In turn its meaning becomes job, function, action, activity, etc.

By the meaning of कार्य as “what may be done’, which is in passive voice, It ought to be noted that यत् or ण्यत्-कृदन्त has passive voice inherent in it. Although one may say, “that is my job” तन्मम कार्यम् grammatically it would be more correct to say, तन्मया कार्यम् (= it may be done by me).

Since यत् or ण्यत्-कृदन्त-s are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.

(5-2) कृत्-प्रत्यय – तव्यत्

As कृत्-प्रत्यय – तव्यत् what gets affixed is तव्य. For example कृ → कर्तव्य,  पठ् → पाठव्य, भू → भवितव्य, भुज् → भोक्तव्य, etc.

Of course processes of affixing तव्यत् to different धातु-s are different.

Basically, the meaning of कृदन्त obtained by affixing तव्यत् is of mandatory mood, for which in English one uses the auxiliary ‘must’. So, कर्तव्य is ‘what must be done by me’, which is in passive voice, It ought to be noted that तव्यत्-कृदन्त has passive voice inherent in it. Although one may say, ‘that is my duty’ तन्मम कर्तव्यम् grammatically it would be more correct to say, तन्मया कर्तव्यम् (= it must be done by me).

Since तव्यत्-कृदन्त-s are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.

(5-3) कृत्-प्रत्यय – अनीयर्

As कृत्-प्रत्यय – अनीयर् what gets affixed is अनीय. For example कृ → करणीय,  पठ् → पठनीय, भू → भवनीय, भुज् → भोजनीय, etc.

Of course processes of affixing अनीयर् to different धातु-s are different.

Basically, the meaning of कृदन्त obtained by affixing अनीयर् is of advisory mood or advocative mood, for which in English one uses the auxiliary ‘should’. So, करणीय is ‘what should be done by me’, which is in passive voice, It ought to be noted that अनीयर्-कृदन्त has passive voice inherent in it. Although one may say, ‘that is advisable for me’ तन्मम करणीयम् grammatically it would be more correct to say, तन्मया करणीयम् (= it should be done by me).

Since अनीयर्-कृदन्त-s are adjectives, their actual usage in speech will be by सुबन्त-s. The कृदन्त-s, mentioned above as examples, are the प्रातिपदिक-s.

There is a good verse with interesting अनीयर्-कृदन्त-s. कस्यचित् किमपि नो हरणीयम् | मर्मवाक्यमपि नोच्चरणीयम् | श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् | लीलया भवजलं तरणीयम् || Nothing should be snatched of anybody. The (sacred) secret code should not be spoken. The pair of feet of श्रीपति should be (ever) remembered (meditated upon). Waters of creation (i.e. worldly life) should be merrily floated upon.

It comes to mind that one should compile at least these 13 कृदन्त-s for a good number of धातु-s and practise with them. By appropriate pairing, number of columns required for 13 कृदन्त-s will be only 10. Some specimen compilation is shown below.

No. धातु शतृ / शानच् तृच् ण्वुल् तुमुन् क्त्वा/ल्यप् क्त क्तवतु यत्/ण्यत् तव्यत् अनीयर्
भू भवत् भवितृ भावक भवितुम् भूत्वा भूत भूतवत् भव्य भवितव्य भवनीय
कृ कुर्वत्क्रियमाण कर्तृ कर्तुम् कृत्वा कृत कृतवत् कार्य कर्तव्य करणीय
२-अ णिच् of कृ कारयत् कार्यमाण कारक कारयितुम् कारयित्वा कारित कारितवत् कारयितव्य कारणीय
गम् गच्छत् गन्तृ गमक गन्तुम् गत्वा गत गतवत् गन्तव्य गमनीय
ब्रू / वच् ब्रुवत् वक्तृ ब्रवितुम् उक्त्वा उक्त उक्तवत् वक्तव्य वचनीय
४-अ णिच् of वच् वाचक वाचितुम् वाचयित्वा वाचित वाचितवत् वाच्य/वाक्य वाचितव्य वाचनीय
स्था तिष्ठत् स्थातृ स्थातुम् स्थित्वा स्थित स्थितवत् स्थीय स्थातव्य
५-अ णिच्  of स्था स्थापयत् स्थापक स्थापयितुम् स्थापयित्वा स्थापित स्थापितवत् स्थापितव्य स्थापनीय
पा (पिबति) पातुम् पीत्वा पीत पीतवत् पेय पातव्य पानीय
६-अ णिच्  of पा (पिबति)
६-आ सन् of पा (पिबति) पेपीयमान (कर्मणि)
पा (पाति) पातृ पातुम् पात्वा

कृदन्त-s need to be studied also

  • Of the causatives प्रयोजक (णिच्) mode as shown above at (२-अ), (४-अ), (५-अ)  and
  • Also शानच्-कृदन्त-s of कर्मणि or भावे प्रयोग-s as shown at (२) and (२-अ)
  • कृदन्त-s of other modes (e.g. सन्-mode (i.e. repetitive mode) e.g. at (६-आ) there is शानच्-कृदन्त of कर्मणि of सन्-mode of पा (पिबति) .
  • As shown at (६) and (७) कृदन्त-s can be different if a धातु has different meaning and forms in different गण and पद.

Study of कृदन्त-s is thus an essential part of study of Sanskrit, also because they are an important Part of Speech.

शुभमस्तु |


Only Four Types of Words – Part 3 तिङन्तशब्दाः

Only Four Types of Words – Part 3


Having discussed सुबन्तशब्द-s in Part 2, here in part 3, the discussion would be on तिङन्तशब्द-s.

In a sentence, तिङन्तशब्द-s make the verbs क्रियापद-s. As in the language of any grammar, verb-words would be either

  • in any of three tenses – Past भूतकाल, Present वर्तमानकाल or Future भविष्यत्काल
  • In English grammar there are sub-types of all the three tenses viz.
    • Simple Present . Similarly Simple Past and Simple Future e.g. I go, I went, I shall go
    • Present (also Past and Future) Continuous e.g. I am going, I was going, I shall be going
    • Present (also Past and Future) Perfect e.g. I have gone, I had gone, I shall be gone
    • Present (also Past and Future) Perfect Continuous e.g. I have been going, I had been going, I shall have been going

or in any of the moods अर्थ-s –

  • Imperative mood आज्ञार्थ, e.g (You) go
  • potential mood विध्यर्थ e.g. You may go
  • benedictine mood आशीर्वादार्थ or आशीरर्थ e.g. May God bless you
  • In English grammar we also have other moods as implied by verbal auxiliaries as in sentences such as You should go, You must go, You can go, You would go, You might go.
  • Constructs of Continuous, Perfect and Perfect continuous would apply to verbal auxiliaries also e.g. I may be going, I may have gone, I may have been going, etc.

As if as many aspects as above are not enough, in most languages there is the style of using Passive Voice instead of the most common Active Voice. In English, change of voice is possible only if a verb can take an object i.e. only if the verb is transitive सकर्मक. Change of voice is not possible, if the verb is intransitive अकर्मक.

Nevertheless, Change of voice will apply for all tenses and moods.

Also, an action may be obtained done by someone else, which is known as the causative mode. Again causative mode can be in all tenses and moods.

Also, sentences can be transformed into interrogatives and negatives.

In English all these varieties of sentences involve playing around with verbs and may involve use of auxiliary verbs and use also of verbal auxiliaries.

A person wanting to do exact translation of an English sentence into Sanskrit would be anxious to understand how all these tenses and moods and constructs with change of voice, causative mode, interrogation, negation, etc. can be expressed in Sanskrit.

To discuss and explain all these varieties, a book of grammar for any language will need to have many chapters. Let me see how much I can discuss in a single chapter here in this Part 3.

To begin with, let me take an example of how a dialogue happens colloquially. Let us say a mother orders her son, “Tom, go, get me some fruits from the market”. Tom is engrossed in something, which he has in mind or he is busy with. Because of which he would just say, “Going mom” Actually Tom may go somewhat later. Should not Tom’s reply be in future tense ? say, “I shall go, mom”. Instead colloquially Tom is responding using the gerund “going”. In Sanskrit it has been recognized by Sanskrit grammar itself that tenses and moods would be loosely used in colloquial interactions. So instead of designating tenses and moods by specific names as present tense, past tense, imperative mood, potential mood, etc., in Sanskrit grammar they are named by 10 लकार-s, which are summarized in a verse –

लट् वर्तमाने लेट् वेदे भूते लङ्ग् लुङ्ग् लिटस्तथा |

विध्याशिषौ लिङ्लोटौ लुट् लृट् लृङ् च भविष्यति ||

As is mentioned here,

  1. लट्-लकार for वर्तमान i.e. Present tense,
  2. लङ्ग् लुङ्ग् लिट्-लकार-s for भूत i.e. Past tense,
    • There are three types of past tense –
    • लङ्ग्-लकार is also called as अनद्यतनभूतकालः (Past tense, which is not of just today). This Past tense is in most common use, especially when no specific time of the event is mentioned. For example They all ran very fast = ते सर्वे वेगेन अधावन्त
    • लुङ्ग्-लकार is called as Aorist Past tense by English grammarians. It seems that it is to be used, when the time of happening of an event is well-known or specific. For example, The sky was cloudy in the morning प्रातः गगनं मेघाच्छादितम् अभूत्
    • लिट्-लकार is also called as परोक्षभूतकालः (परोक्ष means out of sight. This is used referring to an event, which has happened in such past, as has not been personally witnessed) उवाच (= said, in such past, which was out of sight) is a क्रियापदम् which one comes across so many times in गीता
  3. लुट् लृट् लृङ्-लकार-s for भविष्यत्काल i.e. Future Tense, This is also of three types
    • लुट्-लकार This is also called as अनद्यतनभविष्यत्कालः e.g.
    • लृट्-लकार This Future tense is in most common use. For example I shall read the lesson अहं पाठं पठिष्यामि |
    • लृङ्-लकार This Future tense is used to hint what may happen in future. By this token, this लकार is as much a mood अर्थः as a tense कालः. The Sanskrit word to explain its usage is सङ्केतार्थः
  4. Including सङ्केतार्थः there are four moods अर्थ-s –
    • लोट् – Imperative mood आज्ञार्थः
      • There are many example in गीता – पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणाम् आचार्य महतीं चमूम् (1-3)
      • रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत (1-21)
      • तदेव मे दर्शय देव रूपम् (11-45)
    • विधिलिङ् – Potential mood विध्यर्थः This would translate English sentences containing verbal auxiliaries ‘may’, ‘should’. Some common examples would be –
      • शुभं भवेत्
      • येऽपि स्युः पापयोनयः (गीता 9-32)
      • अजापुत्रं बलिं दद्यात्
    • आशीर्लिङ् – Benedictine mood आशीरर्थः This again would translate English sentences containing verbal auxiliary ‘may, but only of the type “May God Bless you”’ Some common examples would be –
      • कुर्यात् सदा मङ्गलम्
      • सत्यं ब्रूयात् प्रियं ब्रूयात्
      • शुभं भूयात्
    • लृङ् – As mentioned above, this लकार is used to hint what may happen in future. सङ्केतार्थः
      • An example from गीता is भविता न च मे तस्मादन्यः प्रियतरो भुवि (18-69)

Usages indicated above are not to be taken as strictly defined and only accordingly permissible usages of these लकार-s. The usages mentioned in the verse and as explained above are generally okay. But that does not mean that a particular लकार can be used only for a particular tense or mood. In a book of Sanskrit grammar one would very well find a chapter on meanings and significance of different लकार-s, a chapter with a title लकारार्थप्रकरणम्. In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित there is such specific chapter.

We can leave aside for a while the thought of which लकार to be used when, or in what sense of which tense or mood.

To focus on तिङन्तशब्दाः and लकार-s, the relationship is very simple. All word-formations by affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are word-formations in different लकार-s, In a sentence, the words we get by affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are verbs क्रियापद-s. The seeds to which we affix तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are called as धातु-s. Just to recapitulate, the seeds to which affix सुप्-प्रत्यय-s are प्रातिपदिक-s. So in Sanskrit, धातु-s and प्रातिपदिक-s are two important categories of seeds. Here for discussing तिङन्तशब्दाः we are concerned with धातु-s.

It is important to also bear in mind that धातु-s are not verbs. English grammarians call धातु-s as verbal roots. I would prefer to call them as seeds. धातु-s are the seeds to get verbs, the क्रियापद-s. In Sanskrit we get क्रियापद-s, as formatted words, formatted from धातु-s by affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s. As has been mentioned earlier also, in Sanskrit, word to be used in a sentence has to be a formatted word. It has to be a dressed up seed. Word-formation is a process प्रक्रिया.

All प्रक्रिया-s to get क्रियापद-s from धातु-s involve affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s to धातु-s. Basic तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are eighteen. They are in 2 groups of 9 each, according to a concept of पदम् of a धातु.

In Sanskrit grammar this term पदम् has different connotations.

  • A word appropriately formatted and made fit to be used in a sentence is a पदम्
  • There is a concept of पदम् in the context of धातु-s also.

In the context of धातु-s, the concept of पदम् is somewhat related to the orientation of the meaning of the धातु, whether unto oneself आत्मने-(पदम्) or unto others परस्मै-(पदम्). This is rather too technical. Let us just take it that there is this concept of पदम् associated with धातु-s.

PaNini compiled a list of some 2000odd धातु-s in his compilation known as धातुपाठः

  • पदम् of majority of धातु-s is परस्मैपदम्
  • पदम् of rest of धातु-s is आत्मनेपदम्
  • पदम् of some धातु-s is both, either परस्मैपदम् or आत्मनेपदम्. Such धातु-s are called as उभयपदी धातु-s
  • Nine तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s to be affixed to परस्मैपदी धातु-s are तिप्-तस्-झि, सिप्-थस्-थ, मिप्-वस्-मस्
  • Nine तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s to be affixed to आत्मनेपदी धातु-s are त-आताम्-झ, थास्-आथाम्-ध्वम्, इट्-वहि-महिङ्

There is a pattern as to how both the परस्मैपदी and आत्मनेपदी sets of तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are listed.

In English grammar also, the verbal root ‘to go’ takes six forms in the present tense. The six forms depend upon whether the subject is of first, second or third person and whether singular or plural.

  • Two forms when subject is of first person, singular and plural, e.g. I go, We go
  • Two forms when subject is of second person, singular and plural, e.g. You go (singular) You go (Plural)
  • Two forms when subject is of Third person, singular and plural, e.g. (He / She / It) goes (singular) They go (Plural).

The Sanskrit pattern of तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s has same logic, except that in Sanskrit we have singular, dual and plural. That is why there are nine तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s.

Although I said that In English the verbal root ‘to go’ takes six forms in the present tense, actual forms are only two ‘go’ and ‘goes’. The form ‘goes’ is only if the subject is third person singular.

In Sanskrit every form is different. The forms being different gives the tremendous facility of framing a sentence even without having any subject-word in the sentence ! Different and distinct form also means clear identity, an identifiable dress of the word. This gives another important and great facility that a word with such distinct identity can be placed anywhere in the sentence, because it gets total freedom from rules of syntax.

It would be easy to understand तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s for परस्मैपदी धातु-s by the following pattern –

एकवचनम् Singular द्विवचनम् Dual बहुवचनम् Plural
उत्तमपुरुषः First Person मिप् वस् मस्
मध्यमपुरुषः Second Person सिप् थस्
प्रथमपुरुषः Third Person तिप् तस् झि

Likewise, it would be easy to understand तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s for आत्मनेपदी धातु-s by the following pattern –

एकवचनम् Singular द्विवचनम् Dual बहुवचनम् Plural
उत्तमपुरुषः First Person इट् वहि महि
मध्यमपुरुषः Second Person थास् आथाम् ध्वम्
प्रथमपुरुषः Third Person आताम्

But the process प्रक्रिया of affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s is not so simple, One may say, that the process is – take the धातु, affix the appropriate प्रत्यय and get the formatted word, the क्रियापदम्. It is not simple, because we have to get the क्रियापदम् in different लकार-s also.

Before that, it is also important to note that a धातु, the seed has some growth, becoming, let us say, a root, before it fertilizes. The growth of a seed to become a root is also a process, involving a विकरण. The विकरण-s are of ten types. So, there are ten lists of धातु-s. The ten lists are called as गण-s – First list प्रथमगण, second list द्वितीयगण, ….. tenth list दशमगण. Out of 2000-odd धातु-s, majority of them belong to the first list प्रथमगण.

Connecting this with the previous mention that majority of धातु-s are परस्मैपदी, we can say that majority of धातु-s are of प्रथमगण and परस्मैपदी.

When we spot a क्रियापदम् in a sentence the grammar of the क्रियापदम् can be detailed by mentioning

  1. धातु, the seed
  2. गण, the list-number
  3. पद – परस्मै or आत्मने or उभय
  4. लकार – लट् or लिट् or लुट् or लृट् or लोट् or लङ् or विधिलिङ् or आशीर्लिङ् or लुङ् or लृङ्
    • Note that in the verse quoted earlier, there is a mention of a लकार, called as लेट्. I have not included that here, because in the verse it is clear that one finds लेट् वेदे i.e. primarily in Vedic usage.
    • Even with the omission of लेट्, we still have ten लकार-s, because we have लिङ् of two types विधिलिङ् or आशीर्लिङ्.
  5. पुरुष person – उत्तमपुरुषः First Person, मध्यमपुरुषः Second Person, प्रथमपुरुषः Third Person
    • It ought to be noted that, what is third person in English, is called as प्रथमपुरुष in Sanskrit, whereas, what is First Person in English, is called as उत्तमपुरुष in Sanskrit.
    • I guess that there is some cultural thought behind this. Sanskrit culture seems to advocate that one should not be talking much in उत्तमपुरुष or should be talking, using उत्तमपुरुष, when one is clear in conscience about having attained the stage of उत्तमपुरुष “सोऽहमस्मि” (I am He or He is me)
    • Actually in English the third rank is given to those pronouns, which are maximum in number. Is it not clear that among pronouns, (I, We), (You, You), (He, She, It, They) pronouns of third person are maximum in number ? Why should their rank be third ? In Sanskrit, their rank is first प्रथमपुरुष.
  6. वचन. – एकवचनम् Singular, द्विवचनम् Dual or बहुवचनम् Plural

Being able to detail grammar of a क्रियापदम् in such sixfold detail demonstrates, that one has understood the क्रियापदम् as much thoroughly.

Even in a single-word sentence like “Go” गच्छ the क्रियापदम् is गच्छ. Its grammatical detail would be –

गच्छ – गम्-धातुः (१ प.) | लोटि मध्यमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

Note –

१ प. is abbreviation for प्रथमगणः, परस्मैपदम्

लोटि = in लोट्-लकार, which is imperative mood आज्ञार्थ.

Change of voice in Sanskrit is identical to change of voice in English. For example –

Teacher gives me knowledge.

In this sentence there are two objects – me and knowledge. So change of voice can be effected in two ways –

  1. I am given knowledge by teacher
  2. Knowledge is given to me by teacher.

In Sanskrit, “Teacher gives me knowledge” = आचार्यः मह्यं ज्ञानं ददाति | Note, that when a verb takes two objects, the personal object पुरुषवाचकं कर्म is in fourth case चतुर्थी विभक्ति. The impersonal object वस्तुवाचकं कर्मपदं वा भाववाचकं कर्मपदम् is in usual second case द्वितीया विभक्ति.

Now two ways of change of voice in Sanskrit would be –

  1. I am given knowledge by teacher अहं आचार्येण ज्ञानं दीये |
  2. Knowledge is given to me by teacher. आचार्येण मह्यं ज्ञानं दीयते |

Note that subject-word in Active voice कर्तरिप्रयोग is Teacher आचार्यः

  • In Passive voice कर्मणिप्रयोग it is changed to have the preposition ‘by’,
  • In Sanskrit, equivalent विभक्ति is तृतीया. Hence, आचार्येण

To transform  to Passive voice, there are two options, because there are two objects कर्मपद-s, –

  • first by changing the personal object पुरुषवाचकं कर्म ‘me’ to be the subject. Hence I am given. अहं दीये |
  • In the second option, the impersonal object वस्तुवाचकं कर्मपदं वा भाववाचकं कर्मपदम् ‘knowledge’ is made the subject. Hence Knowledge is given. ज्ञानं दीयते

Note that in both cases the verb क्रियापदम् conforms to the subject-word कर्तृपदम्.

  • In the first option, the subject-word ‘I’ अहम् is of first person उत्तमपुरुष. So, verb is ‘am given’ क्रियापदम् दीये
  • In the second option, the subject-word ज्ञानम् is of third person प्रथमपुरुष. So the verb is ‘is given’ क्रियापदम्  दीयते.

Concept of word-formation is so strong in Sanskrit, that even for change of voice, there is no need of any auxiliary verb. In English, we have to use an auxiliary verb ‘to be’ and the main verb ‘gives’ is given the form of a participle ‘given’.

English grammarians have been so accustomed to the concept of a participle, that even when speaking of Sanskrit grammar, they call many word-formations in Sanskrit as participles. There are no participles in Sanskrit. By my line of thinking. forming a participle is a half-hearted process of word-formation. In Sanskrit word-formation process is never half-hearted.

It ought to be also noted that when changing voice, there are two changes being made to the धातु.

  • It gets विकरणम् ‘य’. This is also the विकरणम् for धातु-s of the fourth list चतुर्थगण
  • Furthermore, in Passive Voice धातु will always take आत्मनेपदी तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s.

In the above example also

  • In active voice, the क्रियापदम् ददाति has no विकरणम् ‘य’ in it. In दीये and दीयते, it is there.
  • In active voice, the क्रियापदम् ददाति has परस्मैपदी तिङ्-प्रत्यय. In Passive voice the क्रियापद-s दीये and दीयते have आत्मनेपदी तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s.

Most interesting aspect of Change of voice concept in Sanskrit is that in Sanskrit, voice can be changed, even if verb in active voice is intransitive अकर्मक, In English you cannot do change of voice of a sentence such as “I go”, because the verb “to go” is intransitive. In sentences with intransitive verb there is no object.

But in Sanskrit you can do change of voice even of a sentence having an intransitive verb. For example I go = अहं गच्छामि. By change of voice it will be मया गम्यते. Note how the change of voice is obtained.

  • Subject-word कर्तृपदम् in active voice is अहम्. It is changed to its तृतीया विभक्ति मया.
  • क्रियापदम् in कर्तरिप्रयोग is गच्छामि. It undergoes its two changes –
    • the धातु गम् gets विकरण य
    • क्रियापदम् गम्यते has आत्मनेपदी तिङ्-प्रत्यय in it.

When verb is intransitive अकर्मक and change of voice is effected, the changed voice is called as भावेप्रयोग.

Since sentences in active voice कर्तरिप्रयोग can be in all लकार-s, their transformations into कर्मणिप्रयोग or भावेप्रयोग can also be in all लकार-s.

Another important and interesting form of  is in causative प्रयोजक-usage. For example “He does” → “He gets done”. सः करोति → सः कारयति In Sanskrit grammar, causative usage is also called as णिच्.

Again sentences in causative usage would mostly be in active voice. But they also can be transformed into कर्मणिप्रयोग or भावेप्रयोग. In turn  they can be in all लकार-s both when in active voice or कर्मणिप्रयोग or भावेप्रयोग.

To explain this by carrying the above example forward –

  • सः करोति = He does
  • सः कारयति = He gets done
  • तेन क्रियते = Is done by him
  • तेन कार्यते = Is got done by him

Above examples also show how word-formation, especially from धातु-s, makes the sentences short and sweet. Where English statement “Is got done by him” needs five words, in Sanskrit, it is just two words तेन कार्यते.

Yet another interesting and important form of क्रियापद-s is in desiderative usage. This is called as सन्नन्तक्रिया For example सः चिकीर्षति = He wishes to do.

There are also यङ्न्तक्रिया यङ्लुगन्तक्रिया, which are not in common usage. I have come across single usage of यङ्न्तक्रिया (for repetitive action) in this श्लोकः –

पाराशर्यवचस्सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् |

नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् |

लोके सज्जनषट्पदैरहरहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |

भूयाद्भारतपङ्कजं कलिनलप्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||

Here the word पेपीयमानं (= being drunk again and again) has यङ्न्तक्रिया in it, that too in passive voice.

In Sanskrit there are also नामधातु-s, i.e. धातु-s obtained from नाम-s. The word नाम is to be taken in a broader sense to include adjectives and pronouns also.

  • One interesting example is बुद्बुदायते (= is or becomes effervescent, bubblifies) formed from बुद्बुद (= a bubble).
  • Another interesting example is in a सुभाषितम् – यत्र विद्वज्जनो नास्ति श्लाघ्यस्तत्राल्पधीरपि । निरस्तपादपे देशे एरण्डोऽपि द्रुमायते ।। Meaning “Where there are no learned men, a person with little knowledge is also listened to. In a desert, a eucalyptus plant would also be called a tree.” Note the verb द्रुमायते obtained from the noun द्रुम (= tree).
  • There is another interesting सुभाषितम् – दुर्जनेन समं सख्यं प्रीतिं चापि न कारयेत्। ऊष्णो दहति चांगारः शीतः कृष्णायते करम् ॥ One should not indulge in friendship or affection towards a bad person. A hot embre causes burns, cold one blackens hand. Note the verb कृष्णायते (= blackens).

Although पाणिनि has detailed 2000-odd धातु-s in धातुपाठ, number of धातु-s would become innumerable if we add नामधातु-s obtainable from nouns-pronouns adjectives. From each धातु one can obtain so many क्रियापद-s, when one takes into account not only कर्तरिप्रयोग in all लकार-s, but also भावकर्मणि and क्रिया-s such as णिच्, सन्नन्त, यङ्/यङ्लुक् etc.

Actually there would be prefixes उपसर्गाः which add more shades of meaning to the basic meaning(s) of a धातु. It is rightly said so in a verse –

उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते |

प्रहाराहारसंहारविहारपरिहारवत् ||

Meaning, meaning of a धातु is forcibly carried somewhere else, as happens in the case of प्रहार (hitting), आहार (eating), संहार (destruction), विहार (joy-ride), परिहार (relief).

उपसर्ग-s are 22 viz. प्र परा अप सम् अनु अव निस् निर् दुस् दुर् वि आ नि अधि अपि अति सु उत् अभि प्रति परि उप.

It is not uncommon that more than one उपसर्ग-s would be used together. For example, the word अध्यायः(अधि + आ + अयः) has in it two उपसर्ग-s अधि and आ.

Important point to be noted is that when forming क्रियापद-s, when there is/are उपसर्ग-s, one first forms क्रियापदम् of the bare धातु and the उपसर्ग(s) are prefixed to the क्रियापदम् as formatted.

For example अभवत् – भू-धातुः (१ प.) | लङि अनद्यतनभूते प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

For लङि अनद्यतनभूते प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् of अनु + भू it would be अनु + अभवत् = अन्वभवत् | Here we have अन्वभवत् which is actually a संधि i.e. joint pronunciation of अनु + अभवत्.

The two pairs of उपसर्ग-s, निस् निर् and दुस् दुर् should better be understood as being विसर्ग-ending निः and दुः When doing joint pronunciation, they would become निस् निश् निष् निर् or दुस् दुश् दुष् दुर् as in निस्सीम, निश्चय निष्कास, निर्मोह or दुस्सह, दुश्चित्त, दुष्कर, दुर्धर or the विसर्ग would stay unchanged as in दुःखित

Certain times, some उपसर्ग-s would cause an otherwise परस्मैपदी धातु to get आत्मनेपदी प्रत्यय-s. For example धातु स्था is basically परस्मैपदी. But with उपसर्ग अनु it gets आत्मनेपदी प्रत्यय-s. Basically लटि प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् of स्था is तिष्ठति But with अनु it becomes अनुतिष्ठते.

Converse also happens. धातु रम् is basically आत्मनेपदी. So its लटि प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् is रमते But with उपसर्ग उप it gets परस्मैपदी प्रत्यय and would be उपरमति.

Certain times उपसर्ग-s also cause an intransitive verb अकर्मकधातुः to become transitive सकर्मकधातुः. For example धातुः भू is as such अकर्मक. But with अनु it becomes transitive सकर्मक.

For example

  • सः सुखम् अनुभवति He experiences happiness.
  • धातुः भू becomes transitive also with उपसर्ग-s प्र, अभि, परा
    • सः मां प्रभवति He influences me
    • तन्माम् अभिभवति It overwhelms me OR it impresses me
    • सः मया पराभूतः He was defeated by me.OR I defeated him

Sentences in all tenses and moods and in all voices and all modes can also be transformed into interrogation and negation. Sanskrit process is much simpler than English process. English process requires use of an auxiliary verb. For example in the interrogative sentence “Did you do that ?”, there are two forms of the verbal root “to do” – one is auxiliary and other is main.

Even when making negative of an affirmative sentence, in English one needs using an auxiliary verb. For example if affirmative sentence is “I went” its negative would be “I did not go”.

In Sanskrit, for interrogation one may use an interrogative pronoun. For example in the first verse of eighth chapter in Geetaa, there are so many questions – किं तद्ब्रह्म किमध्यात्मं किं कर्म पुरुषोत्तम | अधिभूतं च किं प्रोक्तम् अधिदैवं किमुच्यते || Even when there are so many questions, there is no question-mark anywhere. The pronunciation makes it clear that these are questions. Much of Sanskrit text is devoid of punctuation marks !

In fact there would be interrogative sentences in Sanskrit without any interrogative pronoun also. For example गच्छसि can be just pronounced in a questioning tone and that would be interrogative of गच्छसि (affirmative). For more clarity for the reader one when writing one may write गच्छसि ? Or one may use the interrogative गच्छसि किम् ? When one wants to check the consent, one may use an interrogative auxiliary – अपि गच्छसि ?

In Sanskrit transformation into negative is also quite simple. One just uses the negational auxiliary न. One does not have to use any auxiliary verb. For example if affirmative sentence is गच्छसि its negative would be न गच्छसि. In Sanskrit there is one more negational auxiliary, mostly used for imperative mood. For example मा गच्छ (= don’t go).

It would be good to recapitulate and make a summary note of main points discussed about तिङन्तशब्दाः

  1. In sentences तिङन्तशब्दाः are verbs क्रियापद-s.
  2. The seed from which तिङन्तशब्दाः are obtained are धातु-s
  3. There are some 2000-odd धातु-s listed in धातुपाठ by पाणिनि.
  4. In धातुपाठ, पाणिनि listed धातु-s in ten lists called as गण-s
  • The ten गण-s have different विकरण-s, which afflict the धातु-s, before affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s
  1. तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are of two types परस्मैपदी and आत्मनेपदी
  2. धातु-s get तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s depending upon whether it is परस्मैपदी or आत्मनेपदी.
  • With उभयपदी धातु-s क्रियापद-s can be obtained with both परस्मैपदी and आत्मनेपदी प्रत्यय-s.
  1. In both परस्मैपदी and आत्मनेपदी types तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are 9 each which gets क्रियापद-s
  • in उत्तमपुरुष (First person), मध्यमपुरुष (second person) प्रथमपुरुष (third person)
  • in singular एकवचनम् dual द्विवचनम् plural बहुवचनम्
  1. The processes of affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are different according to 10 लकार-s which help to frame क्रियापद-s in different tenses and moods
  • Present tense वर्तमानकालः is called as लट्-लकार
  • Past tense भूतकालः is of three types – लङ् (अनद्यतनभूतकालः) लुङ् (सामान्यभूतकालः) लिट् (परोक्षभूतकालः)
  • Future tense is also of three types – लुट् (अनद्यतनभविष्यत्कालः) लृट् (द्वितीयभविष्यत्कालः) लृङ् (is also a mood सङ्केतार्थः)
  • There are also three other moods – लोट् (Imperative mood आज्ञार्थः) विधिलिङ् (Potential mood विध्यर्थः) आशीर्लिङ् (Benedictine Mood)
  1. In Sanskrit change of voice can be done not only of sentences with transitive verbs, but even of sentences with intransitive verbs.
  2. In Sanskrit, there are more variations of धातु-s with णिच्-क्रिया (causative), सन्नन्तक्रिया (desiderative), यङ्-क्रिया (repetitive). Change of voice would be applicable for these variations also.
  3. In Sanskrit, transforming affirmative sentences into interrogative and negative does not require use of auxiliary verb. In English one needs to use auxiliary verb ‘to do’.
  4. Concept of नामधातु-s would add numerous more धातु-s
  5. Prefixes उपसर्ग-s would bring variety of shades of meaning, often very much different from the meaning(s) of धातु-s themselves.

Having discussed so many aspects of तिङन्तशब्दाः, it must be noted that I have not detailed, even as a specimen example any single धातु in all aspects. But I did not do that even for सुबन्तशब्दाः There I suggested that one could download from website of Mr. GSS Murthy शब्दरूपाणि of good number of specimen प्रातिपदिक-s. He has done that for धातु-s also. See There are books available with such titles as शब्दधातुरूपावली. There is a book बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः wherein one bookseller Mr. R. R. Krishnachar compiled धातुरूप-s of some 629 धातु-s. In a Pocket book रूपचन्द्रिका by ब्रह्मानन्द त्रिपाठी धातुरूप-s of some 279 धातु-s in all ten लकार-s are given. But the pocket book could not have detailed भावकर्मणिरूपाणि, णिजन्तरूपाणि etc. for all as many धातु-s, again in all लकार-s.

It ought to be noted that one cannot find in the dictionary each and every तिङन्तशब्द of every धातु. What one can expect to find is the धातु. So, it becomes important to know the धातु-s and what तिङन्तशब्द-s can be obtained from which धातु. This becomes somewhat challenging, when a धातु has तिङन्तशब्द-s in different lists i.e. in different धातुगण-s. For example –

  • धातु दा in प्रथमगण has तिङन्तशब्द यच्छति Same धातु in तृतीयगण has तिङन्तशब्द ददाति
  • धातु पा in प्रथमगण has तिङन्तशब्द पिबति Same धातु in द्वितीयगण has तिङन्तशब्द पाति

Although पाणिनि put धातु-s in ten lists i.e. in धातुगण-s, according to विकरण-s, that alone would not explain, why, for example, धातु-s वद् and गम्, both of प्रथमगण, have their तिङन्तशब्द-s in present tense as वदति and गच्छति respectively. Thought behind this mention is that one needs to study and practice a great lot with धातु-s.

It comes to mind that the best practice and study of तिङन्तशब्दाः would happen by continued practice of composing sentences in Sanskrit. Since sentences would have सुबन्तशब्दाः also, practising with sentences will give practice with both तिङन्तशब्दाः and सुबन्तशब्दाः.

Actually तिङन्तशब्दाः are not all, what one gets from धातु-s. Yet another Part of Speech कृदन्त-s are also obtained from धातु-s only. Those will be discussed in the next Part.

शुभमस्तु |


Only Four Types of Words – Part 2 सुबन्तशब्दाः

Only Four Types of Words – Part 2


Having come to the idea that Sanskrit is Simple – Only Four Parts of Speech, one can detail what is to be learnt under Four Parts of Speech. In this part, I plan to discuss सुबन्तशब्दाः

सुबन्तशब्दाः – Commonest aspects of सुबन्तशब्दाः are –

  • There is a seed-form प्रातिपदिकम्
  • From the प्रातिपदिकम् we get पद-s by applying सुप्-प्रत्यय-s
  • सुप्-प्रत्यय-s apply according to लिङ्ग-विभक्ति-वचन (Gender-Case-Number – GCN)

Interesting and Important things to be noted about Gender लिङ्ग

(1) In all languages genders are three – masculine पुँल्लिङ्गम्, feminine स्त्रीलिङ्गम्, neuter नपुंसकलिङ्गम्

(2) Pronouns सर्वनामानि and Adjectives विशेषणानि have पद-s in all three genders.

    • However pronouns of first person उत्तमपुरुष i.e. अस्मद् and of second person मध्यमपुरुष i.e. युष्मद् have common forms in all three genders.

(3) Most nouns नामानि have specific gender, which is predominantly by convention, e.g.

  • ‘man’ मनुजः/मानवः/पुरुषः is masculine,
  • woman, girl, virgin, daughter स्त्री/बाला/कुमारी/कन्या are feminine
  • most things वस्तु-s are neuter.
  • Some nouns have more than one genders, e.g. मित्रम् usually neuter means ‘friend’, but मित्रः masculine means ’sun’. कन्दुकः/कन्दुकम् (masculine or neuter) both mean ‘ball’ to play with.

Interesting and Important things to be noted about Cases विभक्ति

(1) The concept of ‘Case’ विभक्ति in Sanskrit eliminates prepositions. Rather we should just set in our mind, which case stands for which preposition.

  • Vocative or address case is संबोधन-विभक्ति
  • First case प्रथमा-विभक्ति is nominative case or subject-case, because it is to be used for subject-words in the sentence. It is कर्तृकारक, it makes subject-words
  • Second case द्वितीया-विभक्ति is accusative case or object-case, because it is to be used for object-words in the sentence. It is कर्मकारक, it makes object-words
  • Third case तृतीया-विभक्ति is Instrumental case, because it is to be used with words which are instrumental for an action. We cut with a knife. Knife is the instrument for the action of cutting. So, this third case is करणकारक related to words which are instrumental in the action. The case is to be used, where in English we shall have prepositions ‘with’, by, by means of.
    • To explain use of preposition ‘by’ and in turn तृतीया-विभक्ति in Sanskrit, let me take a sentence I shall go by your advice. तव उपदेशेन गच्छामि
    • However if the sentence is “I shall follow your advice”, here ‘your advice’ is object in the sentence. In Sanskrit also तव उपदेशम् अनुसरामि
    • English prepositions corresponding to तृतीया-विभक्ति would be with, along with, by, by means of, according to, as per.
  • Fourth case चतुर्थी-विभक्ति is dative case. It is used mostly for personal object-words,  to whom an offering संप्रदान is made. It connotes purpose of the action. It is संप्रदानकारक. The case is to be used, where in English we shall have preposition ‘for’
  • Fifth case पञ्चमी-विभक्ति is ablative case, अपादानकारक The case is to be used, where in English we have prepositions – ‘from’, out of, away from. For example “removed from mind” मनसः निष्कासितम् “out of town’ ग्रामात् बहिः away from home गृहात् दूरम्
  • Sixth case षष्ठी-विभक्ति Genitive case is not a कारक-विभक्ति. The case is to be used, where in English we have preposition ‘of’. It is not a कारक-विभक्ति, because it is not related to the verb. Preposition ‘of’ is a conjunction between two nouns or between noun and pronoun. In ‘juice of mango’, ‘juice’ and ‘mango’ are both nouns. ‘of’ connects them.
  • Seventh case सप्तमी-विभक्ति is locative case. Words in this case are mostly adverb of place. अधिष्ठानकारक or अधिकरणकारक. However it may be used to speak of the place of a thing or person, e.g. water in the well कूपे जलम् picture in the book पुस्तके चित्रम् wife at home गृहे भार्या. The case is to be used, where in English we have prepositions – in, at, on, upon.
Case No. Property Function Preposition(s)
संबोधन / संबोधन-प्रथमा Vocative संबोधनम्
1 प्रथमा Nominative Subject-words कर्तृकारक
2 द्वितीया Accusative Object-words कर्मकारक
3 तृतीया Instrumental Instrumental करणकारक with, along with, by, by means of, according to, as per
4 चतुर्थी Dative Personal Object-words  संप्रदानकारक for
5 पञ्चमी Ablative अपादानकारक from, out of, away from
6 षष्ठी Genitive of
7 सप्तमी Locative अधिष्ठानकारक / अधिकरणकारक in, at, on, upon

Interesting and Important things to be noted about Number वचनम्

The वचन i.e. number-concept in Sanskrit eliminates need for articles – a, an, the, which are very much necessary in English. Number in English is a two-tier concept – singular or plural. In Sanskrit, it is a three-tier concept – one, two, many (or more than two) एकवचनम्, द्विवचनम्, बहुवचनम् One should not use the term अनेकवचनम्, because अनेक can mean both द्वि or बहु.

The पद-s are word-forms शब्दरूपाणि and are called as शब्दरूपाणि also. With 3 लिङ्ग-s, 8 (संबोधन + 7 =) विभक्ति-s and three वचन-s one would get 72 पद-s from an adjectival प्रातिपदिक-s, which have पद-s in all three लिङ्ग-s. Pronouns do not have रूपाणि in संबोधन. Hence they have 63 रूपाणि. Nouns, which mostly have a specific लिङ्गम्, will have 24 पद-s or शब्दरूपाणि.

One gets पद-s by affixing suffixes प्रत्यय-s to प्रातिपदिक-s. There are grammatical processes प्रक्रिया-s for affixing suffixes प्रत्यय-s to प्रातिपदिक-s to get पद-s.

For one thing, the प्रक्रिया-s depend upon the ending syllable of the प्रातिपदिकम् – whether the ending syllable is a vowel स्वरः or a consonant व्यञ्जनम्. So प्रातिपदिक-s are स्वरान्त or व्यञ्जनान्त (also called as अजन्त or हलन्त). The term अजन्त has in it a component अच् which connotes all vowels. The term हलन्त has in it a component हल् which connotes all consonants.

To obtain पद-s by affixing suffixes प्रत्यय-s to प्रातिपदिक-s, following the prescribed grammatical processes प्रक्रिया-s, would often be complex. It is hence better, particularly for a student, to memorize पद-s or शब्दरूपाणि of typical प्रातिपदिक-s.

Meanings of words can be found in dictionaries. But Sanskrit words can be located in dictionaries, only if one knows the प्रातिपदिकम्. For example most common form of Sanskrit-word for ‘king’ is राजा. But one cannot find this word in the dictionary, because the प्रातिपदिकम् is राजन्. One can certainly locate राजन्. In fact there is another प्रातिपदिकम् राज्. which has identical meaning. It should be noted that the ending consonants of the two प्रातिपदिक-s are different. So शब्दरूपाणि of these two प्रातिपदिक-s are very, very different.

Knowing प्रातिपदिकम् properly is important also from another aspect also. In Sanskrit, there are शब्दरूपाणि of adjectives also. And the शब्दरूपम् must be identical to that of the noun, which it qualifies. The rule is stated in a verse, which should make it easy to remember the rule. The verse is –

यल्लिङ्गं यद्वचनं या च विभक्तिर्विशेष्यस्य |

तलिङ्गं तद्वचनं सा च विभक्तिर्विशेषणस्यापि ||

Meaning – Gender लिङ्गम्, Case विभक्तिः and number वचनम् of the adjective विशेषणम् must  be the same as are of (the noun being qualified) विशेष्य.

In English such correspondence does not happen. In ‘ good person’ and ‘good men’ although former phrase is in singular and latter is in plural, the adjective ‘good’ remains unchanged. But the Sanskrit grammar making शब्दरूपाणि of adjectives also is a great grammatical logic, which facilitates putting words anywhere in the sentence, that is, it gives freedom from rules of syntax. For example ‘A ferocious tiger roams in a dense forest’ भयङ्करः व्याघ्रः निबिडे अरण्ये अटति Now one can write the Sanskrit sentence as –

  • अटति भयङ्करः व्याघ्रः निबिडे अरण्ये
  • भयङ्करः अटति व्याघ्रः निबिडे अरण्ये
  • अरण्ये अटति निबिडे भयङ्करः व्याघ्रः
  • etc.

Mathematically speaking, since the Sanskrit sentence has 5 words, possible number of permutations is 120 ! So the sentence can be written in 120 different ways. And all of them can be grammatically valid and all of them will convey the same meaning.

The corresponding English sentence ‘A ferocious tiger roams in a dense forest’ has 8 words. Mathematically it should be possible to write it in 40,320 different ways. Can we do so without having different meaning or without being meaningless ? For example can we write ‘A dense tiger roams forest a ferocious in’ ? But in Sanskrit it is perfectly legitimate and meaningful to write निबिडे व्याघ्रः अटति अरण्ये भयङ्करः

All this is possible because अरण्ये and निबिडे, so also भयङ्करः and व्याघ्रः have been formatted to have same gender, case and number.

Having said this, it should be also noted that often one would be using numerical adjectives. Numerical adjectives are generally of two types – cardinal and ordinal. But there are more variants also. For example –



Ordinal क्रमवाचकम् विशेषणम् So many times कतिवारम् Group of समूहवाचकम्
(एक) एकः एका एकम् प्रथमः प्रथमा प्रथमम् एकवारम्
(द्वि) द्वौ द्वे द्वे द्वितीयः द्वितीया द्वितीयम् द्विवारम् द्वयम्
(त्रि) त्रयः तिस्रः त्रीणि तृतीयः तृतीया तृतीयम् त्रिवारम् त्रयम्
(चतुः) चत्वारः चतस्रः  चत्वारि चतुर्थः चतुर्थी चतुर्थम् चतुर्वारम् चतुष्टयम्
(पञ्चन्) पञ्च पञ्चमः पञ्चमी पञ्चमम् पञ्चवारम् पञ्चकम्
(षट्) षट् षष्ठः षष्ठी षष्ठम् षड्वारम् षट्कम् षट्कारः
(सप्तन्) सप्त सप्तमः सप्तमी सप्तमम् सप्तवारम् सप्तकम्
(अष्टन्) अष्ट/अष्टौ अष्टमः अष्टमी अष्टमम् अष्टवारम् अष्टकम्
(नवन्) नव नवमः नवमी नवमम् नववारम् नवकम्
(दशन्) दश दशमः दशमी दशमम् दशवारम् दशकम्

In the first column I have mentioned the (प्रातिपदिकम्) पुँल्लिङ्गी, स्त्रीलिङ्गी, नपुंसकलिङ्गी संख्याशब्दाः प्रथमायां विभक्त्याम् एकवचने. It may be noted that for पञ्चन्-onwards the संख्याशब्दाः are common in all three genders.

In the second column the feminine forms are आकारान्त for first three numbers and are ईकारान्त thereafter.

Interesting point for numbers 11 onwards is that the cardinal and ordinal adjectives have same प्रातिपदिकम्. For example, एकादश ग्रन्थाः (eleven books) एकादशोऽध्यायः (eleventh chapter), एकादशी तिथिः (eleventh day). Note also, that in the first phrase एकादश ग्रन्थाः, eleven books, the form of the adjective एकादश is of first case (प्रथमा विभक्तिः), plural (बहुवचनम्). Similarly its forms in all other cases एकादशान् (द्वितीया) एकादशभिः (तृतीया) एकादशेभ्यः (चतुर्थी and पञ्चमी) एकादशानाम् (षष्ठी) एकादशेषु (सप्तमी) are always plural and common in all genders. The pattern is similar for most other numbers.

Mr. GSS Murthy has done a great job of compiling declension-tables शब्दरूपाणि of great number of words. He has arranged them also in good order according to the ending syllable. At the link here, it is an index. Every word in the index is a hyperlink. When you click on the word, you are taken to the declension-table of the word.

Master the tables and you have started off well on सुबन्त-s, on one of four Parts of Speech, that means more than 25 percent of learning Sanskrit ! I say more than 25 percent, because in one part of Speech, that of अदृष्ट- or लुप्त-प्रत्यय-s, there is hardly anything to be learnt as such. There the words are just there. You have to only understand their meanings and use them as they are, doing no word-formation, nothing.whatever !

It would be good recapitulate main points, which are detailed above.

  1. The seed from which सुबन्तशब्द-s are obtained is called as प्रातिपदिकम्
  2. प्रातिपदिकम् would be either a noun नाम pronoun सर्बनाम or adjective विशेषणम्.
  3. सुबन्तशब्द-s are obtained by affixing suffixes सुप्-प्रत्यय-s to a प्रातिपदिकम्
  4. There are well-defined processes प्रक्रिया-s for affixing suffixes सुप्-प्रत्यय-s to a प्रातिपदिकम्. The processes depend upon –
  • gender लिङ्गम्
  • case विभक्तिः
  • number वचनम्
  1. The प्रक्रिया-s depend upon
  • the ending syllable of the प्रातिपदिकम् – whether the ending syllable is a vowel स्वरः or a consonant व्यञ्जनम्.
  • the gender लिङ्गम् and
  • the case विभक्तिः and
  • number वचनम्
  1. Pronouns सर्वनामानि and adjectives have सुबन्तशब्द-s in all three genders त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु, except that pronouns अस्मद् and युष्मद् have identical सुबन्तशब्द-s in all three genders. It is important that gender, case and number of adjectives matches with those of the noun, which the adjective qualifies.

शुभमस्तु !


Sanskrit is Simple – Only Four Types of Words

Sanskrit is Simple – Only Four Types of Words

सुलभं संस्कृतम् – चत्वार्येव वाक्पदानि

Having posted 37 lessons by such serial numbers, I am not calling this as Lesson No. 38. This is a new angle of looking at sentences in Sanskrit. We would very much revisit the concepts studied in the previous lessons, but with this new perspective of Only Four Parts of Speech.

I first composed this write-up for my other blog But when I started looking at “Sanskrit is Simple – Only Four Parts of Speech”, I realized that it would develop into a good supplement to this blog of Simple Sanskrit. Here in this post I will explain what this concept Only Four Parts of Speech is.

When speaking of Sanskrit, there is some natural mention of Sanskrit grammar. It is also well-accepted that Sanskrit has to be grammatically correct. The need for Sanskrit to be grammatically correct is emphasized to the extent of an impression to grow in mind that it is grammarians, who created the language and they would not tolerate any Sanskrit, which is grammatically incorrect.

It is my contention however that grammar does not make the language. Rules of grammar are framed to systematize how the language should be spoken or written. I am clear in my mind that पाणिनि did not create Sanskrit language. In अष्टाध्यायी his treatise on Sanskrit grammar he framed and compiled, in a style and in a scheme of his own, rules of grammar, which are recognized as the norm for Sanskrit.

While पाणिनि’s lifetime is dated to be some 500 BC, Sanskrit existed millennia before पाणिनि. In his aphorisms such as लोपः शाकल्यस्य ८।३।१९ or ओतो गार्ग्यस्य ८।३।२०, he makes mention of many grammarians before him. Since पाणिनि was not the first grammarian, he could not have created Sanskrit. And the logic would apply to any grammarian.

He did find many exceptional usages, especially in texts and speeches very ancient to himself. They were exceptional, because he could not fit them in rules, which he had compiled. Nevertheless he took cognisance of such usages in his अष्टाध्यायी by referring to them as छन्दसि meaning “in ancient texts/usages”, primarily the Vedas.

As far as my own initiation into Sanskrit is concerned, I must also mention that my father taught me Sanskrit to a fairly good level of understanding, without ever mentioning पाणिनि. My father was a teacher of languages. He taught as many as four languages – Marathi, Hindi, English and Sanskrit. On recapitulation, I think his style was of comparative study. Basically, we have thoughts. And language is the aid or medium to express the thought. Any thought can be expressed in any languages, What is needed is the use of relevant words and “constructs”, which are typical of that language. Linguistic study then is getting to understand the words and “constructs” or the diction and the grammar.

Speaking of constructs, in English grammar, one learns of eight Parts of Speech – Verbs, Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions and Interjections. These eight parts of speech are like bins. Every word in a sentence must get sorted out into one bin or the other. The term “Part of speech” seems to denote types of words. Every word in a sentence is a part of the speech, because a sentence puts the words in such format that the speech becomes meaningful. Every word is then a part of speech and hence would be of one of the eight types.

Having said so, it comes to mind that in a sentence such as “Why did you not go ?”, in which bin do we put the word “not” ? The word “not” is an auxiliary to the verb. But we do not have a part of speech as “auxiliary”. Again, in a sentence such as “That is not good”, the word “not” is more related to the word “good”. What part of speech is the word “not” in this sentence ? In another sentence, “I shall do it, but not now”, the word “not” is more related to the adverb “now”. So a word such as “not” could be more related to the verb or to an adjective or to an adverb or to a pronoun in a phrase such as “not me” or to a noun as in a phrase “not Ganesh”. One can surmise that words need not be, rather, should not be typified. That concept should apply to any language.

Comparatively, in Sanskrit, every word, to be eligible for use in a speech, needs to be so dressed up, as would be appropriate for its intended use in a sentence. Intended use of a given word could be different in different sentences. A word appropriately dressed up is called as a पदम्.

Broadly पद-s are of only two types, either of सुप्-type or of तिङ्-type पाणिनि summarizes this as सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (पा. 1-4-14)

Does that make one good answer to a question – What is simple in Sanskrit grammar ?

We can say सुप् and तिङ् are two broad types of dresses to dress up raw (or seed) words. The dresses are of two broad types, because raw (or seed) words are of two broad types – nominal roots प्रातिपदिक-s and verbal roots धातु-s. English grammarians have coined for धातु, this term “verbal root”. I don’t like it that way though, because धातु is more basic than a root. Because it is more basic, I would like to call it as the seed. To go further, more basic than even the concept of seed, I would say that धातु is the “formless” state, from which “forms” emerge.

Am I speaking philosophy ? Yes ! One good starting point to understand Sanskrit is to get some philosophical tune up of the mind. Learning Sanskrit grammar is also like learning philosophy. If Vedas are like nourishing food, to digest that food, it has to be first put into the mouth. And grammar is the mouth, through which the Vedas are to be sent in for assimilation and digestion. So, they say, मुखं व्याकरणं स्मृतम् | Grammar is the mouth for the vedas.

The concept of “… “formless” state, from which “forms” emerge …” has been dwelt upon also in GItA. See the mention अव्यक्तादीनि भूतानि व्यक्तमध्यानि भारत | अव्यक्तनिधनान्येव तत्र का परिदेवना ||2-28|| Before they become manifest, all beings are in unmanifest state. Being manifest is just a middle stage or state. Death is only their passing again into the unmanifest state. So, धातु is the “formless” state, from which “forms” emerge. Similar is the case with प्रातिपदिक-s.

How many forms can emerge from these two basic formless states ? Asking this question is like asking how big a tree can grow from a seed ? How many branches can it have ? How many leaves can it have ? How many flowers and fruits can it have ? How many petals would each flower have ? How many ovules would emerge from the ovary of each flower ?

In a Sanskrit sentence, every word, the पदम् is “formed” by a forming process or morphology प्रक्रिया, which are broadly of the two types – सुप् and तिङ्.

सुप् and तिङ् are actually suffixes, word-endings प्रत्यय-s, which dress up the seeds प्रातिपदिक-s and धातु-s respectively.

What सुप्-प्रत्यय-s do is to form पद-s inclusive of prepositions. That eliminates “prepositions” as a type of part of speech. For example, देवेन is a पदम् with a सुप्-प्रत्यय-dressing up of प्रातिपदिक-देव. When so dressed up, its meaning “(with or) by God” includes the meaning implicit in the preposition “(with or) by”.

The morphology i.e. प्रक्रिया-s of सुप्-प्रत्यय-s embraces nouns, pronouns and adjectives. That eliminates any need for distinctive study of these parts of speech. Thus Sanskrit grammar has an inclusive philosophy.

पद-s formed by प्रक्रिया-s of सुप्-प्रत्यय-s often serve the function of adverbs also. For example, in a sentence अश्वः वेगेन धावति the word वेगेन is similar to देवेन. In the sentence अश्वः वेगेन धावति meaning of वेगेन is “with speed”. This meaning is adverbial, adverb of manner. The philosophy behind the morphology i.e. प्रक्रिया-s of सुप्-प्रत्यय-s then is further more inclusive, inclusive of adverbial meanings also.

तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s help us obtain verbs “क्रिया”-पद-s. In any language, one needs verbs in different tenses and moods, for singular or plural subjects, in first, second or third person, in active, passive voices, to connote causative, desiderative senses, etc. तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s do all that and do it much more crisply. An English sentence “May it be benevolent” would just be शुभमस्तु in Sanskrit.

Coming to an auxiliary word like “not” discussed earlier, in Sanskrit there are many words, which do not need dressing up. So there is no morphology of suffixes प्रत्यय-प्रक्रिया to be processed for these words. Some commonly words of this type are न, च, वा, अथवा, अथ, इति, एव, अपि, यदा, तदा, कदा, यथा, तथा, कथम्, एवम्, अद्य, ह्यः, श्वः, इदानीम्, अधुना, तदानीम्, अत्र, यत्र, तत्र, कुत्र, सर्वत्र, अन्यत्र, etc.

There are two viewpoints to understand such words.

  • One viewpoint is to think that these words are devoid of suffixes. They can be used without any dressing up. But this viewpoint goes against the philosophy, that every word should be dressed up and only then it can be used in a sentence.
  • So in the other viewpoint, one considers that the word is already having a dress of its own. It is not visible as a distinct suffix, but it is there. पाणिनि embraces all such words by saying अदर्शनं लोपः १।१।५९ “Not visible” means that “some suffix was there, but during metamorphosis it got dropped off”. This may be considered as just some smart way, to avoid saying that these words have no suffixes.
  • Basically these words are of a class, which can be used in “as is” condition. Such words are called by English grammarians as indeclinables अव्यय-s. To my mind this pair of parallel terminologies “indeclinables = अव्यय-s” is again not correct. I shall come to that later.

One need not conclude that in Sanskrit there are no suffixes beyond the सुप्-प्रत्यय-s and तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s.

पाणिनि makes mention of अतिङ्-प्रत्यय-s. One type of अतिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are कृत्-प्रत्यय-s (See कृदतिङ्॥ ३।१।९३)

  • कृदन्त-s are words having suffixes or endings of कृत्-प्रत्यय-s
  • Among कृदन्त-s, words with suffixes क्त्वा/ल्यप्, तुमुन् and ण्वुल् are adverbial and/or conjunctive. For example कृत्वा, संस्कृत्य, कर्तुम्, कारम्
  • कृदन्त-s with other कृत्-प्रत्यय-s would be mostly adjectives and would need dressing up with सुप्-प्रत्यय-s. Some कृत्-प्रत्यय-s of this type, found in common use are क्त, क्तवतु, तृच्, शतृ, शानच्, ण्यत्, तव्यत्, अनीयर्, as in कृत, कृतवत्, कर्तृ, कुर्वन्, क्रियमाण, कार्य, कर्तव्य, करणीय
  • In his book कृत्-प्रत्ययविश्लेषणम् Dr. Gopabandhu Mishra has presented a study of as many as 139 कृत्-प्रत्यय-s.

It becomes helpful to take the basic concept of प्रत्यय-s to be one of so dressing up the seed, that it gets an identity of its own and by that it can stand by itself anywhere. A word being enabled to stand by itself anywhere, is freeing it from the bondage of syntax. That again is a great, great concept, very special of Sanskrit !

Some concept of morphology of words by use of suffixes and also prefixes is there in many languages. For example, in English we have “to act” → acts, acted, acting, action, inaction, actionless, actor, actors, actress, actresses, active, inactive, proactive, activity, activities, actual, actuality, actualities, react, reaction, etc. All these morphologies however do not free the words from bondage of syntax.

Great benefit obtained from freedom from bondage of syntax is in facilitating poetic compositions, It is easy to utter poetic compositions in a rhythm, maybe even sing them. Most importantly, by becoming rhythmic, they become easy to memorize. Wish to sing grammar as a song ? Yes, you can do that with Sanskrit grammar ! For example, see this श्लोक in श्रीरामरक्षास्तोत्रम् –

रामो राजमणिः सदा विजयते रामं रमेशं भजे |

रामेणाभिहिता निशाचरचमू रामाय तस्मै नमः |

रामान्नास्ति परायणं परतरं रामस्य दासोऽस्म्यहम् |

रामे चित्तलयस् सदा भवतु मे भो राम मामुद्धर ||

One can notice that in this verse one gets sequentially all singular-formattings (एकवचन-रूपाणि) of the प्रातिपदिक “राम” with सुप्-प्रत्यय-s in all seven cases from प्रथमा to सप्तमी.

Total number of सुप्-प्रत्यय-s are 21. PaNini summarized them in a single aphorism सूत्रम् स्वौजसमौट्छस्टाभ्याम्भिस्-ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्॥ ४।१।२

This is to be deciphered as (1) सु (2) औ (3) जस् (4) अम् (5) औट् (6) शस् (7) टा (8) भ्यां (9) भिस् (10) ङे (11) भ्यां (12) भ्यस् (13) ङसि (14) भ्यां (15) भ्यस् (16) ङस् (17) ओस् (18) आं (19) ङि (20) ओस् (21) सुप्

One may notice that सुप्-प्रत्यय-s got their name from the ending of the above सूत्रम्.

Likewise तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are summarized in

सूत्रम्॥ तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्॥ ३।४।७८

It may be noted that the सूत्रम् starts with ति and ends with ङ्. Hence the name तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s

The सूत्रम् has been deciphered as धातोः, तिप्-तस्-झि, सिप्-थस्-थ, मिप्-वस्-मस् (परस्मैपदम्), त-आताम्-झ, थास्-आथाम्-ध्वम्, इट्-वहि-महिङ् (आत्मनेपदम्) इत्येते अष्टादश आदेशाः meaning, there are 18 तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s, two groups of 9 each, as contained in the सूत्रम्. Why 9 in each group is detailed in two सूत्र-s

तिङस्त्रीणि त्रीणि प्रथममध्यमोत्तमाः॥ १।४।१०० and

तान्येकवचनद्विवचनबहुवचनान्येकशः॥ १।४।१०१

Words in a Sanskrit sentence will be of one of four types. Or Sanskrit has only four Parts of Speech चत्वारि वाक्पदानि –

  1. Words with सुप्-प्रत्यय-s
  2. Words with तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s
  3. Words with अदृष्ट-प्रत्यय-s or लोपमान-प्रत्यय-s i.e. words, प्रत्यय-s of which tend to vanish.
  4. Words with अतिङ्-प्रत्यय-s, prominent among them being words with कृत्-प्रत्यय-s

This phrase चत्वारि वाक्पदानि is in श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षस्तोत्रम् which is an ode to श्रीगणेश. This is not to suggest that the phrase चत्वारि वाक्पदानि in श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षस्तोत्रम् has this grammatical meaning of four parts of speech. There, it actually connotes that श्रीगणेश is the Lord of all four stages or aspects of emanation of speech, namely, परा, पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी. The last one वैखरी is expressed speech. The three previous stages are unexpressed speech. पाणिनि uses this concept to explain meanings of धातु-s, e,g, गद् -व्यक्तायां वाचि, meaning, धातु गद् to be used when the speech is expressed. For धातु णद् the meaning is given as णद अव्यक्ते शब्दे. What the phrase चत्वारि वाक्पदानि in श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षस्तोत्रम् connotes is some digression. But since the phrase चत्वारि वाक्पदानि, that came to my mind in this discussion of Sanskrit grammar is absolutely identical, to the one in श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षस्तोत्रम्, I could not resist the temptation of the mention.

It should be acceptable, basically, that major portion of learning of Sanskrit will be covered by learning चत्वारि वाक्पदानि.

Actually it comes to mind that we can as well consider that what is not तिङ् is अतिङ्. By this logic सुप्-प्रत्यय-s and अदृष्ट-प्रत्यय-s are also अतिङ्. So, one can think that प्रत्यय-s are all of only two broad categories – तिङ्. and अतिङ्. Under अतिङ्. there are 3 major sub-categories – सुप्-प्रत्यय-s, अदृष्ट-प्रत्यय-s and कृत्-प्रत्यय-s.

Although this is theoretically correct, this becomes like tooth-picking on the word अतिङ्. चत्वारि वाक्पदानि is simple enough and one can take that as the approach to learn Sanskrit.

Before closing, I should discuss, what I had mentioned “.. this pair of parallel terminologies “indeclinables = अव्यय-s” is again not correct. I shall come to that later. ..”.

One popular definition of अव्यय reads – सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् | meaning अव्यय is that, which remains same in all three genders, in all cases and in all numbers and does not undergo any change. This definition is again not correct. पाणिनि defines अव्यय as स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (१-१-३७) Dwelling on this definition may complicate the matter.

I would prefer to stay on with the topic of Parts of Speech. And to explain the concept of अव्यय, the eightfold Parts of Speech in English grammar are more useful. Out of the eight, the adverbs, conjunctions and interjections do not change by any changes in the verbs, prepositions, nouns, pronouns and adjectives. These five parts of speech – verbs, prepositions, nouns, pronouns and adjectives have some interdependency among them. Change in one will cause other(s) to suffer change. But adverbs, conjunctions and interjections are independent and do not suffer change. They are अव्यय-s. In the sentence अश्वः वेगेन धावति, even if अश्वः and धावति were to become plural, (अश्वाः धावन्ति) there is no change required in वेगेन. The words  अश्वः and धावति have an interdependency. If one becomes plural, the other also has to become plural. But the word वेगेन remains independent.

The word वेगेन has been obtained by declining the प्रातिपदिक वेग. That is why “indeclinables = अव्यय-s” does not appeal to me to be correct. To explain this better, let me take the sentence अश्वः वेगेन धावति as अश्वः सवेगं धावति. Here the word सवेगं is adverbial. This word सवेगं is obtained by declining a प्रातिपदिक सवेग. One can decline this प्रातिपदिक to be an adjective for अश्वः and one can have a sentence सवेगः अश्वः धावति. Now if one were to transform this sentence to plural it would have to be सवेगाः अश्वाः धावन्ति Yet if the given sentence is अश्वः सवेगं धावति, plural of that will be अश्वाः सवेगं धावन्ति. So it is not correct to say “indeclinables” अव्यय-s as a type or class of words. The प्रातिपदिक itself is declinable. Consideration should be the role intended for the word in the sentence. If in the intended role, it is independent, it is अव्यय.

Actually words with अदृष्ट-प्रत्यय-s or लोपमान-प्रत्यय-s are inherently and permanently indeclinable. So, the term “indeclinable” is aptly applicable to them. But the Sanskrit term अव्यय takes the broader perspective of the role of words in a sentence. So, all those words in a sentence are अव्यय-s, which are independent. By that, the term अव्यय covers adverbs, conjunctions and interjections. So, it is inclusive philosophy again.


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 37

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 37

सरलं संस्कृतम् – सप्तत्रिंशत्तमः (३७) पाठः |

 It is possibly time to indulge in practising what Sanskrit is learnt so far.

 In a Sanskrit-study-circle, I raised a point of putting in Sanskrit a simple statement such as “(Please) keep or leave your footwear here”. In Hindu temples it is a code of practice not to enter the temple with footwear on. So there will often be signage about this.

  1. One member of our study-circle promptly responded suggesting पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयितव्यानि |
  2. Instead of तव्यत्-प्रत्यय one could use अनीयर्-प्रत्यय So, पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापनीयानि |
  3. But then why तव्यत् of the causative (णिच्) ? Why not पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थातव्यानि | तव्यत्-प्रत्यय has passive voice inherent.
  4. In my own mind I was churning up पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयन्तु | to use a verb-form क्रियापदम् instead of a verbal derivative कृदन्तम् |
  5. With subject in second person plural (यूयम्), it would be पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयत |
  6. Instead of लोट्-लकार (आज्ञार्थ) one may use विधिलिङ् and second person plural (यूयम्) So, पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयेत |
  7. Rather, with respectful second person plural (भवन्तः), पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयेयुः |
  8. Since causative of स्था is उभयपदी (स्थापयति-ते) sentences 4, 5, 6, 7 can as well be with आत्मनेपदम् So, पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयन्ताम् | by लोट्-लकारे (आज्ञार्थे) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्
  9. पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयध्वम् | लोट्-लकारे (आज्ञार्थे) मध्यमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्
  10. पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयेरन् | विधिलिङ्-लकारे (विध्यर्थे) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्
  11. पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थापयेध्वम् | विधिलिङ्-लकारे (विध्यर्थे) मध्यमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्
  12. Then I thought, by using passive voice one can say पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थीयन्ते |
  13. or in active voice पादत्राणानि अत्र तिष्ठन्ति |
  14. There can be passive voice of the causative पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थाप्यन्ते |
  15. One may as well use future tense लृट्-लकारे “footwear will stay here” पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थास्यन्ति |
  16. धातु स्था can be also आत्मनेपदी in future tense. So पादत्राणानि अत्र स्थास्यन्ते |
  17. One often uses the infinitive ‘to stay’ (footwear to stay here). In Sanskrit one uses तुमन्तम् So पादत्राणानि स्थातुम् |
  18. The place to keep the footwear can have a signage पादत्राणान्यत्र or simply पादत्राणानि
  19. To speak of the limit beyond which footwear are not to be worn, one could say इतोऽग्रे पादत्राणानि निषिद्धानि | or simply इतोऽग्रे पादत्राणानि न |
  20. In places, where there is a large and continuous stream of visitors, they have facilities and systems provided to leave footwear which can have a board पादत्राणरक्षणव्यवस्था or simply पादत्राणव्यवस्था |
  21. For people coming in groups, there is facility also for bags. The place where bags are kept, can be denoted by स्यूताः
  22. It is important to take the token. So द्योतकम् अवश्यं प्राप्नुवन्तु | or द्योतकम् अवश्यं प्रापणीयम् |
  23. Actually to collect footwear back, token is essential प्रतिग्रहणाय द्योतकम् आवश्यकम् |

Any more ideas, thoughts, suggestions ? I guess, there can be many more !

A farmer just plants a seed. The plant sprouts up with hundreds and thousands of grains ! Saint Tukaram said just that एका बीजापोटी | फळे रसाळ गोमटी | One seed gets you enticing juicy fruits (and so many of them) ! Industrial production can never match productivity of Nature !!

 I just planted a seed “to put in Sanskrit a simple statement such “Please keep or leave your footwear here”. And lo ! Haven’t I surprised myself ?!!

एकं सद्विप्रा बहुधा वदन्ति |

Truth is one. Those who know put it differently (in their own style) !

 Certainly Sanskrit provides number of ‘styles’ – to each his own !

That is possibly the logic behind 330 million देवता-s also !

शुभं भवतु |


 Ms. Vasantha Syamalam sent this comment –

सामान्यतः ‘पादत्राणानि अत्र विहाय गच्छन्तु इति ‘ भवेत्। परन्तु
एकस्मिन् मन्दिरे मया दृष्टं यत् – अत्र भवन्तः ‘अहङ्कारं त्यक्त्वा (ईश्वरदर्शनार्थं) गच्छन्तु।’ – इति लिखितम्। नूतनमस्ति खलु?

Transgressing the convention of not wearing footwear is like carrying one’s ego into the precincts of a temple.

But not to wear footwear is not a mandate for churches. Maybe, because in places of cold climate, one cannot move about without footwear, certainly not in old times when there was no central heating in churches.

I have been noticing some Muslims washing their feet clean before going into a prayer-room. I don’t think there is any such mandate in Islam, especially in places where, at least in old times, even water for drinking was itself not available, let alone for washing feet every time, when going to a mosque or prayer room.


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 36

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 36

सरलं संस्कृतम् – षट्त्रिंशत्तमः (३६) पाठः |

In the previous lesson, there was the example sentence (4b) कर्तरि – रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यं अर्पयति.

This example is different from other examples, because the verb-form अर्पयति is different. This verb form is derived from धातु ऋ. It is the causative form. The धातु ऋ has different meanings as detailed in Apte’s dictionary.

  • ऋ | भ्वा० (१) अनिट् प० | ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः | वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनेन – ऋच्छति

    • To go, move

    • To raise, tend towards

  • ऋ | जु० (३) अनिट् प० | ऋ- [गतौ] | वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनेन – इयर्ति

    • (Mostly used in Vedas) To go

    • To move, shake

    • To obtain, acquire, reach, meet with

  • ऋ | स्वा० (५) सेट् प० | ऋ [हिंसायाम्][इत्येके] | वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनेन – ऋणोति

    • To injure, hurt

In रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यं अर्पयति the meaning of अर्पयति becomes causative in the sense that नैवेद्यं the offering is made to move, made to go, is made to tend towards गणेश.

In this lesson, I plan to discuss causative and other derivations of धातु-s.

In English, causative of a sentence “I do” is “I make (him) do”. As can be seen, causative brings in two changes in the sentence

  • An additional auxiliary verb “make” is used.

  • In causative, I am not the doer. I shall have another person to be the doer. That doer is explained by “him”.

In Sanskrit the causative sense is called as प्रयोजक or णिच्. For example,

  • I do = अहं करोमि

  • I make (him) do = अहं तेन कारयामि

In Sanskrit to make causative, one does not use any auxiliary verb. The धातु itself is changed to its णिच्-form. Also, since I am not the doer. I shall have another person to be the doer. That doer is the instrument or agent for the action to happen. So that doer will be in the instrumental case तृतीया विभक्ति. In the example here, the doer is ‘he’ सः. Its तृतीया विभक्ति is तेन.

What is the process of णिच्-forms of धातु-s ?

The verbal root धातु is inflected with a विकरणम् अय which is also the विकरणम् for धातु-s of दशमगण.

Also in करोमि and कारयामि the धातु is कृ. Of course कृ is क् + ऋ. In the process of णिच्-forms, to be inflected with a विकरणम् अय्, there will be संधि of ऋ + अय. By इको यणचि ऋ will change to र्. Hence क् + र् + अय = क्रय But in कारयामि, there is कारय, which is क् + आ + र् + अय. There is that आ, which is also a part of the process of णिच्-forms.

Instead of going into such complexity of the grammatical processes, for “Simple Sanskrit”, I would strongly recommend that one should take णिच्-form of a धातु as itself a derived धातु ! That would make the whole thing simple.

Once this approach is adopted, it follows logically that the derived धातु will also have रूपाणि in all लकार-s, both in active and passive voice and will have its own कृदन्त-s et al.

As shown by example in previous lesson, i.e. (4b) कर्तरि – रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यं अर्पयति there will also be change of voice of sentences having verb in णिच्-form.

Here is an example with धातु कृ, considering forms in वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् and a couple of कृदन्त-s.

  1. कर्तरि – करोति (=does)

  2. कर्मणि – क्रियते (= is done)

    1. क्त-कृदन्तम् – कृत (adjective in past passive sense, what has been done)

    2. अनीयर्-कृदन्तम् – करणीयम् (adjective in passive voice and in “should” sense, what should be done)

    3. शानच्-कृदन्तम् – क्रियमाण (adjectival gerund, what is done or is being done)

  3. प्रयोजके – कारयति (= makes do)

  4. प्रयोजकस्य कर्मणि – कार्यते (= is made to be done)

    1. क्त-कृदन्तम् – कारित (adjective in past passive sense, what has been obtained done)

    2. अनीयर्-कृदन्तम् – कारणीयम् (adjective in passive voice and in “should” sense, what should be obtained done)

    3. शानच्-कृदन्तम् – कार्यमाण (adjectival gerund, what is obtained done or is being obtained done)

It can be appreciated that various forms as above become easy to understand by considering णिच्-form of a धातु to be a new derived धातु.

This approach of considering a new derived धातु for every different style of usage is useful also for other derived usages such as desiderative, repetitive, etc.

In a book बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः by कृष्णाचार्य (a bookseller by profession, the then proprietor of माधवविलास Book Depot at कुंभकोणम्, केरल) one finds mention of derived usages as –

  1. णिच् (प्रयोजक = causative) करोति → कारयति

  2. सन् (इच्छार्थक = desiderative) करोति → चिकीर्षति (= कर्तुं इच्छति)

  3. यङ् (आवर्तक = repetitive) करोति → चेक्रीयते

  4. यङ्लुक् (= ??) करोति → चर्करीति, चरीकरीति

The last type यङ्लुक् is not found in common usage. I am mentioning, just because it is detailed by कृष्णाचार्य.

In Table 36-1 are compiled वर्तमानकाल, प्रथमपुरुष, एकवचन for णिच् (प्रयोजक = causative) सन् (इच्छार्थक = desiderative) यङ् (आवर्तक = repetitive) forms of धातु कृ,  which is certainly of very common usage and is very interesting by itself.

Table 36-1


धातु कृ


णिच् (प्रयोजक = causative)


इच्छार्थक = desiderative

यङ् (आवर्तक = repetitive)

लटि प्र. पु. ए. व.

करोति, कुरुते




















क्तवतु-कृदन्तम् (पुं)




















As can be seen, words shown in rows 1 and 2 are only representative of hundreds of words that would be obtained in all ten लकार-s, in all 3 पुरुष-s and all 3 वचन-s.

Also words in rows 5 to 11 are again representative of adjectives which can be declined in all 3 लिङ्ग-s, 8 विभक्ति-s and 3 वचन-s.

Furthermore, the धातु-forms and also the adjectives can have उपसर्ग-s. Number of words that one can obtain from any one धातु would be in thousands. One cannot find all of them in any dictionary.

What one should learn is the process of word-formation. Learning Sanskrit is basically learning the processes of word-formation.

Words in Table 36-1 illustrate the causative, desiderative, repetitive forms for धातु कृ. One can and should compile such tables for every other धातु. Many धातु-s have specialties. For example for धातु दा (यच्छति, ददाति-दत्ते) the causative form is दापयति. As we saw in the beginning of this lesson causative of धातु ऋ is अर्पयति.

Such forms may sound to be complicated. But often one may come across usages, which take one into the enchanting realm of philosophical thought.

Just as a specimen one can deliberate unending on the श्लोक –

प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः |

अहंकारविमूढात्मा कर्ताहमिति मन्यते ||गीता 3-27||

प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः = कर्माणि सर्वशः प्रकृतेः गुणैः क्रियमाणानि = All कर्म-s कर्माणि सर्वशः are caused to be happening due to the inherent characteristics of प्रकृति, (प्रकृतेः गुणैः).

अहंकारविमूढात्मा कर्ताहमिति मन्यते = Person engulfed in false pride अहंकारविमूढात्मा considers, thinks मन्यते, himself to be the doer कर्ताहमिति (अहं कर्ता इति).

Time and tide wait for nobody. It is in the nature of Nature that things, events will keep happening. No one should take credit or pride in the success of any job. Nor should anyone take the blame upon oneself and become frustrated at the failure of any job.

The mention above “… All कर्म-s कर्माणि सर्वशः are caused to be happening due to the inherent characteristics of प्रकृति, (प्रकृतेः गुणैः) ..” may sound a grammatically complicated sentence. But this श्लोक 3-27 is prefaced by –

न हि कश्चित् क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् |

कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः ||3-5||

Note the verb-form कार्यते. As noted in Table 36-1, it is कर्मणिप्रयोग of प्रयोजक of धातु कृ. So, सर्वः जातु अवशः Nobody does anything all by himself. Nobody has a command that a particular result must obtain. Things are not executed by Nature either. The inherent characteristics of Nature cause things to happen प्रकृतिजैः गुणैः कर्म कार्यते

Isn’t there philosophical subtlety that महर्षि व्यास thought it fit to use कर्मणिप्रयोग of प्रयोजक of धातु कृ ?

One must not shy away from the grammatical niceties. I would call these as grammatical niceties, not grammatical complexities. These are niceties, because they bring such precision and scientific clarity to the philosophical thought !

Grammar is called as the very visible face of Vedas मुखं व्याकरणं स्मृतम् as is detailed in this verse –

छन्दः पादौ तु वेदस्य हस्तौ कल्पोऽथ पठ्यते ।

ज्योतिषामयनं चक्षुर्निरुक्तं श्रोत्रमुच्यते ।।

शिक्षा घ्राणं तु वेदस्य मुखं व्याकरणं स्मृतम् ।

तस्मात्साङ्कमधीत्यैव ब्रह्मलोके महीयते ।।

The word मुखम् has two meanings –

  1. मुखम् = the very visible face

  2. मुखम् = the point of entry for the nourishing food of philosophical thought contained in the Vedas to enter in our body and give energy to mind and body and soul.

व्याकरणम् serves both these functions. Grammar of Sanskrit certainly has all such rich, electrifying potential !

शुभं भवतु !


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 35

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 35

सरलं संस्कृतम् – पञ्चत्रिंशत्तमः (३५) पाठः |

In the previous lesson No. 34, mention was made of कर्तरिप्रयोगः, कर्मणिप्रयोगः and भावेप्रयोगः as examples of अलुक्-समास-s. Actually these are important topics in grammar. It is quite opportune to discuss them now.

What verb forms, we have studied thus far, are primarily of active voice. In all languages there is also the passive voice. In most languages this concept of change of voice applies only to transitive verbs, i.e. to verbs which have or can have an object. But in Sanskrit the concept of change of voice is very charming, because it applies to all verbs, whether transitive सकर्मक or intransitive अकर्मक !

Voice-change for transitive सकर्मक and intransitive अकर्मक verbs is given different names –

  1. Active voice is कर्तरिप्रयोगः

  2. Passive voice of transitive सकर्मक verbs is कर्मणिप्रयोगः

  3. Voice-change of intransitive अकर्मक verbs is भावेप्रयोगः

Note, I would not call भावेप्रयोगः as Passive Voice, because English grammar has no equivalent of भावेप्रयोगः.

The names कर्तरिप्रयोगः, कर्मणिप्रयोगः and भावेप्रयोगः are not just technical jargon of grammarians. These terms are meaningful.

Meanings are clear from the विग्रह-s, which were detailed in the previous chapter –

  1. कर्तरि प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | कर्तरि = कर्तृविषयकः, कर्ता एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

  2. कर्मणि प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | कर्मणि = कर्मविषयकः, कर्म एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

  3. भावे प्रयोगः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) | भावे = न कर्ता वा न कर्म वा, भावः एव प्रधानः विषयः अत्र |

For changing over from कर्तरिप्रयोगः to कर्मणिप्रयोगः or भावेप्रयोगः is very much a reversible process. Voice-change can be done vice versa, i.e. from कर्मणिप्रयोगः or भावेप्रयोगः to कर्तरिप्रयोगः. So, we can call the process of voice-change as प्रयोगान्तरम्. Some people seem to call it as वाच्यान्तरम्.

In the previous lesson, I had used the word ‘dress’. For example in the word बाह्योद्यानम् and its विग्रहः बाह्यम् उद्यानम् both the words have a dress, which has three aspects – लिङ्गम्, विभक्तिः and वचनम्. In बाह्यम् उद्यानम् both words have the dress of नपुंसकलिङ्गम् प्रथमा विभक्तिः, एकवचनम्.

My father would explain many grammatical processes by using this word ‘dress’. So voice-change प्रयोगान्तरम् is also a process of change of dress.

The process of voice-change प्रयोगान्तरम् from कर्तरिप्रयोगः to कर्मणिप्रयोगः or भावेप्रयोगः involves changing the dress of three parts of a sentence, कर्मपदम्, क्रियापदम् and कर्तृपदम् Also, it is better to follow this order. Of course change of dress of कर्मपदम् would apply only if the verb is transitive, there again, only if there is ‘object’ present in the sentence.

So, the flow-chart for the process of प्रयोगान्तरम् becomes –

  1. Check if there is object कर्मपदम् present in the sentence.

    1. If yes, check if there are two objects present. There are धातु-s, which are not just transitive सकर्मक, but द्विकर्मक.

    2. Choose any one of the two objects.

      1. This in turn means that Change of voice, for sentences having two objects, can be done in two ways, first taking one object and also optionally, by taking the other object.

    3. Change its विभक्ति to प्रथमा, to make the selected object to be the subject in changed voice.

    4. Note, विभक्ति of the other object will not change.

  2. Change the क्रियापदम्. This change involves the following.

    1. धातु gets a विकरणम् य, which is also the विकरणम् for धातु-s of चतुर्थगण

    2. The काल or अर्थ (i.e. लकारः) remains the same. But पुरुषः and वचनम् aspects will match the new subject (see 1 (c) above).

      1. Also, रूपम् will be such, as would be, if the धातु was of आत्मनेपदम्.

    3. If there is no object कर्मपदम् present in the sentence, or if the धातु is intransitive, काल or अर्थ (i.e. लकारः) remains the same. पुरुषः will be प्रथमपुरुष and वचनम् will be एकवचनम्.

  3. Change विभक्तिः of the subject कर्तृपदम् to be तृतीया. But लिङ्गम् and वचनम् will remain same.

Let us understand this by examples.

(1) कर्तरि – अहं वृक्षान् सिञ्चयामि

कर्मपदम् – वृक्षान्

  • वृक्ष-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे प्रथमा-बहुवचनेन वृक्षाः

क्रियापदम् – सिञ्चयामि

  • सिञ्च्-इति धातुः | तस्य वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनेन because new subject is वृक्षाः which merits प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन – सिञ्च्यन्ते

कर्तृपदम् – अहम्

  • अस्मद्-इति सर्वनाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे तृतीयाविभक्तिः एकवचनम् – मया

प्रयोगान्तरेण संपूर्णं वाक्यं कर्मणिप्रयोगे – मया वृक्षाः सिञ्च्यन्ते

As can be noted, for changing the voice, one follows the step-by-step sequence, starting with

  1. change the विभक्ति of the object – make it the subject

  2. change the पुरुष and वचन of the verb to correspond to the new subject

  3. change the विभक्ति of the subject – make it तृतीया, because in changed voice, it is the agent to make the action happen.

(2) कर्तरि – अहं गच्छामि |

न किमपि कर्मपदम् अत्र !

  1. क्रियापदम् – गच्छामि,

    1. धातुः गम्

    2. भावेप्रयोगे वर्तमानकालः प्रथमपुरुषः एकवचनम् रूपम् – गम्यते

  2. कर्तृपदम् – अहम्

    1. अस्मद्-सर्वनाम एकवचनम्

    2. भावेप्रयोगे – तृतीयाविभक्तिः, अतः ‘मया’.

  3. प्रयोगान्तरेण भावेप्रयोगे – मया गम्यते |


  1. here there is no object.

  2. Verb is in प्रथमपुरुषः, एकवचनम्

  3. विभक्ति of the subject is changed to तृतीया

(3) कर्तरि – अर्जुनः युधम् अकरोत् | Literally, Arjuna did the battle.

कर्मपदम् – युधम् |

  • युध्-इति स्त्रॆलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे प्रथमाविभक्तिः एकवचनन् – युध्

क्रियापदम् – अकरोत् |

  • कृ-इति धातुः | तस्य लङि (अनद्यतनभूते) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे लङि (अनद्यतनभूते) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् – अक्रियत |

कर्तृपदम् – अर्जुनः |

  • अर्जुन-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमाविभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् – अर्जुनेन |

प्रयोगान्तरेण संपूर्णं वाक्यं कर्मणिप्रयोगे – अर्जुनेन युध् अक्रियत Literally, Battle was done by Arjuna.

In this example the tense is past tense.

When it comes to Passive voice and past tense, there is a charming and crisp option in Sanskrit. The option is to use a past passive participle कर्मणिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम्. Since it is derived from a धातु it is a कृदन्तम्.

कृदन्त is a grammatical term for words derived from धातु-s. Different types of कृदन्त-s are obtained by affixing different suffixes प्रत्यय-s.

The प्रत्यय for obtaining कर्मणिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् is क्त. Hence कर्मणिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् can also be called as क्त-कृदन्त. English scholars of Sanskrit gave it the name Past Passive Participle. But it is not just a participle. It is a whole some adjective. Being an adjective, it has लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन. Also these shall have to correspond with those of the qualified noun.

In the above sentence अर्जुनेन युध् अक्रियत in passive voice, क्त-कृदन्त of कृ-धातु can be used in place of the verb अक्रियत. क्त-कृदन्त of कृ-धातु is कृत. Since noun to be qualified is युध्, which is feminine, the sentence in passive voice would be अर्जुनेन युध् कृता.

Since प्रयोगान्तरम् is a reversible process, one can transform a sentence in कर्मणि into कर्तरि.

If sentence in कर्मणि is अर्जुनेन युध् अक्रियत obviously its transformation in कर्तरि would be अर्जुनः युधम् अकरोत्.

Obvious curiosity would be “can अर्जुनेन युध् कृता also be transformed back into कर्तरि ?”. Answer is ‘yes !’.

The suffix or प्रत्यय for obtaining कर्तरिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् is क्तवतु. This क्तवतु-कृदन्त of कृ-धातु is कृतवत्.

In कर्तरि the कर्तरिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् qualifies the subject अर्जुनः which is पुंल्लिङ्ग and shall be in प्रथमाविभक्ति एकवचन. So one needs to use पुंल्लिङ्ग प्रथमाविभक्ति एकवचन of कृतवत्. By transformation in कर्तरि, the sentence would be अर्जुनः युधम् कृतवान्.

The reverse procedure of प्रयोगान्तरम् has of course reverse sequence. The sequence for कर्तरि to कर्मणि was changing first the कर्मपदम् then क्रियापदम् and lastly कर्तृपदम्. The reverse sequence would be first कर्तृपदम् then क्रियापदम् (or कृदन्तम्) and lastly the कर्मपदम्.

Accordingly –

  1. अर्जुनेन → अर्जुनः changes from तृतीयाविभक्ति to प्रथमाविभक्ति

  2. कृता → कृतवान् corresponds with अर्जुनः

  3. युध् → युधम् becomes the object and hence in द्वितीयाविभक्ति.

(4) कर्तरि – रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यम् अर्पयति |

Here we have two objects – गणेशम् and नैवेद्यम्. We shall take only one object first, say गणेशम्

By sequence for change of voice

(4a) कर्मपदम् – गणेशम् |

  • गणेश-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे प्रथमाविभक्तिः एकवचनन् – गणेशः

क्रियापदम् – अर्पयति |

  • ऋ-इति धातुः | तस्य लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् – अर्प्यते |

कर्तृपदम् – रामः |

  • राम-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे तृतीया विभक्तिः  एकवचनम् – रामेण

प्रयोगान्तरे संपूर्णं वाक्यम् – रामेण गणेशः नैवेद्यम् अर्प्यते |

Optionally by taking the other object –

(4b) कर्तरि – रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यम् अर्पयति |

कर्मपदम् – नैवेद्यम् |

  • नैवेद्य-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे प्रथमाविभक्तिः एकवचनं च – नैवेद्यः

क्रियापदम् – अर्पयति |

  • ऋ-इति धातुः | तस्य लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् – अर्प्यते |

कर्तृपदम् – रामः |

  • राम-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे तृतीया विभक्तिः  एकवचनम् – रामेण

प्रयोगान्तरे संपूर्णं वाक्यम् – रामेण नैवेद्यः गणेशम् अर्प्यते |

(5) कर्तरि – भक्तः ईश्वरं स्मरेत् |

कर्मपदम् – ईश्वरम्

  • ईश्वर-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे प्रथमाविभक्तिः एकवचनं च – ईश्वरः

क्रियापदम् – स्मरेत्

  • स्मृ-इति धातुः | तस्य विधिलिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे विधिलिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् – स्मर्येत |

कर्तृपदम् – भक्तः

  • भक्त-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • प्रयोगान्तरे तृतीया विभक्तिः  एकवचनम् – भक्तेन

प्रयोगान्तरे संपूर्णं वाक्यम् – ईश्वरः भक्तेन स्मर्येत |

I have taken this example sentence to bring to notice another interesting set of three कृदन्त-s, which have a wonderful combination of change of voice plus विधिलिङ्-लकार. The three कृदन्त-s are by three प्रत्यय-s – यत् (or ण्यत्), तव्य / तव्यत्, अनीयर्.

For the धातु स्मृ, the three कृदन्त-s would be स्मार्यम् स्मर्तव्यम् स्मरणीयम्. Likewise for धातु कृ the three कृदन्त-s would be कार्यम्, कर्तव्यम्, करणीयम्.

One curiosity is if all the three कृदन्त-s connote change of voice of one लकार, the विधिलिङ्-लकार, are they all synonymous or is there a difference ?

Yes, there is a difference. The difference is similar to the difference between the verbal auxiliaries used in English grammar, the auxiliaries – would (or may or might), should and must.

  • कार्यम् = what would (or may or might) be done

  • करणीयम् = what should be done

  • कर्तव्यम् = what must be done

It seems that these कृदन्त-s in Sanskrit bring forth all the shades of meanings, which are not as obvious in just the विधिलिङ्-लकार. So change of voice भक्तः ईश्वरं स्मरेत् should rather be done as ईश्वरः भक्तेन स्मरणीयः instead of just ईश्वरः भक्तेन स्मर्येत.

I had noted the प्रत्यय-s as यत् (or ण्यत्), तव्य / तव्यत्, अनीयर्. That merits some explanation.

प्रत्यय-s तव्य and तव्यत् are options of each other.

प्रत्यय-s यत् and ण्यत् are used as per following guideline –

  • ण्यत् – ऋकारान्तानां हलन्तानाञ्च अन्ते भावार्थे अयं कृत्प्रत्ययः भवति ।

    • For धातु-s ending with ऋकार and ending with a consonant

    • यथा कृ-धातोः कार्य । स्मृ-धातोः स्मार्य

    • गम्-धातोः गम्य

  • यत् – ऋकारान्तं वर्जयित्वा अन्येषाम् अजन्तानां धातूनां अन्ते भावार्थे अयं कृत्प्रत्ययः भवति ।

    • For धातु-s ending with a vowel except ऋ

    • यथा दा-धातोः देय, गै-धातोः गेय, पा-धातोः पेय.

It was noted that the प्रत्यय-s क्त and क्तवतु are converses of each other and facilitate change of voice from Passive to Active and vice versa. But प्रत्यय-s as यत् (or ण्यत्), तव्य / तव्यत्, अनीयर् inherently have the Passive sense and do not have any corresponding converses. Rather, considering the differential meanings of would (or may or might), should and must, it is better to use these प्रत्यय-s appropriately and in passive voice, which is inherent to them.

This अनीयर्-प्रत्यय brings to mind a good verse –

कस्यचित्किमपि नो हरणीयम् ।

मर्मवाक्यमपि नोच्चरणीयम्‌ ।

श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।

लीलया भवजलं तरणीयम्‌ ॥

कस्यचित्किमपि नो हरणीयम् = कस्यचित्किमपि न उ हरणीयम् = Oh, really, nobody should be robbed of anything

मर्मवाक्यमपि नोच्चरणीयम्‌ = मर्मवाक्यमपि न उच्चरणीयम्‌ = The moral (and morality) should not be expressed. (These cannot and should not points of debate or discussion.) मर्मवाक्यम्‌ also means a secret mantra bestowed by the Guru for spiritual meditation. By that मर्मवाक्यमपि न उच्चरणीयम्‌ then means that mantra should never be divulged.

श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् = Feet of God should (always) be remembered.

लीलया भवजलं तरणीयम्‌ = (Thus) the waters of life (the ocean of cycles of life and death) should be crossed gamely.

In every line in this verse, there are words with अनीयर्-प्रत्यय from धातु-s हृ, उच्चर् (उत् + चर्), स्मृ and तॄ respectively.

यत् and ण्यत्-प्रत्यय-s also bring to mind a सुभाषितम् about the wealth of knowledge विद्याधनम्. It has words using कृदन्त-s हार्य and भाज्य from धातु-s हृ and भज् –

न चोरहार्यं न च राजहार्यं न भ्रातृभाज्यं न च भारकारि।

व्यये कृते वर्धत एव नित्यं विद्याधनं सर्वधनप्रधानम्॥

It cannot be stolen by a thief.

It cannot be taken away by a King.

It cannot be divided among brothers.

It does not cause load. It always increases when spent.

The wealth of knowledge is the greatest of all wealths.

शुभं भवतु !