Lesson 27

Simple Sanskrit Lesson 27

In the previous lesson # 26 we discussed व्यञ्जनसन्धि-s of the type व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः i.e. when पूर्ववर्ण is a consonant and परवर्ण is a vowel. Now we shall study  व्यञ्जनसन्धि-s of the type व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम्. Since these व्यञ्जनसन्धि-s are for 33 consonants as पूर्ववर्ण-s, these with 33 consonants as परवर्ण-s, there become 33×33 = 1089 possible combinations.

It will be easier to look at them by keeping in mind शिवसूत्र-s 5 to 14, enumerated below for ready reference.

  • शिवसूत्रम् 5 – ह य व र ट् Here, since ट् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are ह् य् व् र्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 6 – ल ण् Here, since ण् is only the end-marker, the actual consonant to be studied is ल्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 7 – ञ म ङ ण न म् Here, since म् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are ञ् म् ङ् ण् न्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 8 – झ भ ञ् Here, since ञ् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are झ् भ्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 9 – घ ढ ध ष् Here, since ष् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are घ् ढ् ध्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 10 – ज ब ग ड द श् Here, since श् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are ज् ब् ग् ड् द्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 11 – ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व् Here, since व् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are ख् फ् छ् ठ् थ् च् ट् त्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 12 – क प य् Here, since य् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are क् प्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 13 – श ष स र् Here, since र् is only the end-marker, the actual consonants to be studied are श् ष् स्
  • शिवसूत्रम् 14 – ह ल् Here, since ल् is only the end-marker, the actual consonant to be studied is ह्

Let us start by taking the 33 consonants in शिवसूत्र-s 5 to 14 to be in पूर्ववर्ण-position, one by one. There will be 33 possible सन्धि-combinations each, with all the 33 consonants being in परवर्ण-position. What we have to explore is, what the resultant sound सन्धि-s of all these would be.

Case 4 :- Let us start with ह् in पूर्ववर्ण-position, ह् being from शिवसूत्रम् 5 – ह य व र ट्

  1. For ह् + ह् → No good example comes to mind.
  2. For ह् + य् → (a) ह्यस् / ह्यः ind. [गते अहनि नि˚] Yesterday. (b) विमुह्यति = distracts / gets distracted.
  3. For ह् + व् → ह्वे (means ‘to call’); आह्वे = To make an appeal; to broadcast
  4. For ह् + र् → ह्रदः (A deep lake, a large and deep pool of water)
  5. For ह् + ल् → आह्लादः pleasure, joy
  6. For ह् + ञ् → No good example comes to mind.
  7. For ह् + म्  → ब्रह्मन् (when masculine ब्रह्मा the deity; when neuter ब्रह्मन् the ब्रह्मतत्त्व the principle)
  8. For ह् + ङ् → No good example comes to mind.
  9. For ह् + ण् → पराह्णः = afternoon पूर्वाह्णः = forenoon
  10. For ह् + न् → वह्निः = fire
  11. From as many examples as above, one can conclude that with ह् in पूर्ववर्ण-position, with most consonants in परवर्ण-position, the resultant sound will be of a conjunct letter. सूत्रम् – हलोऽनन्तराः संयोगः (1’1’7) defines the resultant sound of a conjunct letter and distinguishes it to be different from Sandhi. Rather, if the resultant sound is a conjunct letter, the process is not to be considered as a Sandhi-process.
  12. Having said this, we may recall that in most Sandhi’s, of the type व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः, which we studied in the previous lesson #26,  (linked here for ready reference) the vowel in the परवर्ण-position only caused the consonant in the पूर्ववर्ण-position to be pronounced along with the vowel mixed into it. This process is not much different from the process of formation of a conjunct letter. So, should one take those Sanshi’s also as not being Sandhi’s ? The answer would be, that, at the point where a (consonant+vowel) letter is formed, if the letter needs to be split separating the consonant to be a separate word and vowel to be the beginning of another word, then it is a Sandhi-process.
  13. In व्यञ्जनम् +व्यञ्जनम्  instances also, if the conjunct letter needs to be split into two words, then it is a Sandhi-process. In all the examples given above, the conjunct letter formed can not be split into two separate words. So, they are not Sandhi’s. Let us look at the example of निहत्य धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्दन | पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः (गीता 1’36)
    • In the first line there are 8 conjunct letters – त्य र्त ष्ट्रा न्नः प्री स्या ज्ज र्द
      1. त्य is part of the word निहत्य. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      2. र्त is part of a word धार्तराष्ट्रान्. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      3. ष्ट्रा is part of a word धार्तराष्ट्रान्. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      4. न्नः Here the word धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः will split into two separate words धार्तराष्ट्रान्+नः So, न्नः is not just a conjunct letter.  
      5. प्री is part of a word प्रीतिः. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      6. स्या is part of a word स्यात्. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      7. At ज्ज the word स्याज्जनार्दन needs to be split into two separate words स्यात् and जनार्दन.
      8. र्द is part of a word जनार्दन. There cannot be a split of two separate words at this conjunct letter. So, it is not a Sandhi.
      9. As such, in the word जनार्दन there is internal Sandhi of जन+अर्दन. So, the letter ना is actually a सवर्णदीर्घ Sandhi of न+अ.
    • The entire second line, as written, appears to be a single word and does have four conjunct letters – श्र स्मा न्ह त्वै Actually the complete line will split into 7 words – पापम् एव आश्रयेत् अस्मान् हत्वा एतान् आततायिनः So, there are 6 Sandhi’s.
      1. पापम्+ एव = पापमेव Note, the letter मे is not just a consonant with a vowel. It is a Sandhi-result of म्+ ए
      2. पापमेव+ आश्रयेत् = पापमेवाश्रयेत् Note, the letter वा is not just a consonant with a vowel. It is a Sandhi-result of व+ आ
      3. पापमेवाश्रयेत् + अस्मान् = पापमेवाश्रयेस्मान् Note, the letter द is not just a consonant with a vowel. It is a Sandhi-result of त् + अ.
      4. पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान् + हत्वा = पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वा Note, the letter न्ह is not just a conjunct letter.
      5. पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वा + एतान् = पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतान् Note, the letter त्वै is a Sandhi result of त्वा + ए
      6. पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतान् + आततायिनः = पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः Note, the letter ना not just a consonant with a vowel. It is a Sandhi result of न् + आ.
  14. Now when discussing Sandhi’s with ह् as पूर्ववर्ण and another consonant as परवर्ण, there is a curious case of ह् + त्. See e.g. मुह् + त (suffix for past passive participle) → मुग्ध or मूढ. Note, त is from the कृत्-प्रत्यय क्त. Obviously मुह् + त → मुग्ध and मुह् + त → मूढ are two different processes and hence they result in different resultant sounds. Important point to be noted is that a resultant sound resulting from mixing of two consonant sounds is a “PROCESS”. It is like a chemical process say, NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O. The result may be
    • two different syllables as in मुह् + त → मुग्ध (मु-ग्-ध) or
    • only ढ as in मुह् + त → मूढ, of course with long मू in place of short मु.

अष्टाध्यायी takes note of both these processes.

First of all मुह्+क्त  by ‘लशक्वतद्धिते’ (1.3.8) there is a कित्. Hence मुह्+क्त becomes मुह्+त.

    • मुह्+त  becomes मुग्ध  by  
      1. वा द्रुहमुहष्णुहष्णिहाम् ८।२।३३) वा घः => मुघ्+त
      2. झषस्तथोर्धोधः  (8’2’40) मुघ्+‌ध
      3. झलां जश् झशि (8|4|53 ।) मुग्+ध = मुग्ध।
    • Alternatively, just as 2H2 + O2 results into a single compound 2H2O मुह्+त  becomes मूढ by
      1. For मुह् + त  => by घत्वाभावे हो ढः (8’2’31) इति ढत्वम्।=> मुढ् + त
      2. झषस्तथोर्धोधः (8’2’40) मुढ् + ध
      3. ष्टुना ष्टुः (8’4’41) मुढ् + ढ
      4. ढो ढे लोपः (8’3’13) मुढ
      5. ढ्-लोपे पूर्वस्य (6’3’111) मूढ — QED (!)

It is important to hence note that many व्यञ्जनसंधि-s may involve PROCESSES and more than one सूत्र-s may apply, one after another, so much similar to the way, chemicals are produced in chemical plants.

Case 5 :- Let us now study सन्धि-s with य् in पूर्ववर्ण-position.

  1. With परवर्ण ह् – No good example comes to mind.
  2. With परवर्ण य् – न्याय्य [(नि+आ+अय् = न्याय्) इति धातुः तस्य यत्-कृदन्तम् (न्याय् + य = न्याय्य justifiable)]
  3. With परवर्ण व् – No good example comes to mind.
  4. With परवर्ण र् – No good example comes to mind.
  5. With परवर्ण ल् – No good example comes to mind.
  6. With य् in पूर्ववर्ण-position, “No good example comes to mind.” seems to apply for almost all other consonants
  7. With य् in पूर्ववर्ण-position and any other consonant in परवर्ण-position, the resultant will be a conjoint letter, not a सन्धि.

Case 6 Let us now study सन्धि-s with व् in पूर्ववर्ण-position.

  1. With परवर्ण ह् – No good example comes to mind.
  2. With परवर्ण य् – कर्तव्य
  3. With परवर्ण व् – No good example comes to mind.
  4. With परवर्ण र् –
    1. व्रज् I. 1 P. (व्रजति) 1 To go, walk, proceed, to graze
    2. व्रणः व्रणम् [व्रण्-अच्] 1 A wound, sore, bruise, hurt
  5. With परवर्ण ल् – No good example comes to mind.
  6. With व् in पूर्ववर्ण-position and any other consonant in परवर्ण-position, the resultant will be a conjunct letter, not a सन्धि.

Case 7 Let us now study सन्धि-s with र् in पूर्ववर्ण-position.

  1. With परवर्ण ह् – results in a conjunct letter as in अर्ह् (अर्-ह्)  means “to deserve”, “to merit” e.g. रावणो नार्हते पूजाम् (= रावणः न अर्हते पूजाम्)
  2. With परवर्ण य् – results in a conjunct letter as in आर्य (आर्-य) a. [ऋ-ण्यत्]
  3. With परवर्ण व् – results in a conjunct letter as in e.g. गर्वः सर्व उर्वशी, उर्वरित
  4. With परवर्ण र् – There is a good example for र्+र् in सज्जनषट्पदैर्रहरहः a word in a श्लोक, which eulogizes both भगवद्गीता and महाभारतम्.  
  5. With परवर्ण ल् – No good example comes to mind.
  6. With र् in पूर्ववर्ण-position and any other consonant in परवर्ण-position, the resultant will be a conjunct letter, not a सन्धि. The phrase रत्नैर्महार्हैस्तुतुषुर्न देवाः (The gods were not happy with great jewels) has conjuncts of र्+म at र्म, र्+ह at र्है, and र्+न at र्न. 

Case 8 Let us now study सन्धि-s with ल् (in शिवसूत्रम् 6 – ल ण्) in पूर्ववर्ण-position.

  1. With परवर्ण ह् – No good example comes to mind.  
  2. With परवर्ण य् – शल्यः
  3. With परवर्ण व् – No good example comes to mind.
  4. With परवर्ण र् – No good example comes to mind.
  5. With परवर्ण ल् – मल्लः
  6. With ल् in पूर्ववर्ण-position and any other consonant in परवर्ण-position, the resultant will be a conjunct letter, not a सन्धि.

Case 9 The next set of पूर्ववर्ण-s would be ञ् म् ङ् ण् न् from शिवसूत्रम् 7 – ञ म ङ ण न म्

These are all nasals अनुनासिक-s, the fifth letters in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग  respectively. Actually in the context of these सन्धि-s सूत्रम् – अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः (8’4’58) makes an interesting study. विभक्ति-वचन analysis of the three words is =>

अनुस्वारस्य (6’1 of अनुस्वार) ययि (7’1 of यय्) परसवर्णः (1’1)

ययि = when followed by consonants connoted by प्रत्याहार यय् ie (य् व् र् ल्), (ञ् म् ङ् ण् न्) (झ् भ्) (घ् ढ् ध्) (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) (ख् फ् छ् ठ् थ् च् ट् त्) (क् प्)

अनुस्वारस्य = nasal sound will change to

परसवर्णः = nasal letter अनुनासिक appropriate to the परवर्ण.

Actually nasal sound is nasal sound. So there will not be any difference in pronunciation. The सूत्रम् specifies which of the five अनुनासिक-s – ञ् म् ङ् ण् न् – should be written when writing the nasal sound. For example

  1. In अङ्क डङ्ख अङ्ग सङ्घ the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ङ्, because it is अनुनासिक of क-वर्ग. Hence it is सवर्ण with all consonants of क-वर्ग. Hence, when the परवर्ण is क् ख् ग् घ् the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ङ्.
  2. In पञ्च (=five) उञ्छ् [= To glean, gather (bit by bit)] अञ्ज् (= to clarify eyesight) the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ञ्, because it is अनुनासिक of च-वर्ग. Hence it is सवर्ण with all consonants of च-वर्ग. Hence, when the परवर्ण is च् छ् ज् झ् the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ञ्.
  3. In कण्ट् (= to prick like a thorn) कण्ठ् (= to put in or on the throat) अण्ड् (= to become an egg) the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ण्, because it is अनुनासिक of ट-वर्ग. Hence it is सवर्ण with all consonants of ट-वर्ग Hence, when the परवर्ण is ट् ठ् ड् ढ्, the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक ण्.
  4. In अन्त मन्थ् मन्द इन्ध् the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक न्, because it is अनुनासिक of त-वर्ग. Hence it is सवर्ण with all consonants of त-वर्ग Hence, when the परवर्ण is त् थ् द् ध् the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक न्.
  5. In सम्पत् गुम्फ् अम्ब सम्भार the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक म्, because it is अनुनासिक of प-वर्ग. Hence it is सवर्ण with all consonants of प-वर्ग Hence, when the परवर्ण is प् फ् ब् भ् the nasal sound is to be written by the अनुनासिक म्.
  6. Actually सूत्रम् – मोऽनुस्वारः (8’3’23) also नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि (8’3’24) permit
    1. सम्पत् to be written as संपत्
      1. Note, such writing of म् by अनुस्वार is permitted only when
        1. The म् is followed by a consonant, not by a vowel and
        2. म् is not at the end of a sentence or line of a verse. If it is at the end of a sentence or at the end of a line of verse, it has to be written as म्.
    2. सन्त to be written as संत
    3. In the context of writing अनुस्वार in place of म्-कार, a line in गीता – (11-28) makes an interesting study. The line is यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः or यथा नदीनाम्बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः
      1. It may again be noted that, whether यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः or यथा नदीनाम्बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः is different only in writing. It makes no difference in pronunciation.
      2. For a finer observation, the म् of बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः cannot be written as बहवोंबुवेगाः even if it would get pronounced as such only. It cannot be written as बहवोंबुवेगाः, because it will miss the अवग्रह-symbol ऽ, which is essential here !
  7. It is also interesting to note that from धातुः सम्+कृ we get two nouns संकर and संस्कार. As would be noted, in संस्कार there is an addition of स् between सं and कार. That additive स् is an उट् (means additive आगम). This additive सुट् is called as सुडागम. Use of सुडागम has in it the force of positive effect as in संस्कार. The name of Sanskrit language also is Sanskrit, because positive effects are inherent to it. This is endorsed in the सूत्रम् – (सुट्) संपर्युपेभ्यः करोतौ भूषणे (6’1’137). Note
    1. (सुट्) संपर्युपेभ्यः करोतौ भूषणे = (सुट्) सम्-परि-उप-एभ्यः कृ-ओत्-एतौ भूषणे
    2. सम्-परि-उप-एभ्यः = With prefixes उपसर्ग-s सम्, परि, उप
    3. करोतौ =  (7’1 of करोतु some word derived from कृ)
    4. भूषणे = when effect is positive
    5. सुट् = स्-उट् i.e. additive स्. Note, the word सुट् is brought forward here from सूत्रम् (6’1’135)
  8. सुडागम also happens with न् as पूर्ववर्ण. In this respect we should study सूत्रम् –  (अम्परे) नश्छव्यप्रशान् (8’3’7)
    1. (अम्परे) is brought forward अनुवृत्त from previous सूत्रम्. अम्परे means preceded by अम्. प्रत्याहार अम् connotes all वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 1 to 7.
    2. नश्छव्यप्रशान् = नः (6’1 of न्) छवि (7’1 of छव्) अप्रशान् (excepting प्रशान्)
    3. In छवि (7’1 of छव्) प्रत्याहार छव् connotes छ् ठ् थ् च् ट् त् i.e. when these be परवर्ण-s
    4. By overall meaning, there will be सुडागम, when न्, preceded by अम् is followed by छव्.
    5. Not only that there will be सुडागम, but
      1. the additive स् will change to श् If the परवर्ण is च् or छ् by सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40) e.g. पुमान् + चरति = पुमांश्चरति (गीता 2’71)
      2. the additive स् will change to ष् If the परवर्ण is ट् or ठ् by सूत्रम् – (स्तोः) ष्टुना ष्टुः (8’4’41) e.g. No good example comes to mind.
      3. the additive स् will remain स् If the परवर्ण is त् or थ् e.g. प्राणान् + त्यक्त्वा = प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा (गीता 1’33) विद्वान् + तथा = विद्वांस्तथा (गीता 3’25)

Case 10 Now let us study सन्धि-s with वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 8 to 14 to be पूर्ववर्ण-s. That is actually a big chunk of 24 पूर्ववर्ण-s, connoted by झल् Note झल्

  • starts at झ in शिवसूत्रम् (8) and
  • would go up to the end-marker ल् in शिवसूत्रम् (14).
  • Hence झल् covers 24 out of 33 consonants

Though this is a big chunk of 24 पूर्ववर्ण-s, there is a सूत्रम् – झलां जश् झशि (8’4’53) We shall discuss this सूत्रम् now.

We should start with analyzing and understanding the सूत्र by the prescribed method.

झलां जश् झशि ⇒

  • झलाम् is 6’3 (6th विभक्ति 3=बहुवचनम्) of झल्
    • Note झल् starts at झ in शिवसूत्रम् (8) and covers 24 out of 33 consonants until the end-marker ल् in शिवसूत्रम् (14),
      • झल् excludes 9 वर्ण-s –
        • य् व् र् ल् the 4 अन्तस्थ-s in शिवसूत्र-s (5 and 6) and
        • the 5 nasals अनुनासिक-s ञ् म् ङ् ण् न् in शिवसूत्रम् (7)
  • जश् is 1’1 (प्रथमा विभक्ति एकवचनम्) of जश्
    • Note जश् starts at ज in शिवसूत्रम् (10) and has the end-marker श् of the same शिवसूत्रम् (10).
    • Hence जश् means ज् ब् ग् ड् द् i.e. third consonant in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively.
  • झशि is (7’1 i.e. 7th विभक्ति 1=एकवचनम्) of झश्
    • Note झश् starts at झ in शिवसूत्रम् (8) and covers all consonants until the end-marker श् of the शिवसूत्रम् (10).
    • Hence झश् means consonants in शिवसूत्र-s 8, 9 and 10 i.e. (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्) (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) i.e. third and fourth consonants in च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively.

By this analysis meaning of झलां जश् झशि becomes

  • झलां – 24 consonants connoted by प्रत्याहार झल् in पूर्ववर्ण-position will change to
  • जश् – the 5 वर्ण-s ज् ब् ग् ड् द् connoted by प्रत्याहार जश्  
  • झशि – when followed by the 10 (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्) (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) वर्ण-s connoted by प्रत्याहार झश् i.e. these in परवर्ण-position
  • With 24 consonants of प्रत्याहार झल् in पूर्ववर्ण-position and 10 consonants of प्रत्याहार झश् in परवर्ण-position, this सूत्रम् – झलां जश् झशि (8’4’53) covers 240 हल्-सन्धि-s (!)

Since the ज् ब् ग् ड् द् वर्ण-s connoted by प्रत्याहार जश् are from च-वर्ग, प-वर्ग, क-वर्ग, ट-वर्ग and त-वर्ग respectively, it is logical to understand that

  1. पूर्ववर्ण-s च् छ् ज् झ् of च-वर्ग if followed by झश् (i.e. झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्, ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) as परवर्ण-s will change to ज्
    1. There is the सूत्रम् – नाज्झलौ (1’1’10). Do we notice the conjunct letter ज्झ (ज्+झ्) here ? Actually break-up of नाज्झलौ is न अच्-हलौ. That means च् of अच् becomes अज्. When this अज् has ह of हलौ thereafter, it gets in an additional ज् in-between. By that we have अज्+ज्+ह Here ज्+ह become झ. In turn we have अज्+झ. Hence अज्झ. Why the additional ज् comes in, is a point we shall come to when discussing ज् followed by ह. But the point here is अच् becomes अज्.
  2. पूर्ववर्ण-s प् फ् ब् भ् of प-वर्ग if followed by झश् (i.e. झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्, ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) as परवर्ण-s will change to ब्
    1. E.g. अप् + ज = अब्ज Note प् in पूर्ववर्ण-position belongs to झल् and ज in परवर्ण position belongs to झश्. Hence प् changes to ब् which belongs to जश्.
      1. Note अप् means water. अब्ज means born in or produced from water, amphibian. See in Apte’s dictionary <अब्ज a. [अप्सु जायते, जन्-ड] Born in or produced from water Ms.5.112. अब्जेषु चैव रत्नेषु 8.1 (All jewels produced during churning of the ocean were अब्ज-s.>
  3. पूर्ववर्ण-s क् ख् ग् घ् of क-वर्ग if followed by झश् (i.e. झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्, ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) as परवर्ण-s will change to ग्
    1. For example दिक्+बन्धः = दिग्बन्धः (= limit of direction, i.e. horizon)
    2. दिक्+दर्शनम् = दिग्दर्शनम् (showing the direction, showing how, in what manner)
  4. पूर्ववर्ण-s ट् ठ् ड् ढ् of ट-वर्ग if followed by झश् (i.e. झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्, ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) as परवर्ण-s will change to ड्
    1. No good examples come to mind.
  5. पूर्ववर्ण-s त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग if followed by झश् (i.e. झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्, ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) as परवर्ण-s will change to द्
    1. सत्+जनः = सज्जनः would make an interesting example to study. The instance here is of त्+ज. By झलां जश् झशि it should become सत्+जनः = सद्+जनः. It would be good to consider that it does become सद्+जनः. But the process does not stop or end here. सद्+जनः further becomes सज्+जनः, since in further process द् becomes ज्. That is dictated by सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40)
    2. Comes to mind another example of आदित्यवज्ज्ञानम् (गीता 5’16) Note <आदित्यवज्ज्ञानम् is आदित्यव(त्+ज्ञा)नम्> Since ज्ञ is ज्+ञ् the (त्+ज्ञा) instance here is (त्+ज्+ञ्+आ). Here also (त्+ज्+ञ्+आ) will first become (द्+ज्+ञ्+आ). Thereafter द् becomes ज् by स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40). Then we have (ज्+ज्+ञ्+आ). In turn आदित्यव(त्+ज्ञा)नम् is finally = आदित्यवज्ज्ञानम्.

Bullets (1) to (5) above, cover 20 of the 24 वर्ण-s of झल्. That leaves us to explore what श् ष् स् in शिवसूत्रम् (13) and ल् in शिवसूत्रम् (14) will change to which of ज् ब् ग् ड् द्, when followed by the 10 (झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध्) (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) वर्ण-s connoted by प्रत्याहार झश्. So, we need to check 4*10 = 40 instances or examples.

Case 11a – In bullets (5.1) and (5.2) above, there has been mention of  सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40) Let us study this सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः

  • स्तोः = षष्ठी एकवचनम् of स्तु
    • स्तु = स्+तु = the वर्ण स् and वर्ण-s of त-वर्ग, here limited to त् थ् द् ध् excluding न्, because न् is in शिवसूत्रम् (7) and hence not a part of the पूर्ववर्ण-range झल्
    • स्तोः = पूर्ववर्ण स् also पूर्ववर्ण-s त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग will become, will change to
  • श्चुना = तृतीया एकवचनम् of श्चु
    • श्चु = श्+चु = the वर्ण श् and वर्ण-s of च-वर्ग, here limited to ज् झ् excluding च् छ् ञ् because ञ् is in शिवसूत्रम् (7) and च् छ् are in शिवसूत्रम् (11) hence not a part of the परवर्ण-range झश्
    • श्चुना = with the वर्ण श् and वर्ण-s ज् झ् being in परवर्ण-position
  • श्चुः = प्रथमा एकवचनम् of श्चु
    • श्चुः = will become श् and corresponding वर्ण-s of च-वर्ग i.e. च् छ् ज् झ्

Putting together, स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः = (पूर्ववर्ण स् also पूर्ववर्ण-s त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग will become, will change to) (with the वर्ण श् and वर्ण-s ज् झ् being in परवर्ण-position) (will become श् and corresponding वर्ण-s of च-वर्ग)

Here in Case 11a, we have 5 पूर्ववर्ण-s – स् also त् थ् द् ध् and 3 परवर्ण-s, श् ज् झ् hence a श्चुना श्चुः pattern for 15 संधि-s. As an example of this pattern,

  • comes to mind a धातु मस्ज् In Apte’s dictionary <मस्ज् 6 P. (मज्जति, मग्न; caus. मज्जयति; desid. मिमङ्क्षति) 1 To bathe, plunge, dip or throw oneself into water; यद्गोप्रतरकल्पो$भूत् संमर्दस्तत्र मज्जताम् R.15.11; Bv.2.95. -2 To sink, sink into or down, sink under, plunge> Note, in the form मज्जति of मस्ज्, स् when followed by ज् has become ज्. That is why doubled ज्ज there.

Case 11b – Immediately next to सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40) there is सूत्रम् – ष्टुना ष्टुः (8’4’41). For study of this सूत्रम् we need to carry forward i.e. effect अनुवृत्ति of स्तोः. So we need to study (स्तोः) ष्टुना ष्टुः  

  • स्तोः = as detailed earlier, (= पूर्ववर्ण स् also पूर्ववर्ण-s त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग will become, will change to)
  • ष्टुना = तृतीया एकवचनम् of ष्टु
    • ष्टु = ष्+टु  = the वर्ण ष् and वर्ण-s of ट-वर्ग, here limited to ड् ढ् excluding ट् ठ् ण् because ण् is in शिवसूत्रम् (7) and ट् ठ् are in शिवसूत्रम् (11) hence not a part of the परवर्ण-range झश्
    • ष्टुना = with the वर्ण ष् and ड् ढ् being in परवर्ण-position
  • ष्टुः = प्रथमा एकवचनम् of ष्टु
    • ष्टुः = will become ष् and corresponding वर्ण-s of ट-वर्ग, ie will become ष् ट् ठ् ड् ढ्

Putting these together we get स्तोः (पूर्ववर्ण स् also पूर्ववर्ण-s  त् थ् द् ध् of त-वर्ग will become, will change to) ष्टुना (with the वर्ण ष् and ट् ठ् ड् ढ् being in परवर्ण-position) ष्टुः (will become ष् and corresponding वर्ण-s of ट-वर्ग i.e. ट् ठ् ड् ढ्).

Here in case 11b. we have 5 पूर्ववर्ण-s – स् also त् थ् द् ध् and 5 परवर्ण-s, ष् ट् ठ् ड् ढ्, hence a ष्टुना ष्टुः pattern for 25 संधि-s.

  1. For example सत्+टीका = सट्टीका

Having started in case 10, study of संधि-s with झल्-वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 8 to 14 to be पूर्ववर्ण-s, we have considered in Cases 10, 11a and 11b, संधि-s with झश्-वर्ण-s in परवर्ण-position. This has been so, because we have stayed focused on सूत्रम् – झलां जश् झशि (8’4’53).

But the वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 5, 6, 7 can also be in परवर्ण-position.

We shall continue this study in the next lesson.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s