Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 36

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 36

सरलं संस्कृतम् – षट्त्रिंशत्तमः (३६) पाठः |

In the previous lesson, there was the example sentence (4b) कर्तरि – रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यं अर्पयति.

This example is different from other examples, because the verb-form अर्पयति is different. This verb form is derived from धातु ऋ. It is the causative form. The धातु ऋ has different meanings as detailed in Apte’s dictionary.

  • ऋ | भ्वा० (१) अनिट् प० | ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः | वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनेन – ऋच्छति

    • To go, move

    • To raise, tend towards

  • ऋ | जु० (३) अनिट् प० | ऋ- [गतौ] | वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनेन – इयर्ति

    • (Mostly used in Vedas) To go

    • To move, shake

    • To obtain, acquire, reach, meet with

  • ऋ | स्वा० (५) सेट् प० | ऋ [हिंसायाम्][इत्येके] | वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनेन – ऋणोति

    • To injure, hurt

In रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यं अर्पयति the meaning of अर्पयति becomes causative in the sense that नैवेद्यं the offering is made to move, made to go, is made to tend towards गणेश.

In this lesson, I plan to discuss causative and other derivations of धातु-s.

In English, causative of a sentence “I do” is “I make (him) do”. As can be seen, causative brings in two changes in the sentence

  • An additional auxiliary verb “make” is used.

  • In causative, I am not the doer. I shall have another person to be the doer. That doer is explained by “him”.

In Sanskrit the causative sense is called as प्रयोजक or णिच्. For example,

  • I do = अहं करोमि

  • I make (him) do = अहं तेन कारयामि

In Sanskrit to make causative, one does not use any auxiliary verb. The धातु itself is changed to its णिच्-form. Also, since I am not the doer. I shall have another person to be the doer. That doer is the instrument or agent for the action to happen. So that doer will be in the instrumental case तृतीया विभक्ति. In the example here, the doer is ‘he’ सः. Its तृतीया विभक्ति is तेन.

What is the process of णिच्-forms of धातु-s ?

The verbal root धातु is inflected with a विकरणम् अय which is also the विकरणम् for धातु-s of दशमगण.

Also in करोमि and कारयामि the धातु is कृ. Of course कृ is क् + ऋ. In the process of णिच्-forms, to be inflected with a विकरणम् अय्, there will be संधि of ऋ + अय. By इको यणचि ऋ will change to र्. Hence क् + र् + अय = क्रय But in कारयामि, there is कारय, which is क् + आ + र् + अय. There is that आ, which is also a part of the process of णिच्-forms.

Instead of going into such complexity of the grammatical processes, for “Simple Sanskrit”, I would strongly recommend that one should take णिच्-form of a धातु as itself a derived धातु ! That would make the whole thing simple.

Once this approach is adopted, it follows logically that the derived धातु will also have रूपाणि in all लकार-s, both in active and passive voice and will have its own कृदन्त-s et al.

As shown by example in previous lesson, i.e. (4b) कर्तरि – रामः गणेशं नैवेद्यं अर्पयति there will also be change of voice of sentences having verb in णिच्-form.

Here is an example with धातु कृ, considering forms in वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् and a couple of कृदन्त-s.

  1. कर्तरि – करोति (=does)

  2. कर्मणि – क्रियते (= is done)

    1. क्त-कृदन्तम् – कृत (adjective in past passive sense, what has been done)

    2. अनीयर्-कृदन्तम् – करणीयम् (adjective in passive voice and in “should” sense, what should be done)

    3. शानच्-कृदन्तम् – क्रियमाण (adjectival gerund, what is done or is being done)

  3. प्रयोजके – कारयति (= makes do)

  4. प्रयोजकस्य कर्मणि – कार्यते (= is made to be done)

    1. क्त-कृदन्तम् – कारित (adjective in past passive sense, what has been obtained done)

    2. अनीयर्-कृदन्तम् – कारणीयम् (adjective in passive voice and in “should” sense, what should be obtained done)

    3. शानच्-कृदन्तम् – कार्यमाण (adjectival gerund, what is obtained done or is being obtained done)

It can be appreciated that various forms as above become easy to understand by considering णिच्-form of a धातु to be a new derived धातु.

This approach of considering a new derived धातु for every different style of usage is useful also for other derived usages such as desiderative, repetitive, etc.

In a book बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः by कृष्णाचार्य (a bookseller by profession, the then proprietor of माधवविलास Book Depot at कुंभकोणम्, केरल) one finds mention of derived usages as –

  1. णिच् (प्रयोजक = causative) करोति → कारयति

  2. सन् (इच्छार्थक = desiderative) करोति → चिकीर्षति (= कर्तुं इच्छति)

  3. यङ् (आवर्तक = repetitive) करोति → चेक्रीयते

  4. यङ्लुक् (= ??) करोति → चर्करीति, चरीकरीति

The last type यङ्लुक् is not found in common usage. I am mentioning, just because it is detailed by कृष्णाचार्य.

In Table 36-1 are compiled वर्तमानकाल, प्रथमपुरुष, एकवचन for णिच् (प्रयोजक = causative) सन् (इच्छार्थक = desiderative) यङ् (आवर्तक = repetitive) forms of धातु कृ,  which is certainly of very common usage and is very interesting by itself.

Table 36-1

अनुक्रमाङ्कः

धातु कृ

कर्तरि

णिच् (प्रयोजक = causative)

सन्

इच्छार्थक = desiderative

यङ् (आवर्तक = repetitive)

लटि प्र. पु. ए. व.

करोति, कुरुते

कारयति-ते

चिकीर्षति-ते

चेक्रीयते

कर्मणि

क्रियते

कार्यते

चिकीर्ष्यते

क्त्वा-कृदन्तम्

कृत्वा

कारयित्वा

चिकीर्षित्वा

तुमुन्-कृदन्तम्

कर्तुम्

कारयितुम्

चिकीर्षितुम्

क्त-कृदन्तम्

कृत

कारित

चिकीर्षित

क्तवतु-कृदन्तम् (पुं)

कृतवान्

कारितवान्

चिकीर्षितवान्

यत्-कृदन्तम्

कार्यम्

तव्यत्-कृदन्तम्

कर्तव्यम्

कारयितव्यम्

अनीयर्-कृदन्तम्

करणीयम्

कारणीयम्

१०

शतृ-कृदन्तम्

कुर्वन्

कारयन्

११

शानच्-कृदन्तम्

कुर्वाण

कार्यमाण

As can be seen, words shown in rows 1 and 2 are only representative of hundreds of words that would be obtained in all ten लकार-s, in all 3 पुरुष-s and all 3 वचन-s.

Also words in rows 5 to 11 are again representative of adjectives which can be declined in all 3 लिङ्ग-s, 8 विभक्ति-s and 3 वचन-s.

Furthermore, the धातु-forms and also the adjectives can have उपसर्ग-s. Number of words that one can obtain from any one धातु would be in thousands. One cannot find all of them in any dictionary.

What one should learn is the process of word-formation. Learning Sanskrit is basically learning the processes of word-formation.

Words in Table 36-1 illustrate the causative, desiderative, repetitive forms for धातु कृ. One can and should compile such tables for every other धातु. Many धातु-s have specialties. For example for धातु दा (यच्छति, ददाति-दत्ते) the causative form is दापयति. As we saw in the beginning of this lesson causative of धातु ऋ is अर्पयति.

Such forms may sound to be complicated. But often one may come across usages, which take one into the enchanting realm of philosophical thought.

Just as a specimen one can deliberate unending on the श्लोक –

प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः |

अहंकारविमूढात्मा कर्ताहमिति मन्यते ||गीता 3-27||

प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः = कर्माणि सर्वशः प्रकृतेः गुणैः क्रियमाणानि = All कर्म-s कर्माणि सर्वशः are caused to be happening due to the inherent characteristics of प्रकृति, (प्रकृतेः गुणैः).

अहंकारविमूढात्मा कर्ताहमिति मन्यते = Person engulfed in false pride अहंकारविमूढात्मा considers, thinks मन्यते, himself to be the doer कर्ताहमिति (अहं कर्ता इति).

Time and tide wait for nobody. It is in the nature of Nature that things, events will keep happening. No one should take credit or pride in the success of any job. Nor should anyone take the blame upon oneself and become frustrated at the failure of any job.

The mention above “… All कर्म-s कर्माणि सर्वशः are caused to be happening due to the inherent characteristics of प्रकृति, (प्रकृतेः गुणैः) ..” may sound a grammatically complicated sentence. But this श्लोक 3-27 is prefaced by –

न हि कश्चित् क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् |

कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः ||3-5||

Note the verb-form कार्यते. As noted in Table 36-1, it is कर्मणिप्रयोग of प्रयोजक of धातु कृ. So, सर्वः जातु अवशः Nobody does anything all by himself. Nobody has a command that a particular result must obtain. Things are not executed by Nature either. The inherent characteristics of Nature cause things to happen प्रकृतिजैः गुणैः कर्म कार्यते

Isn’t there philosophical subtlety that महर्षि व्यास thought it fit to use कर्मणिप्रयोग of प्रयोजक of धातु कृ ?

One must not shy away from the grammatical niceties. I would call these as grammatical niceties, not grammatical complexities. These are niceties, because they bring such precision and scientific clarity to the philosophical thought !

Grammar is called as the very visible face of Vedas मुखं व्याकरणं स्मृतम् as is detailed in this verse –

छन्दः पादौ तु वेदस्य हस्तौ कल्पोऽथ पठ्यते ।

ज्योतिषामयनं चक्षुर्निरुक्तं श्रोत्रमुच्यते ।।

शिक्षा घ्राणं तु वेदस्य मुखं व्याकरणं स्मृतम् ।

तस्मात्साङ्कमधीत्यैव ब्रह्मलोके महीयते ।।

The word मुखम् has two meanings –

  1. मुखम् = the very visible face

  2. मुखम् = the point of entry for the nourishing food of philosophical thought contained in the Vedas to enter in our body and give energy to mind and body and soul.

व्याकरणम् serves both these functions. Grammar of Sanskrit certainly has all such rich, electrifying potential !

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

16 thoughts on “Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 36

  1. न हि कश्चित् क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् |
    कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रक्रुतिजैर्गुणै: || ५ || कश्चित् जातु क्षणं अपि अकर्मकृत् न तिष्ठति हि | सर्वः प्रक्रुतिजै: गुणै: अवशः हि | कर्म (तु) कार्यते एव |

    यह पाँचवा श्लोक ठीक अन्वय बनानेके लिए बहुतही आव्हानात्मक है |
    ‘प्रक्रुतिजै: गुणै: कर्म कार्यते’ यह वाक्यांश कर्मणि प्रयोगमें है |
    कर्तरीमें इसका रूप ‘प्रक्रुतिजा: गुणाः कर्म कुर्वन्ति’ यह होगा |
    लेकिन ‘सर्वः’ शब्द पुल्लिंगी प्रथमा विभक्तीका है | दूसरा कोई भी शब्द पुल्लिंगी नहीं है |
    इसलिए वह अन्य किसीभी शब्दों के साथ मेल नहीं खाता | कुल मिलाकर व्याकरण दृष्टीसे समाधानकारक अन्वय नहीं बनता |

    Can I know about it?

    • Looks like you picked up the statement in Hindi from somewhere, maybe, from my own comment in Hindi at some other place. But taking this as an opportunity to dwell on this श्लोक again, there is another word other than सर्वः which is in masculine gender. That word is अवशः. So it is good to put them in one sentence and make the sentence as सर्वः अवशः हि | The words प्रक्रुतिजै: गुणै: should rather go to the other sentence कर्म (तु) कार्यते | In that case that sentence would become कर्म (तु) प्रक्रुतिजै: गुणै: कार्यते |

      So, it seems, सर्वः अवशः हि | कर्म (तु) प्रक्रुतिजै: गुणै: कार्यते | becomes a more satisfying अन्वय.

      In suggesting this अन्वय, I have in mind meaning of the sentence सर्वः अवशः हि as “everyone is अवशः (अवशः = one who has no control on anything)”.

      We can appreciate that we do not have control on our breath itself. The कर्म of our breathing itself happens by प्रक्रुतिजै: गुणै:. There then is no question of our having any control on any कर्म.

      Does this sound good ?

  2. अवशो हि सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः कर्म कार्यते। is the sentence as in Bhagavadgita.

    Every body is made to do the कर्म without his control over it, by the गुण-s (three guNa-s) which are the nature of the प्रकृति.

    This is the natural way of reading the sentence in syntactical order without splitting the sentence into two.

    In active voice the are two sentence,

    सर्वो हि अवशः कर्म करोति।
    प्रकृतिजा गुणाः तं कर्म कारयन्ति। प्रेरणार्थे णिच्।

    = प्रकृतिजा गुणाः सर्वं ह्यवशं कर्म कारयन्ति। कर्तरि प्रयोगः।

    सर्वः अवशः हि – प्रयोज्यकर्ता in the णिजन्त and takes द्वितीया in the कर्तरि प्रयोगः as the कर्म of णिजन्त verb कारयति of which प्रकृतिजाः गुणाः are प्रयोजककर्तृ. in the nominative.

    In Passive Voice it becomes exactly —

    प्रकितिजैर्गुणैः सर्वो ह्यवशः कर्म कार्यते। is the counter part of the above कर्तरि प्रयोगः without need to split into two the same sentence.
    The cases are reversed in the कर्मणि प्रयोग of the above sentence like above as in Gita and not सर्वो ह्यवशः need not be separated from the main sentence. The प्रयोज्यकर्ता takes प्रथमा, and प्रयोजककर्ता takes तृतीया. That is why there is प्रथमा in the passive voice.

    This is natural अन्वय of the sentence in the verse of Gita.

    • Oh big confusion.
      In today’s lesson abhyankar sir told अहम् तेन कारयामि। so here its तेन while using णिच्।

      then why not प्रकृतिजा: गुणा: कर्म कारयन्ति सर्वेण अवशेन हि।

      pls clarify to remove my confusion.

      • नमस्ते श्रीमन् मुकेश-पटेल-महोदय !

        “न हि कश्चित्क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् | कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः ||” इत्यस्मिन् श्लोके अधुना त्वहं चतुरः पुंल्लिङ्गशब्दान् पश्यामि – कः+चित्, जातुः, अवशः, सर्वः |

        प्रथमस्य चरणस्य अन्वयः तु सरलः – न कश्चित् जातुः क्षणमपि अकर्मकृत् तिष्ठति हि |

        द्वितीयस्य चरणस्य अन्वयः वाक्यद्वयेन साधुतरः भवतीति मे मतिः – सर्वः (जातुः) अवशः हि | कर्म प्रकृतिजैः गुणैः कार्यते |

        अत्र प्रयोजकं न प्रयुक्तम् | अतः “कर्म प्रकृतिजैः गुणैः कार्यते” इति कर्मणिप्रयोगान्वितं वाक्यं कर्तरिप्रयोगे “प्रकृतिजाः गुणाः कर्म कुर्वन्ति” |
        न तु “प्रकृतिजाः गुणाः कर्म (जातुना) कारयन्ति” इति |

        कर्मस्य कर्तृत्वं जातोः नैव | कर्मणः कर्तृत्वं तु प्रकृतिजानां गुणानामेव | तदेव तत्त्वज्ञानम् अस्मात् श्लोकात् ज्ञातव्यमिति मे मतिः |

        यदि “प्रकृतिजाः गुणाः कर्म (जातुना) कारयन्ति” एवं जानीमः तर्हि कर्तृत्वं जातोः भवति | कान्यपि कर्माणि प्रकृत्या एव भवन्ति यथा श्वसनम् | एतद्विधानां कर्मणां कर्तृत्वं कस्यापि जातोः नैव भवति | तत्तु प्रकृतिजानां गुणानामेव |

        यत्र मया “अहं तेन कारयामि” इति उदाहरणं प्रस्तुतम्, तत्र तस्य उद्देशः प्रयोजकविधेः उदाहरणम् इत्येव आसीत् |

  3. Sorry but I’m still confused. May be I’m beginner , so happens such confusion.

    Mr. Hnbhatt said कारयन्ति and you said कुर्वन्ति। so confusion went still deeper.

    OK. I think I have to learn many things so that I can understand it clearly.
    But you gave answer from your side so thanks for that sir.

    • Totally misleading analysis without digesting the text sentences in the text in the name of Anvaya.

      “न हि कश्चित्क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् |
      कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः ||” इत्यस्मिन् श्लोके अधुना त्वहं चतुरः पुंल्लिङ्गशब्दान् पश्यामि – कः+चित्, जातुः, अवशः, सर्वः |

      There are not 4 masculine nouns at all in the above verse. Only two sentences in two halves of the verse, complementary to each other. Read the first sentence very simple without any confusion.

      न हि कश्चित् = न कोऽपि, no body, क्षणमपि – क्षणकालमपि, even a moment, जातु = कदाचित्, ever, तिष्ठति = stays अकर्मकृत् = without doing any act.

      This implies, everybody is engaged in some act and never stays without doing any कर्म. (which is a technical term in Philosophy). And not any physical act which is done by the body. The translation has not twisted the verse for the translation. But gives a sound sentence in English also. The idea is clear. No body ever remains not doing any act – which implies everybody does every moment some kind of कर्म (act – either philosophically described कर्म or grammatically described कर्म the object of any action, or physical or mental act). This statement is supported by the second statement in the second half. In Sanskrit, the paraphrase would be:

      सर्वोऽपि सर्वदा किमपि कर्म करोति। न कदाचिदपि किमपि कर्म न कुर्वन् तिष्ठति। The reason for this is

      कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः ||

      (Because) every body without his control (out of his control) is made by the गुण-s of by the प्रकृति to do the कर्म. So his he is doing his acts without his control, controlled by the सत्त्व-रजस्तम- three qualities endowed by nature.

      In short the person does not have his control what he is doing and every act he does is controlled by the three qualities of the nature (or his nature).

      Only the first statement is negative statement and the second is affirmative statement in support the implied sense of the first. This is done why he does not have control over his acts and the answer is his acts are controlled by the गुण-s.

      If you make the first sentence in affirmative, you will get the true sequence.

      न जातु – ever. And not जातुः is पुंलिङ्ग. Never it means. कश्चित् = anybody. क्षणमपि – even for a moment, तिष्ठति = remains अकर्मकृत् – without doing any कर्म.

      If you put it in affirmative,

      सर्वदा = Ever, कश्चित् = सर्वोऽपि = everybody, क्षणमपि = every moment, तिष्ठति कर्मकृत् – stays doing some कर्म. dropping negative particle अ from the अकर्मकृत्।

      This is the first sentence put into affirmative. सर्वोऽपि सर्वदा क्षणमपि कर्मकृत् भवति।

      The second half is grammatically independent, but for meaning it complementary sentence to the first as I have explained.

      सर्व्ऽह्यवशः कर्म करोति। प्रकृतिजा गुणाः तेन (सर्वेण ह्यवशेन) कर्म कारयन्ति।

      सर्वो ह्यवशः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः कर्म कार्यते। or you can read it in a different sequence”

      सर्वोऽहि प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः ह्यवशः कर्म कार्यते। =

      Everyone made by the qualities of the nature loose his control and made to do the कर्म (out of his control, as they are controlled by them).

      This is the intended meaning of the verse one can get even bothering about अन्वय or grammar much. I have given the gist of the verse without twisting its order to get confused meaning.

    • English translation by Swami Gambhirananda (on Sri Sankaracharya’s Sanskrit Commentary)
      3.5 Hi, because; na kascit, no one; jatu, ever; tisthati, remains; api, even; for so much time as a ksanam, moment; akarma-krt, without doing work. Why? Hi, for; sarvah, all creatures; karyate karma, are made to work; verily avasah, under compulsion; gunaih, by the gunas-sattva (goodness); rajas (activity), and tamas (mental darkness); prakrti-jaih, born of Nature.

      This is the English translation giving word by word meaning in correct sentence in English sentence order.

      English translation by Swami Sivananda gives the same idea without the word by word meaning.

      3.5 Verily none can ever remain for even a moment without performing action; for everyone is made to act helplessly indeed by the qualities born of Nature.

      Dear Mukesh Patel,

      Please earn much more experience in grammar and reading general literary texts lie हितोपदेश, पञ्चतन्त्र etc. meant for beginners, than trying to analyse philosophical texts like Bhagavadgita, or Valmiki Ramayana or Mahabharata or Srimadbhagavata from the very beginning of your own. This is my sincere advice.

  4. One more note:

    अवशः is adjective to सर्वः, a pronoun in masculine, used to mean everybody or all masculine is the gender as a pronoun, unless a noun in other gender preceding. And it is not an independent noun as he has given:

    अधुना त्वहं चतुरः पुंल्लिङ्गशब्दान् पश्यामि – कः+चित्, जातुः, अवशः, सर्वः |

    The first is interrogative pronoun with चित् used in the sense anyone or someone and like सर्वः, it is used in masculine gender like सर्व.as in English equivalents and not independent noun with fixed masculine gender. The second is an अव्यय and not at all a noun with masculine gender. न कश्चित् is negative emphasis Not any one (excepted) means सर्वः everybody in the affirmative sentence. The same word is used in the second with the adjective अवशः (lost his control over him).

  5. प्रथमस्य चरणस्य अन्वयः तु सरलः – न कश्चित् जातुः क्षणमपि अकर्मकृत् तिष्ठति हि |

    अन्वयस्तु दुरन्वयः।

    जातु – कदाचित् इत्यर्थेऽव्ययम्। कदाचित् । इत्यमरः । ३ । ४ । ४ ॥

    द्वितीयस्य चरणस्य अन्वयः वाक्यद्वयेन साधुतरः भवतीति मे मतिः – सर्वः (जातुः) अवशः हि | कर्म प्रकृतिजैः गुणैः कार्यते |

    किं कारणम्?

    अत्र प्रयोजकं न प्रयुक्तम् | अतः “कर्म प्रकृतिजैः गुणैः कार्यते” इति कर्मणिप्रयोगान्वितं वाक्यं कर्तरिप्रयोगे “प्रकृतिजाः गुणाः कर्म कुर्वन्ति” |
    न तु “प्रकृतिजाः गुणाः कर्म (जातुना) कारयन्ति” इति |

    किमिदमन्वयो वा दुरन्वयो वा? कोऽयं जातुर्नाम?

    कर्मस्य कर्तृत्वं जातोः नैव | कर्मणः कर्तृत्वं तु प्रकृतिजानां गुणानामेव | तदेव तत्त्वज्ञानम् अस्मात् श्लोकात् ज्ञातव्यमिति मे मतिः |

    अस्मिन् श्लोके पदानामन्वये श्लोकान्तरस्य पादानां समन्वयः कथमिति पृथगेव चिन्ता।

    कर्मस्य इति कथं ज्ञातमिति न ज्ञायते। जातोः इति रूपमपि कथं जातमिति न ज्ञायते, जातुशब्दस्याव्ययत्वेन प्रचुरप्रयोगात् गीतायामपि तथैव प्रयोगः, न तु “जातुः” इति गीताश्लोके प्रयुक्तः दृश्यते, यथा भवता व्याख्यातम्।

    यदि “प्रकृतिजाः गुणाः कर्म (जातुना) कारयन्ति” एवं जानीमः तर्हि कर्तृत्वं जातोः भवति | कान्यपि कर्माणि प्रकृत्या एव भवन्ति यथा श्वसनम् | एतद्विधानां कर्मणां कर्तृत्वं कस्यापि जातोः नैव भवति | तत्तु प्रकृतिजानां गुणानामेव |

    जातुर्नाम कश्चित् येन कारयन्ति इति जानीमः, इति चेत् कोयं जातुर्नाम? भ्रामकं विवरणम्? अत एव मूकेशस्य भ्रमो जातः।

    स्पष्ट एवान्वयः मया प्रदर्शित एव। यदि सन्देहः, सन्देहरूपेणैव प्रदर्शनीयम्, न तु सिद्धान्तरूपेण विवरणम्।

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