Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 27

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 27

To proceed further with व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, Table 2 in the previous Lesson No. 26 is a good table to keep a track of how we proceed.

Case 5 discussed in Lesson 26 was, for example the case of खर् + खर्, i.e. both पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण being खर्.

व्यञ्जनसंधि-s of type व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम्

खर्

यश्

ह्

खव्

कय्

शर्

यण्

ञम्

झश्

खर्

खव्

कय्

शर्

यश्

यण्

ञम्

झश्

झल्=

झश्+खर्+ह्

But as was mentioned, there are special cases.

Case 6 – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०).

Explanation of स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०) can be read at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/sarvanisutrani/8.4.39.htm

The explanation is – सकार-तवर्गयोः शकारचवर्गाभ्यां योगे शकारचवर्गौ आदेशौ भवतः। Since this explanatory statement is in Sanskrit, I guess, it would help to explain it in English.

  • There are three words here स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः
  • स्तोः is sixth case singular षष्ठी, एकवचनम् of स्तु, meaning “of स् and तु (ie त्-वर्ग)”
  • श्चुना is third case singular तृतीया, एकवचनम् of श्चु, meaning “by श् and चु (ie च्-वर्ग)”
  • श्चुः is first case singular प्रथमा, एकवचनम् of श्चु, meaning “become श् and चु (ie च्-वर्ग)”
  • Hence,  when पूर्ववर्ण-letters are स् or any letter from त्-वर्ग, and are followed by (i.e. परवर्ण is letter from) श्-वर्ग (प्रत्याहार शर् – श्, ष्, स्) and च्-वर्ग (च् छ् ज् झ् ञ्) respectively, then the पूर्ववर्ण-letters are substituted by letters of श्-वर्ग and च्-वर्ग respectively.

Examples –

  • स्याज्जनार्दन (In 1’36 in गीता) The संधिविच्छेद is  स्यात् जनार्दन (त्, → ज्),

    • Here पूर्ववर्ण is त् is followed by ज्, which is a letter of च्-वर्ग. So त् is replaced by ज्, letter of च्-वर्ग,

    • Note, as per Case (4) discussed in the previous lesson, it should have been स्याद्+जनार्दन So there is a dilemma here, whether to make the संधि as स्याद्जनार्दन or स्याज्जनार्दन. For resolving such dilemmas, there is a diktat विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (विप्रतिषेधे = in the event of a dilemma परं = the latter कार्यम् = to be done, followed, applied.) In Case 4 the सूत्रक्रमाङ्क was 8’2’39. Here in Case 6 the सूत्रक्रमाङ्क is 8’4’40. Obviously 8’4’40 is much later / latter. Hence this latter one has to be applied. So स्यात् + जनार्दन = स्याज्जनार्दन.

More examples –

  • यज्ज्ञात्वा (4-16, 4-35 also 9-1 यत् + ज्ञात्वा)

    • It is to be noted that ज्ञ is ज् + ञ. So ज्ञ has ज् at its beginning.

      • It is also to be noted that in the dictionary words starting with ज्ञ will be found in the alphabetical order of words starting with ज्.

      • In north India, people seem to be pronouncing ज्ञ as ग्य. But ज्ञ does not have ग् at its beginning.

    • Hence here also त् is followed by ज्, which is a letter of च्-वर्ग. So त् is replaced by ज्, letter of च्-वर्ग

  • मच्चित्तः (18-57, 58, मत् + चित्तः, त् → च्)

  • उच्छिष्टम् (17-10 उत् + शिष्टम्)

    • Here त् is followed by श्. So त् is replaced by च्

    • श् of परवर्ण also is replaced by छ् !

Case 7 – ष्टुना ष्टुः। (८/४/४१)

Explanation of ष्टुना ष्टुः। (८/४/४१) can be read at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/sarvanisutrani/8.4.40.htm

  • There are two words ष्टुना ष्टुः But since this सूत्रम् (८/४/४१) is in continuation of the earlier सूत्रम् (८/४/४०), we carry forward the word स्तोः from there. This process of carrying forward is called as अनुवृत्ति. By this it becomes three words in this सूत्रम् also. So the सूत्रम् completed with अनुवृत्ति becomes स्तोः ष्टुना ष्टुः. Let us now do विभक्ति-वचन analysis for all the three words.
  • स्तोः is sixth case singular षष्ठी, एकवचनम् of स्तु, meaning “of स् or तु (ie त्-वर्ग)”
  • ष्टुना is third case singular तृतीया, एकवचनम् of ष्टु, meaning “with ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग)”
  • ष्टुः is first case singular प्रथमा, एकवचनम् of ष्टु, meaning “becomes ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग)”
  • Meaning, when सकार comes in contact with ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग) letters, षकार is substituted in the place of सकार and when तवर्ग letters  comes in contact with ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग letters , ट वर्ग letters are substituted in the place of त वर्ग letters  respectively.

Some examples –

  • उत् + डयनम् = उड्डयनम्।

  • षण् + नवतिः = षण्णवतिः।

  • रामस् + टीकते = रामष्टीकते।

  • भवत् + टिप्पणी = भवट्टिप्पणी।

  • एतद् + ढक्का = एतड्ढक्का।

Case 8 – तोर्लि (८-४-६०)

This is sort of further special case, applicable when पूर्ववर्ण-letters are of त्-वर्ग (त् थ् द् ध् न्), and are followed by ल्. In such instances पूर्ववर्ण-letters of त्-वर्ग are substituted by ल्.

Example in गीता –

  • आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः (8-16 आब्रह्मभुवनात् लोकाः, त् → ल्)

  • श्रुतिमल्लोके (13-14 श्रुतिमत् लोके)

  • इमाँल्लोकान् (18-17 इमान् लोकान्)

    • This is sort of a special case, because here न् of इमान् becomes अनुस्वार, which has a slightly different accent than of न् of इमान्

अनुस्वार, when to write it and how to pronounce it are points, which merit specific discussion. We shall come to it separately later.

Case 9 – Looking back at the Table having seen in Case (5) that खर् + खर् (कठोर + कठोर) produces primarily a संयुक्ताक्षरम् (even in the special cases), natural curiosity will be about the result of यश् + यश् (मृदु + मृदु). The most common result here also is primarily a संयुक्ताक्षरम् !

For example in the word नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते (गीता 2-3), य् + य् + उ = य्यु. Actually य्यु in this word नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते merits some detailing.

  • The word itself is a सन्धि (न + एतत् + त्वयि + उपपद्यते)

  • What is to be noted is that त् of एतत् and next “त् and व” of त्वयि become संयुक्ताक्षरम् त् + त् + व = त्त्व. This is case 5.

  • Further in सन्धि of त्वयि + उपपद्यते, the वर्ण्-s involved are त् + व, य् + इ + उ from उपपद्यते. As per rule of स्वरसन्धि, य् + इ + उ becomes य् + य् + उ. After that य् + य् + उ becomes य्यु. This is case 9.

Important point to be noted is that when studying व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, actually when studying any संधि for that matter, the consideration is to understand the phonetics, the resultant sound, when two वर्ण-s come together.

It should be also noted that वर्ण is not always अक्षर. One अक्षर can have many वर्ण्-s as was shown in कार्त्स्न्यम्.

In many words such as सर्व, कार्य, शल्य, माल्य, दिव्य, पूर्व, ब्रह्म, वह्नि, the वर्ण-s in पूर्ववर्ण position are य् व् र् ल् ह्. The resultants are all संयुक्ताक्षर-s.

Before going over to next case, it may be noted that Case 4 झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) suggests that a harsh consonant, in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) a soft consonant becomes soft !

Case 10 – A soft consonant (प्रत्याहार यश्) becomes harsh in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) a harsh consonant (प्रत्याहार खर्) !

Example given in प्रभुपादव्याकरणम् is सुहृद् + सताम् = सुहृत्सताम् Note द् + स becomes त् + स.

Case 11 – झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम् । (८/४/६२)

When झय् letters (first four letters of any वर्ग) are followed by हकार, ह् is optionally replaced by पूर्वसवर्ण (a letter similar to the preceding letter). पूर्वसवर्ण will always be the fourth letter of the same वर्ग, to which the preceding झय् letter belongs.

For example –

  • वणिग् + हसति = वणिग्घसति / वणिग्‍हसति

    • Because application of the rule is optional, both the results are acceptable.

  • अच् + हलौ = अज्झलौ / अज्‍हलौ

  • षड् + हयाः = षड्ढयाः / षड्‍हयाः

  • तद् + हितम् = तद्धितम् / तद्‍हितम्

  • अब् + ह्रदः = अब्भ्रदः / अब्‍ह्रदः

Case 12 खरि च (८-४-५५) झलां (८-४-५३) चरः (८-४-५४)

When पूर्ववर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार झल् are followed by परवर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार खर् the पूर्ववर्ण-s change to corresponding वर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार चर् (च् ट् त् क् प् श् ष् स्).

Example in गीता

  • युयुत्सवः (1-1)

    • the word is derived from धातुः युध् with suffix सु.

    • Here पूर्ववर्ण् ध् is from प्रत्याहार झल्.

    • The परवर्ण् स् of प्रत्यय सु is from प्रत्याहार खर्.

    • So पूर्ववर्ण् ध् changes to त् of प्रत्याहार चर्

    • basically the मृदुव्यञ्जनं changes to कठोर/कर्कश-व्यञ्जनं of its own वर्ग. Finally we have युयुध् + सु = युयुत्सु.

This is an internal संधि, happening in the formation of the word when affixing a suffix, as has been mentioned as एकपदे in संहितैकपदे नित्या.

With a plan to discuss topic of अनुस्वार separately, above 12 cases substantially cover important types of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s for Simple Sanskrit.

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

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