Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 30

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 30


An important aspect of procedure of detailing विग्रह of a समास is to first get to the bare minimum form of the compound word. The bare minimum form is often the form in प्रथमा विभक्ति.

 For example first word in first verse in गीता is धर्मक्षेत्रे. This is of course a compound word. But the form धर्मक्षेत्रे is सप्तमी विभक्ति एकवचनम् of the noun धर्मक्षेत्रम्. So we should do विग्रह of the word धर्मक्षेत्रम् and not of the formatted word धर्मक्षेत्रे.

 This may not be always necessary, especially if the word is already in प्रथमा विभक्ति. That was the case for बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या.

 Words like प्रतिदिनम्, साश्चर्यम् also are already in प्रथमा विभक्ति.

 But doing विग्रह of a समास would need being conscious of the meaning intended to be conveyed.

 Note प्रतिदिनम् = every day साश्चर्यम् = with wonder. “Every day” would be an answer to a question “When ?” Similarly “with wonder” would be an answer to a question “how ?” So प्रतिदिनम् and साश्चर्यम् have an adverbial intent, which in Sanskrit is called as अव्ययीभावः

 विग्रह of a समास is primarily an exercise in detailing the meaning of the word. And विग्रह should do that.

 विग्रह of प्रतिदिनम् is detailed as दिने दिने.

विग्रह of साश्चर्यम् is detailed as आश्चर्येण सह.

 अव्ययीभाव-समास-s are another type of समास-s.

 Both these words प्रतिदिनम् and साश्चर्यम् have a prefix उपसर्ग. In detailing विग्रह of प्रतिदिनम् as दिने दिने what is detailed is really the meaning lent by the prefix प्रति. Likewise in detailing विग्रह of साश्चर्यम् as आश्चर्येण सह, what is detailed is really the meaning lent by the prefix स. So in these words, the prefixes are almost like component words पद-s of the compound words.

 Need to be conscious of the meaning intended can be explained also by considering a word विमलम् in two different sentences – (1) विमलं वस्त्रं धारय Wear a clean cloth (2) वस्त्रं विमलं क्षालय Wash the cloth clean.

 As can be seen, in विमलं वस्त्रं धारय, the word is adjective of the noun वस्त्रम्. In the other sentence, it is adverb of the verb क्षालय. Should we do different विग्रह for the same word ? My answer would be ‘Yes’. Basically some people may question whether every word, which has a prefix उपसर्ग and a noun नाम, should be treated as a compound word. Again, my answer would be ‘Yes’. I say so with the basic premise in mind, that विग्रह of a समास is primarily an exercise in detailing the meaning of the word.

 In विमलं वस्त्रं धारय I would decipher the विग्रह as विगतः मलः यस्मात् तत् (बहुव्रीहिः)

 In वस्त्रं विमलं क्षालय I would decipher the विग्रह as विगतः मलः अस्मात् तथा (बहुव्रीहिः)

 Even if one should be conscious of the meaning intended to be conveyed, it is important to be open-minded and receptive to different meanings likely to be derived by different विग्रह of a given समास. Another person may think of a different meaning. Why not grant it ?

 For example, in the word धर्मक्षेत्रम्, धर्म = ?? क्षेत्रम् = field. Note, I am mentioning “धर्म = ??” Do we not know the meaning of the word धर्म ? We do, but the word has many, many shades of meaning. One common meaning of धर्म is religion. But what is ‘religion’ ? It is a challenging question to answer.

 I would rather go by the meaning धर्म = righteousness. So धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field of righteousness.

Now, what can make a battlefield a field of righteousness ? Possibly there was history associated with that particular battlefield, that in any battle fought there, only that side prevailed, which had righteousness with it. The battle between पाण्डव-s and कौरव-s was also to be fought to decide, which side had righteousness. Because of its past history the battlefield had come to be known as धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field of righteousness.

 Rather, since the battle was to be fought to decide which side had righteousness, it was the field (for) decision about righteousness. The word धर्म has this other shade of meaning as धर्म = justice. Then we can say धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field (of) righteousness OR field (for) justice about righteousness.

 Since the two prepositions ‘of’ and ‘for’ connote षष्ठी and चतुर्थी विभक्ति-s respectively, विग्रह of धर्मक्षेत्रम् can be धर्मस्य क्षेत्रम् OR धर्माय क्षेत्रम्.

 On that battlefield there was also the person whose name was धर्म. Being a battlefield, there were two parties and there was the allotted field for each party. So by another meaning of क्षेत्रम् = domain, meaning of धर्मक्षेत्रम् becomes “the domain of the person whose name was धर्म”. So even by the विग्रह as धर्मस्य क्षेत्रम्, there can be two meanings of धर्मक्षेत्रम् – (1) धर्मक्षेत्रम् = field of righteousness (2) धर्मक्षेत्रम् = domain of the person whose name was धर्म.

 विग्रह-s of समास-s make Sanskrit literature very engaging and enjoyable, revealing, refreshing and vibrant, especially when one gets to derive a range of meanings from the same given words.

 The drama स्वप्नवासवदत्तम् by भास opens with सूत्रधार briefing the audience of the main characters of the drama. For that briefing, the सूत्रधार sings a श्लोक, which has a compound word आसवदत्ताबलौ. This word can have three different meanings ! In the panel below can be seen an excerpt, giving all the three interpretations, as detailed by Shri. A. B. Gajendragadkar, the then Professor of Sanskrit in Elphinstone College, Mumbai, in his book published in 1938, downloaded by me from the internet.


First of all, the word आसवदत्ताबलौ is adjective of the strong arms of King उदयन, who is the hero of the drama.

 (1) आसवदत्ताबलौ = आसवेन दत्तं आबलं याभ्यां तौ (In आबलम्, आ = समन्तात्, सर्वतोमुखम् इति अर्थः). So, आसवदत्ताबलौ = (arms) which have gained all-round strength by आसव (= an intoxicating drink, wine). It is a known fact that an intoxicating drink gives to warriors reckless courage and under its influence that perform deeds of valor.

 (2) आसवदत्ताबलौ = आसवेन दत्तं अबलं याभ्यां तौ. Here अबलम् = न बलम् इति अबलम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुष) Then the meaning becomes “(arms) to which languor or lassitude or weakness has been imparted by wine.”

 (3) आसवदत्ताबलौ =

  1. दत्तः आसवः यस्यै सा = आसवदत्ता (बहुव्रीहिः) (she अबला), to whom drink has been given

  2. आसवदत्ता अबला याभ्यां तौ = आसवदत्ताबलौ (बहुव्रीहिः) (arms) by which drink has been given to a lady.

 Important point to be also noted is that in दत्ताबलौ, there is a संधि (संहिता). And in compound words, it is compulsory to coalescence, wherever coalescence is applicable. संहिता .. नित्या समासे But here the challenge is of separating the components of a coalesced word. दत्ताबलौ can be split either as दत्त + अबलौ or दत्त + आबलौ.  And that renders different meanings !

 There is another charming and different meaning possible for the phrase in the श्लोक – उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ताबलौ together, a single word ! The component words to be considered are उदय, नव, इन्दु, सवर्णा, वासवदत्ता, बलौ = (arms), which got strength from वासवदत्ता (heroine of the drama) whose complexion was similar to that of (just) rising new moon. This meaning brings to mind a famous proverb, “Behind every successful person, there is strong support of a woman.”

 In the prior discussion the word आसवदत्ताबलौ was obtained by split of उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ताबलौ as उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णौ आसवदत्ताबलौ. But the other charming meaning is derived by not doing this splitting.

 Yet another charming meaning ….

 Keeping in mind that King उदयन is the hero of the drama, उदयनवेन्दुसवर्णावासवदत्ता can be interpreted to mean वासवदत्ता whose complexion was similar सवर्णा, to that of उदयन (or) वा इन्दु moon, (वेन्दु = वा इन्दु).

 Since the drama starts off with सूत्रधार saying this श्लोक, one can consider that सूत्रधार is not only introducing the hero and the heroine by their names but also describing them, how they are, … ! That is a specimen of smartness of Sanskrit poets, here, भास. It takes great intelligence and literary skill to weave so many different meanings in a single word, right ?

 Important point, which is to be noted is that विग्रह of a समास need not be only one specific विग्रह. समास-s are often very inviting, inviting you to indulge in different interpretations !

 Such is the case also with उपसर्ग-s. In श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता one comes across a word अकर्म. This उपसर्ग अ is interesting. It lends a negative meaning to the noun, to which it is prefixed. So, न कर्म इति अकर्म (नञ्-तत्पुरुष). But in Apte’s dictionary, the first word अ is detailed giving also an interesting detail that negativity of meaning has itself six shades ! The detail given says, “.. तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च ऩञर्थाः षट् प्रकीर्तिताः ॥ ..” So meanings of the word अकर्म have to be understood with all the six shades of negativity –

  1. कर्मणा सादृश्यम् तदकर्म = Seeming like कर्म, (but not really कर्म) is अकर्म !

  2. कर्मणः अभावः तदकर्म = Absence of कर्म is अकर्म.

  3. कर्मणः अन्यत्वं तदकर्म = Different from (apart from or other than) कर्म is अकर्म

  4. कर्मणः अल्पता तदकर्म = Shortcoming in कर्म (doing कर्म not wholeheartedly or only half-heartedly or doing कर्म half way, incomplete) is अकर्म

  5. कर्मणः अप्राशस्त्यम् तदकर्म = Impropriety or haphazardness of कर्म is अकर्म

  6. कर्मणः विरोधः तदकर्म = Causing hindrance to कर्म or doing opposite of कर्म is अकर्म !!!

 And one can derive a definition of कर्म (What is कर्म ?) in the reverse mode to say, What is not अकर्म is कर्म !!!

 Is not philosophy of कर्म a great but very subtle philosophy ?

शुभं भवतु !



Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 29

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 29

Composing more than one component words and making a single word, which procedure is known as समास, is a specialty of Sanskrit. This is not to say that such composition of a single word from more than one words together is not found in other languages. Examples in English – outbreak, sunrise, sunset, in-laws, etc.

Yet it becomes specialty of Sanskrit because of number of component words, that can be put together. I was most impressed when I first came across a line in मेघदूतम् by कालिदास. बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या. The complete line is a single word of 17 letters. The total word and the letters therein even fully conform to the मन्दाक्रान्ता meter of the verse. There are eight component words – बाह्य, उद्यान, स्थित, हर, शिरस्, चन्द्रिका, धौत and हर्म्या ! And all together the word is an adjective of अलकानगरी !! English transcription of the word would be bAhyodyAnasthitaharashirashchandrikAdhautaharmyA, as many as 48 letters, even when using A instead of aa. Is it not very challenging to read Sanskrit in the transcripted mode ? This is one example, why it is good to learn the script of the language, right when beginning to learn a new language.

Again the eight component words, which are put together have an interrelationship between them, which needs to be detailed, so that one can then understand, how the word becomes an adjective of अलकानगरी. Detailing the interrelationship between component words is called as विग्रह of the समास. It is better to start विग्रह of one pair of component words.

For example

  1. बाह्योद्यान is बाह्य + उद्यान. बाह्य = external उद्यान = garden. So, बाह्योद्यान = external garden. This is an adjective-noun relationship. Sanskrit phrase would be बाह्यं उद्यानम् This is विग्रह of बाह्योद्यान

  2. In बाह्योद्यानस्थित, स्थित = put up. So बाह्योद्यानस्थित = put up (in) the external garden. I have shown the preposition ‘in’ in parentheses. The preposition is really the explanation of the interrelationship between बाह्योद्यान and स्थित. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘in’ is सप्तमी विभक्ति. Hence बाह्योद्याने स्थित becomes विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थित.

  3. Next we shall take बाह्योद्यानस्थित and हर. This again is an adjective-noun relationship. Sanskrit phrase would be बाह्योद्यानस्थितः हरः

  4. Now बाह्योद्यानस्थितहर and शिरस्. हर = Shiva and शिरस् = head. Obvious relationship between हर and शिरस् is head (of) Shiva. Here also the preposition ‘of’ is really the explanation of the interrelationship between हर and शिरस्. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘of’ is षष्ठी विभक्ति. Hence हरस्य शिरस् becomes विग्रह of हरशिरस्. Rather we have बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरस् = बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरस्य शिरस्

  5. We can proceed to connect up बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरस् and चन्द्रिका. चन्द्रिका means crescent. The well-known relationship between हरशिरस् and चन्द्रिका is “crescent (on) the head of Shiva”. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘on’ is सप्तमी विभक्ति. Hence विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिका should be बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरसि चन्द्रिका. Overall meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिका is “crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”

  6. Next बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिका and धौत. Here धौत means “washed”, “covered”, “lit”. Obvious meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत is “lit (by) crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”. Sanskrit way of the preposition ‘by’ is तृतीया विभक्ति. Hence विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत becomes बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकया धौत

  7. Now lastly we have to connect बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत and हर्म्या. In the component हर्म्या the root word is हर्म्यम्

    1. The word is explained in Apte’s dictionary (See – is – हर्म्यम् [हृ-यत् मुट् च] 1 A palace, mansion, any large or palatial building; हर्म्यपृष्ठं समारूढः काको$पि गरु- डायते Subhāṣ.; बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या Me.7;

    2. As can be seen exactly this reference “बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या Me.7” is quoted in the dictionary.

    3. The obvious meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्यम् is “mansion lit by the cresent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”.

    4. And the relationship between बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौत and हर्म्यम् is again adjective-noun relationship. So विग्रह of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्यम् becomes बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतं हर्म्यम् which fits the meaning “mansion lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”

    5. But the compound word is not ending as ..हर्म्यम्. The ending is हर्म्या, which is a feminine ending. So the total meaning of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या is pointing to a feminine noun. There is such feminine noun in the verse. The related portion of the verse is गन्तव्या ते वसतिरलका नाम यक्षेश्वराणाम् | बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या || The feminine noun is वसतिः meaning “place”, “residential complex”, “township”, “city”. Obviously बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या is adjectival to the feminine noun वसतिः. Then the interpretation of बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या should be (place, which has) “mansion lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”. Sanskrit way of explaining “.. (place, which has) ..” would be यस्यां सा. Using this the विग्रह would be बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्यम् यस्यां सा meaning “place which has mansion lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”. English meaning of the single word बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतहर्म्या becomes a phrase having 19 words !

    6. By a finer consideration, we can grant that there may not be only one mansion there. And all of them would be lit by the crescent. So we can modify the विग्रह to use plural as mansions and then say बाह्योद्यानस्थितहरशिरश्चन्द्रिकाधौतानि हर्म्याणि यस्यां सा = place which has mansions lit by the crescent on the head of Shiva put up in the external garden”

As can be seen, interrelationships between component words are of different types. Here we have seen adjective-noun relationship, विभक्ति-relationship, relationship explained by a phrase such as यस्यां सा.

Sanskrit names of these relationships are –

  1. adjective-noun relationship = कर्मधारय

  2. विभक्ति-relationship = तत्पुरुष

  3. relationship explained by a phrase such as यस्यां सा = बहुव्रीहिः

There are some more types also and also their sub-types. We shall study them one by one.

शुभं भवतु !


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 28

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 28


There seems to be a commonplace understanding that अनुस्वार is an option for writing the अनुनासिक-s. It is difficult to say, whether this commonplace understanding is correct or not from the standpoint of grammar.


Here are some simple, commonplace examples

  • अङ्ग / अंग

  • सञ्जय / संजय

  • पण्डित / पंडित

  • अनन्त / अनंत

  • चम्पा / चंपा

These examples endorse the commonplace understanding. But in the above examples, the अनुस्वार does not connote any one specific अनुनासिक. Rather it connotes all the अनुनासिक-s ! And there is a grammatical pattern or relationship between the अनुस्वार and the अनुनासिक being connoted. The अनुनासिक is of the same वर्ग as of the वर्ण after the अनुस्वार. As can be seen


  • in अङ्ग / अंग, ङ् and ग are of क-वर्ग

  • in सञ्जय / संजय, ञ् ज are of च-वर्ग

  • in पण्डित / पंडित, ण् ड are of ट-वर्ग

  • in अनन्त / अनंत, न् त are of त-वर्ग

  • in चम्पा / चंपा, म् प are of प-वर्ग

पाणिनि explains this by the rules


अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः । (८/४/५८) and वा पदान्तस्य । (८/४/५९)

  • अनुस्वारस्य = of अनुस्वार

  • ययि = in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) वर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार यय् (= वर्ण-s in 8 शिवसूत्र-s from 5 to 12).

  • Note, this excludes वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 13 and 14.


  • परसवर्णः = should be अनुनासिक of the same वर्ग as of the वर्ण, which is पर to the अनुस्वार, i.e. which is after the अनुस्वार

  • वा = applies also to

  • पदान्तस्य। = अनुस्वार at the end of a पद.


This means that a stand-alone word or a sentence or line of a verse should not end with अनुस्वार. These should end only with the अनुनासिक.


In the previous lesson one example given for अनुनासिक becoming अनुस्वार was –


  • इमाँल्लोकान् (18-17 इमान् लोकान्)

It was also mentioned that, here न् of इमान् becomes अनुस्वार, which has a slightly different accent than of न् of इमान्


It was also mentioned there that when to write अनुस्वार  and how to pronounce it are points, which merit specific discussion.


In all the examples अङ्ग / अंग, सञ्जय / संजय, पण्डित / पंडित, अनन्त / अनंत, चम्पा / चंपा whether to write अनुनासिक or अनुस्वार seems to be more the WRITING option, not necessarily a rule for pronunciation. We can assume that these words will be pronounced only appropriately, even if written either way. Nevertheless, the pronunciation of अनुस्वार in इमाँल्लोकान् would have a slightly different accent than of न् of इमान्. So, there is a contention that अनुस्वार is not just a writing option for writing the अनुनासिक-s, but connotes a different accent also.


The following सूत्रम् is the rule for अनुनासिक म् to be अनुस्वार. Of course, “conditions apply”.


मोऽनुस्वारः (८/३/२३)


Meaning –

मोऽनुस्वारः = मः अनुस्वारः

मः अनुस्वारः = (Make) मः (=of म) the अनुस्वार


The applicable condition is हलि परतः when म्-कार is followed by a consonant.


Examples –


रामं वन्दे, गुहायां तपति, मालायां सूत्रम्, गृहं गच्छति, पुस्तकं पश्य, ताभ्यां देहि, नद्यां जलम्


The logic or application of the rule can be extended to derive a corollary, that म्-कार at the end of a sentence or at the end of a line of poetry should not be written as अनुस्वार. At the end of a sentence or at the end of a line of poetry, there is nothing after the म्-कार, so, no परवर्ण् at all. So, म्-कार should remain म्-कार !


In the context of this discussion about अनुस्वार, comes to mind the word संस्कृत itself. In the word संस्कृत

  • we have (स्-अ म् स् क् ऋ त् अ).

  • May it be written as सम्स्कृत or as संस्कृत ? Would these have different pronunciation ? Does it then appeal that the अनुनासिक म् be better written as अनुस्वार ?

  • That suggests that one should understand the rule about when an अनुनासिक is better written as अनुस्वार.

  • In some texts one may find the अनुस्वार written as ँ्.

  • So संस्कृत could as well be written as स ँ्स्कृत.


Here is another interesting example from गीता –


(11-28) यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः or यथा नदीनाम्बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः


One can deliberate on some interesting nuances.


  • It may again be noted that, whether it is written as यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः or यथा नदीनाम्बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः the difference would be primarily in writing. It makes no difference in pronunciation.

  • For a finer observation, the म् of बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः cannot be written as बहवोंबुवेगाः even if it would get pronounced as such only.

  • It cannot be written as बहवोंबुवेगाः, because, it will then miss the अवग्रह-symbol ऽ, which is essential here !


Note, this option of अनुस्वार applies for अनुनासिक

  • at the end of a word, when followed by व्यञ्जनम् of the next word

    • not when the word is stand-alone

  • also not of अनुनासिक at the end of a sentence or

  • of अनुनासिक at the end of a line in a poem.


For example in यं यं वापि स्मरन्भावं त्यजत्यन्ते कलेवरम् ।

  • यं यं and स्मरन्भावं are with अनुस्वार

  • म् of कलेवरम् needs to be म् only.

  • न् of त्यजत्यन्ते could as well be written as त्यजत्यंते !


Change to अनुस्वार happens not only for म्-कार, but also for न्-कार by the सूत्रम्


नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि । ८।३।२४


नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि = नः च अपदान्तस्य झलि

  • नः च = also of न्

  • अपदान्तस्य = when not at the end of a word

  • झलि = when followed by व्यन्जनम् of प्रत्याहार झल्


For example, वासांसि (गीता 2-22), छंदांसि (15-1)


Rules about अनुस्वार are part of rules of treatment of अनुनासिक-s or of संधि-s with अनुनासिक-s in पूर्ववर्ण-position.


One special rules in this respect is –


नश्छव्यप्रशान् (नः छवि अप्रशान्) (८/३/७)


नः = of

छवि = when followed by वर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार छव् (= छ्, ठ्, थ्, च्, ट्, त्)

अप्रशान् = Not when followed by अ or not for the word प्रशान् (This detail is beyond the scope of Simple Sanskrit)


When a word ending with नकार is followed by (प्रत्याहार छव् =) छ्, ठ्, थ्, च्, ट्, त्, नकार is written by अनुस्वार. Also,  सकार gets added before परवर्ण्. A वर्ण् coming in or getting added is called as आगम.


तान् + तान् = (त् + आ + न् + त् + आन् = त् + आँ + स् + त् + आन् / त् + आ + ं + स् + त् + आन्) = ताँस्तान् / तांस्तान्


Examples from गीता – सखींस्तथा (1-26 सखीन् + तथा = सखीं + स् + तथा = सखींस्तथा), प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा (1-33), कामांस्तु (2-5), also संस्कृत (सम् + कृत = सं + स् + कृत)


The अनुस्वार here may be found in some texts written as  ँ्. So, सखी ँ्स्तथा, प्राणाँ्स्त्यक्त्वा, कामा ँ्स्तु.


Having mentioned संस्कृत (सम् + कृत = सं + स् + कृत), I should also bring to notice two words संकर and संस्कार. Both have their derivation from सम् + कृ. But in संकर there is no आगम of स्. In संस्कार there is आगम of स्, same as in संस्कृत. Also संकर could as well be written as सङ्कर. Rather, it should better be written so.

The आगम of स् from नश्छव्यप्रशान् suffers modification by स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०)


That is, when the following letter परवर्ण is either च् or छ्, the आगम of स् is converted to श्


Example from गीता – प्रज्ञावादांश्च (2-11)

Other examples – श्लोकान् + टीकाभिः = (श्लोक् + आ + न् + ट् + ईकाभिः = श्लोक् + आँ + स् + ट् + ईकाभिः / श्लोक् + आ + ं + स् + ट् + ईकाभिः) = श्लोकाँ ष् टीकाभिः/श्लोकां ष् टीकाभिः = श्लोकाँष्टीकाभिः/श्लोकांष्टीकाभिः ।


Note: When the following letter is either ट् or ठ्, the आगम of स् is converted to ष् according to ष्टुना ष्टुः


All the above discussion is about अनुनासिक being पूर्ववर्ण. However, it is interesting to see when अनुनासिक is परवर्ण्, The सूत्रम् is –

यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा । (८/४/४५)

यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा = यरः अनुनासिके अनुनासिकः वा

यरः = प्रत्याहार यर् (वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्र-s 5 to 13) That includes all व्यञ्जन, except ह्

अनुनासिके = when followed by अनुनासिक

अनुनासिकः = becomes अनुनासिक.

वा = optionally


So, when a व्यञ्जन, except ह्, (प्रत्याहार यर् does not include ह्) is followed by an अनुनासिक, then the व्यञ्जन becomes अनुनासिक of its own वर्ग. The letter वा makes it clear, that application of this rule is optional.


वाङ्मयम् / वाग्मयम्, षण्मुखः / षड्मुखः


In both these examples व्यन्जनम् in पूर्ववर्ण्-position is कठोर. अनुनासिक in परवर्ण-position has मृदु characteristics. So by कठोर + मृदु, the कठोर पूर्ववर्ण् becomes मृदु by झलां जशोऽन्ते.

  • वाक् + मयम् = वाग् – मयम् Hence वाग्मयम्. OR

    • वाक् + मयम् = वाङ् – मयम् = वाङ्मयम्

  • Similarly षट् + मुखः = षड् – मुखः Hence षड्मुखः OR

    • षट् + मुखः = षण् – मुखः = षण्मुखः


If a प्रत्यय has an अनुनासिक at its beginning and since beginning of प्रत्यय  is in परवर्ण्-position, it follows the व्यन्जनम् in पूर्ववर्ण्-position, then the rule is NOT optional. It is mandatory to change the व्यन्जनम् to अनुनासिक.


Examples – चिन्मयम् (चित् + मयम्, त् → न्), तन्मात्रम् (तत् + मात्रम्, त् → न्). Here मयम्, मात्रम् are प्रत्यय-s with अनुनासिक म at the beginning.


This should be a good enough detailing of, shall we say, अनुनासिक-संधि-s among व्यञ्जनसन्धि-s, including the significance of अनुस्वार.


शुभं भवतु |


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 27

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 27

To proceed further with व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, Table 2 in the previous Lesson No. 26 is a good table to keep a track of how we proceed.

Case 5 discussed in Lesson 26 was, for example the case of खर् + खर्, i.e. both पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण being खर्.

व्यञ्जनसंधि-s of type व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम्




















But as was mentioned, there are special cases.

Case 6 – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०).

Explanation of स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः। (८/४/४०) can be read at

The explanation is – सकार-तवर्गयोः शकारचवर्गाभ्यां योगे शकारचवर्गौ आदेशौ भवतः। Since this explanatory statement is in Sanskrit, I guess, it would help to explain it in English.

  • There are three words here स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः
  • स्तोः is sixth case singular षष्ठी, एकवचनम् of स्तु, meaning “of स् and तु (ie त्-वर्ग)”
  • श्चुना is third case singular तृतीया, एकवचनम् of श्चु, meaning “by श् and चु (ie च्-वर्ग)”
  • श्चुः is first case singular प्रथमा, एकवचनम् of श्चु, meaning “become श् and चु (ie च्-वर्ग)”
  • Hence,  when पूर्ववर्ण-letters are स् or any letter from त्-वर्ग, and are followed by (i.e. परवर्ण is letter from) श्-वर्ग (प्रत्याहार शर् – श्, ष्, स्) and च्-वर्ग (च् छ् ज् झ् ञ्) respectively, then the पूर्ववर्ण-letters are substituted by letters of श्-वर्ग and च्-वर्ग respectively.

Examples –

  • स्याज्जनार्दन (In 1’36 in गीता) The संधिविच्छेद is  स्यात् जनार्दन (त्, → ज्),

    • Here पूर्ववर्ण is त् is followed by ज्, which is a letter of च्-वर्ग. So त् is replaced by ज्, letter of च्-वर्ग,

    • Note, as per Case (4) discussed in the previous lesson, it should have been स्याद्+जनार्दन So there is a dilemma here, whether to make the संधि as स्याद्जनार्दन or स्याज्जनार्दन. For resolving such dilemmas, there is a diktat विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (विप्रतिषेधे = in the event of a dilemma परं = the latter कार्यम् = to be done, followed, applied.) In Case 4 the सूत्रक्रमाङ्क was 8’2’39. Here in Case 6 the सूत्रक्रमाङ्क is 8’4’40. Obviously 8’4’40 is much later / latter. Hence this latter one has to be applied. So स्यात् + जनार्दन = स्याज्जनार्दन.

More examples –

  • यज्ज्ञात्वा (4-16, 4-35 also 9-1 यत् + ज्ञात्वा)

    • It is to be noted that ज्ञ is ज् + ञ. So ज्ञ has ज् at its beginning.

      • It is also to be noted that in the dictionary words starting with ज्ञ will be found in the alphabetical order of words starting with ज्.

      • In north India, people seem to be pronouncing ज्ञ as ग्य. But ज्ञ does not have ग् at its beginning.

    • Hence here also त् is followed by ज्, which is a letter of च्-वर्ग. So त् is replaced by ज्, letter of च्-वर्ग

  • मच्चित्तः (18-57, 58, मत् + चित्तः, त् → च्)

  • उच्छिष्टम् (17-10 उत् + शिष्टम्)

    • Here त् is followed by श्. So त् is replaced by च्

    • श् of परवर्ण also is replaced by छ् !

Case 7 – ष्टुना ष्टुः। (८/४/४१)

Explanation of ष्टुना ष्टुः। (८/४/४१) can be read at

  • There are two words ष्टुना ष्टुः But since this सूत्रम् (८/४/४१) is in continuation of the earlier सूत्रम् (८/४/४०), we carry forward the word स्तोः from there. This process of carrying forward is called as अनुवृत्ति. By this it becomes three words in this सूत्रम् also. So the सूत्रम् completed with अनुवृत्ति becomes स्तोः ष्टुना ष्टुः. Let us now do विभक्ति-वचन analysis for all the three words.
  • स्तोः is sixth case singular षष्ठी, एकवचनम् of स्तु, meaning “of स् or तु (ie त्-वर्ग)”
  • ष्टुना is third case singular तृतीया, एकवचनम् of ष्टु, meaning “with ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग)”
  • ष्टुः is first case singular प्रथमा, एकवचनम् of ष्टु, meaning “becomes ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग)”
  • Meaning, when सकार comes in contact with ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग) letters, षकार is substituted in the place of सकार and when तवर्ग letters  comes in contact with ष् or टु (ie ट्-वर्ग letters , ट वर्ग letters are substituted in the place of त वर्ग letters  respectively.

Some examples –

  • उत् + डयनम् = उड्डयनम्।

  • षण् + नवतिः = षण्णवतिः।

  • रामस् + टीकते = रामष्टीकते।

  • भवत् + टिप्पणी = भवट्टिप्पणी।

  • एतद् + ढक्का = एतड्ढक्का।

Case 8 – तोर्लि (८-४-६०)

This is sort of further special case, applicable when पूर्ववर्ण-letters are of त्-वर्ग (त् थ् द् ध् न्), and are followed by ल्. In such instances पूर्ववर्ण-letters of त्-वर्ग are substituted by ल्.

Example in गीता –

  • आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः (8-16 आब्रह्मभुवनात् लोकाः, त् → ल्)

  • श्रुतिमल्लोके (13-14 श्रुतिमत् लोके)

  • इमाँल्लोकान् (18-17 इमान् लोकान्)

    • This is sort of a special case, because here न् of इमान् becomes अनुस्वार, which has a slightly different accent than of न् of इमान्

अनुस्वार, when to write it and how to pronounce it are points, which merit specific discussion. We shall come to it separately later.

Case 9 – Looking back at the Table having seen in Case (5) that खर् + खर् (कठोर + कठोर) produces primarily a संयुक्ताक्षरम् (even in the special cases), natural curiosity will be about the result of यश् + यश् (मृदु + मृदु). The most common result here also is primarily a संयुक्ताक्षरम् !

For example in the word नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते (गीता 2-3), य् + य् + उ = य्यु. Actually य्यु in this word नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते merits some detailing.

  • The word itself is a सन्धि (न + एतत् + त्वयि + उपपद्यते)

  • What is to be noted is that त् of एतत् and next “त् and व” of त्वयि become संयुक्ताक्षरम् त् + त् + व = त्त्व. This is case 5.

  • Further in सन्धि of त्वयि + उपपद्यते, the वर्ण्-s involved are त् + व, य् + इ + उ from उपपद्यते. As per rule of स्वरसन्धि, य् + इ + उ becomes य् + य् + उ. After that य् + य् + उ becomes य्यु. This is case 9.

Important point to be noted is that when studying व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, actually when studying any संधि for that matter, the consideration is to understand the phonetics, the resultant sound, when two वर्ण-s come together.

It should be also noted that वर्ण is not always अक्षर. One अक्षर can have many वर्ण्-s as was shown in कार्त्स्न्यम्.

In many words such as सर्व, कार्य, शल्य, माल्य, दिव्य, पूर्व, ब्रह्म, वह्नि, the वर्ण-s in पूर्ववर्ण position are य् व् र् ल् ह्. The resultants are all संयुक्ताक्षर-s.

Before going over to next case, it may be noted that Case 4 झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) suggests that a harsh consonant, in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) a soft consonant becomes soft !

Case 10 – A soft consonant (प्रत्याहार यश्) becomes harsh in the presence of (i.e. when followed by) a harsh consonant (प्रत्याहार खर्) !

Example given in प्रभुपादव्याकरणम् is सुहृद् + सताम् = सुहृत्सताम् Note द् + स becomes त् + स.

Case 11 – झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम् । (८/४/६२)

When झय् letters (first four letters of any वर्ग) are followed by हकार, ह् is optionally replaced by पूर्वसवर्ण (a letter similar to the preceding letter). पूर्वसवर्ण will always be the fourth letter of the same वर्ग, to which the preceding झय् letter belongs.

For example –

  • वणिग् + हसति = वणिग्घसति / वणिग्‍हसति

    • Because application of the rule is optional, both the results are acceptable.

  • अच् + हलौ = अज्झलौ / अज्‍हलौ

  • षड् + हयाः = षड्ढयाः / षड्‍हयाः

  • तद् + हितम् = तद्धितम् / तद्‍हितम्

  • अब् + ह्रदः = अब्भ्रदः / अब्‍ह्रदः

Case 12 खरि च (८-४-५५) झलां (८-४-५३) चरः (८-४-५४)

When पूर्ववर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार झल् are followed by परवर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार खर् the पूर्ववर्ण-s change to corresponding वर्ण-s of प्रत्याहार चर् (च् ट् त् क् प् श् ष् स्).

Example in गीता

  • युयुत्सवः (1-1)

    • the word is derived from धातुः युध् with suffix सु.

    • Here पूर्ववर्ण् ध् is from प्रत्याहार झल्.

    • The परवर्ण् स् of प्रत्यय सु is from प्रत्याहार खर्.

    • So पूर्ववर्ण् ध् changes to त् of प्रत्याहार चर्

    • basically the मृदुव्यञ्जनं changes to कठोर/कर्कश-व्यञ्जनं of its own वर्ग. Finally we have युयुध् + सु = युयुत्सु.

This is an internal संधि, happening in the formation of the word when affixing a suffix, as has been mentioned as एकपदे in संहितैकपदे नित्या.

With a plan to discuss topic of अनुस्वार separately, above 12 cases substantially cover important types of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s for Simple Sanskrit.

शुभं भवतु !


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 26

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 26

Now the व्यञ्जनसंधि-s !

In व्यञ्जनसंधि-s पूर्ववर्ण is certainly a व्यञ्जनम्. परवर्ण may be a vowel or a consonant.

Basically, whether a  संधि is a स्वरसंधि or विसर्गसंधि or व्यञ्जनसंधि is decided by the feature of the पूर्ववर्ण, whether स्वर, स्वर + विसर्ग, or व्यञ्जनम् .

  • in the case of स्वरसंधि-s परवर्ण् is स्वर

  • in the case of विसर्गसंधि-s परवर्ण् is स्वर or व्यञ्जनम्

  • in the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s also परवर्ण् is स्वर or व्यञ्जनम्

So, in the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s, possible number of परवर्ण्-s can be 33 व्यञ्जनानि and 14 स्वर-s. So the number of possible one-to-one combinations of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s can be as many as 33 व्यञ्जनानि x 47 (33 व्यञ्जनानि and 14 स्वर-s) = 1551 व्यञ्जनसंधि-s !

Putting them into groups would help to reduce the variety and patterns.

Basically, व्यञ्जनसंधि-s can be classified into two broad classes –

  1. पूर्ववर्ण व्यञ्जनम् + परवर्ण् स्वर

  2. पूर्ववर्ण व्यञ्जनम् + परवर्ण् व्यञ्जनम्

Let us start with the class व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः.

Case (1) एकादेश-व्यञ्जनसंधि-s

In the case of most स्वरसंधि-s, the resultant sound on mixing of पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण् is a single resultant sound. For example  अ + आ = आ, अ + उ = ओ, इ +ऊ = यू. Resultant sound being a single sound is called as एकादेश.

In the case of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s also, when परवर्ण् is a स्वर, it will naturally make व्यञ्जनम् at the

पूर्ववर्ण position complete with that स्वर. So, it becomes एकादेश.

Here are some examples from गीता –

  1. किमकुर्वत (1-1) = किम् + अकुर्वत

    1. दृष्टवानसि (11-53) = दृष्टवान् + असि

  2. तमाहुः पण्डितं बुधाः (4-19) तमाहुः = तम् + आहुः

  3. वाक्यमिदमाह (1-21) = वाक्यम् + इदम् + आह

    1. कुरूनिति (1-25) = कुरून् + इति

  4. युद्धमीदृशम् (2-32) = युद्धम् + ईदृशम्

    1. ब्रह्माणमीशम् (11-15) = ब्रह्माणम् + ईशम्

  5. एवमुक्तो (1-24) = एवम् उक्तो

    1. स्वजनमुद्यताः (1-45) = स्वजनम् उद्यताः

    2. श्रीभगवानुवाच (2-10/11) = श्रीभगवान् + उवाच

  6. सर्वमेतदृतम् (10-14) = सर्वम् + एतद् + ऋतम्

  7. पापमेव (1-36) = पापम् एव

    1. गुणानेतान् (14-20, गुणान् एतान्)

    2. यानेव (2-6, यान् एव)

  8. पवित्रमोङ्कार (9-17) = पवित्रम् + ओंकार

  9. अहमौषधम् (9-16) = अहम् + औषधम्

All the above संधि-s are so very natural, that there is not much of any प्रक्रिया to be explained. Some people would like to contend that these are not संधि-s at all.

I would like to follow a simplistic concept that, whatever can be split into its components, should be considered as संधि. Actually there are many internal संधि-s, in view of the rule संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः, नित्या समासे. Splitting the components, called as पदच्छेद, often helps to understand the derivation of a word. For example, Sanskrit word for sunrise is सूर्योदय which is a compound word, having two component words सूर्य and उदय. Because in a compound word it is compulsory to do संधि, नित्या समासे Hence सूर्य + उदय = सूर्योदय. Also  उदय is itself उत् + अय, where उत् = up, अय = going, moving. So, by संहितैकपदे नित्या, नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः the word has to be उत् + अय = उदय = going up, moving up, rising. That is how सूर्योदय means sunrise.

While above examples of संधि-s of “व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः”-type, are simple or straightforward, there are interesting conditional variations.

Case 2 – ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् (८/३/३२)

Let us understand this by an example. प्रहसन् + इव = प्रहसन्निव. Here पूर्ववर्ण is अनुनासिक न्. परवर्ण् is स्वर इ.

As per case (1), it should have been simply प्रहसनिव. But here the अनुनासिक न् has become doubled.

The rule is, if पूर्ववर्ण is an अनुनासिक ङ् or ण् or न् and the अनुनासिक itself is preceded by a ह्रस्व स्वर (अ, इ, उ), then the अनुनासिक doubles itself before mixing with the vowel at the परवर्ण् position.

In case (1), पूर्ववर्ण is अनुनासिक, mostly म् न्. This सूत्रम् does not provide for doubling of म्. But there is न् in some examples, which is not doubled. The reason is that the स्वर preceding the अनुनासिक न् is not ह्रस्व. For example, दृष्टवानसि (there is आ before न्) कुरूनिति (there is ऊ before न्).

Examples from गीता, where न् is doubled, because स्वर preceding the अनुनासिक न् is ह्रस्व –

  • विषीदन्निदं 1-28 (विषीदन् इदं), प्रहसन्निव 2-10 (प्रहसन् इव), कुर्वन्नपि 5-7 (कुर्वन् अपि), जिघ्रन्नश्नन् 5-8 (जिघ्रन् अश्नन्), गृह्नन्नुन्मिषन् 5-9 (गृह्णन् उन्मिषन्), निमिषन्नपि 5-9 (निमिषन् अपि), तन्निष्ठाः 5-17 (तत्+निष्ठाः), युञ्जन्नेवम् 6-28 (युञ्जन् एवम्),

Case 3 – झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) – व्यञ्जनम् + स्वरः

This rule applies when a वर्गीयव्यञ्जन (of प्रत्याहार झल्) is at the end of a word, i.e. is in the पूर्ववर्ण position and is followed by a vowel, i.e. has a vowel in the परवर्ण् position, then the व्यञ्जन of पूर्ववर्ण is replaced by the third letter अल्पप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जन of its own वर्ग. प्रत्याहार जश् (ज् ब् ग् ड् द्) covers अल्पप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जन-s.

Note, वर्गीयव्यञ्जन means व्यञ्जन-s of क्, च्, ट्, त्, प् वर्ग-s. प्रत्याहार झल् covers these.


  • वागीशः (वाक्-ईशः Here क् is replaced by ग्),

  • अजन्तः (अच्-अन्तः Here च् is replaced by ज्. प्रत्याहार अच् = all स्वर-s, अजन्त = स्वरान्त)

  • षट् + आनन = षडानन

  • from गीता – मदर्थे 1-9 (मत्+अर्थे), तदस्माकं 1-10 (तत्+अस्माकं), यावदेतान् 1-22 (यावत्+एतान्), यदृच्छया 2-32 (यत्+ऋच्छया), अन्यदस्ति 2-42 (अन्यत्+अस्ति),

Case 4  झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) – व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम्

The झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) also applies, when a वर्गीयव्यञ्जन (of प्रत्याहार झल्) coming at the end of a word, is followed by a मृदुव्यञ्जन. In the process of of संधि व्यञ्जन of पूर्ववर्ण is replaced by अल्पप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जन of its own वर्ग.

This Case (4) is of the class व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम् It is mentioned in continuation of case (3) because झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) applies.

  • Examples – वाग्व्यवहारः, अज्वर्णः, षड्भ्यः

  • Examples in गीता –

    • श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता (= श्रीमत्-भगवत्-गीता त् → द् at two places because followed by भ and ग respectively).

    • उद्यम्य (1-20, उत् + यम्य, य् is also मृदु),

    • यद्राज्यसुखलोभेन (1-45, यत् राज्यसुखलोभेन, Note, र् also has मृदु characteristics)

In both cases (3) and (4) of झलां जशोऽन्ते (८/२/३९) षकार gets डकार, if it is followed by a vowel or मृदुव्यञ्जन and it gets ट् or ड् if it is not followed by any letter. For example षट्ज or षड्ज.

Do the phrases “वर्गीयव्यञ्जन”, “अल्पप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जन of its own वर्ग” sound like heavy-weight technical jargon ? Let us take a breather and relook at the grouping of व्यञ्जनानि and the arrangement provided in शिवसूत्राणि.

This was already detailed and presented in the previous lesson No. 25. But for ready reference it is reproduced below.

Table 1 – वर्णानां तालिका

अघोषाः  कठोराः अल्पप्राणेन

अघोषाः  कठोराः महाप्राणेन

घोषाः  मृदवः अल्पप्राणेन

घोषाः  मृदवः महाप्राणेन

घोषाः  अनुनासिकाः

अन्तस्थाः वर्णाः

ऊष्माः वर्णाः

कण्ठ्याः  (कवर्गे)
















मूर्धन्याः (टवर्गे)








दन्त्याः  (तवर्गे)








ओष्ठ्याः  (पवर्गे)







As was mentioned in the previous lesson No. 24, in शिवसूत्राणि the consonants (connoted by the प्रत्याहार हल्) are grouped differently than in Table 1.




व्यञ्जनानां गुणः

ह य व र (ट्)

यवराणि अन्तस्थानि

ल (ण्)


ञ म ङ ण न (म्)

ञ-म-ङ-ण-न-इति पञ्च अनुनासिकानि

झ भ (ञ्)

झ-भ-इति चपवर्गयोः मृदुनी  महाप्राणेन

घ ढ ध (ष्)

घ-ढ-ध-इति कटतवर्गेषु मृदूनि महाप्राणेन


ज ब ग ड द (श्)

ज-ब-ग-ड-द-इति पञ्च मृदूनि अल्पप्राणेन


ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त (व्)

ख-फ-छ-ठ-थ-इति कठोराणि महाप्राणेन तथा

चटतानि कठोराणि अल्पप्राणेन च


क प (य्)

क-प-इति द्वे कठोरे अल्पप्राणेन


श ष स (र्)



ह (ल्)

ऊष्मं कण्ठ्यम् च

For an overall understanding of व्यञ्जनसंधि-s of the class पूर्ववर्णः व्यञ्जनम् + परवर्णः व्यञ्जनम्, it would help to note the grouping of व्यञ्जन-s by their phonetic characteristics.

(1) कठोर व्यञ्जन-s and ऊष्म-s have closely related phonetic characteristics.

  • प्रत्याहार खर् thus becomes one broad group having 3 subgroups

  • प्रत्याहार खव् = ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त (व्)

  • प्रत्याहार कय् = क प (य्) and

  • प्रत्याहार शर् = श ष स (र्)

(2) मृदु व्यञ्जन-s, अन्तस्थ-s and अनुनासिक-s also have closely related phonetic characteristics.

  • प्रत्याहार यश् thus becomes another broad group, this also having 3 subgroups

  • प्रत्याहार यण् = य् व् र् ल् – the अन्तस्थ-s

  • प्रत्याहार ञम् = ञ म ङ ण न (म्) – the अनुनासिक-s

  • प्रत्याहार झश् = झ् भ् घ् ढ् ध् ज् ब् ग् ड् द् – the मृदु व्यञ्जन-s

By this grouping of व्यञ्जन-s पूर्ववर्ण-s can be from any one of the above 8 प्रत्याहार-s and also ह् , which is included by considering प्रत्याहार झल्. Similarly परवर्ण-s can also be from any one of the above 8 प्रत्याहार-s and also ह् . Table 2 gives an overview of possible combinations.

Table 2 व्यञ्जनसंधि-s of type व्यञ्जनम् + व्यञ्जनम्




















In the table above, there are 9 options (hence 9 rows) for पूर्ववर्ण and also 9 options (hence 9 columns) for परवर्ण. That makes 9×9 = 81 possible combinations. But because प्रत्याहार-s खर् and यश् include 3,3 प्रत्याहार-s within them the number of combinations would reduce. However, there would be some special cases also. We shall come to all these as we proceed.

Case 5

व्यञ्जनसंधि-s with both पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण being कठोर i.e. from प्रत्याहार खर् for both पूर्ववर्ण and परवर्ण, would generally produce just a संयुक्ताक्षर

Examples –

  • पुरुजित्कुन्तिभोजः (1-5, पुरुजित् कुन्तिभोजः, त् + क् = त्क्),

  • त्वक्च (1-30, त्वक् च, क् + च् = क्च्),

  • तत्सत् (अध्यायसमाप्तौ, तत् सत्, त् + स् = त्स्)

    • Note the ऊष्मवर्ण-s of प्रत्याहारः शर् (= श् ष् स्)  have substantially same phonetic characteristics as of कठोर and are included in प्रत्याहार खर्.

    • But there are special instances, which we shall come to later.

By the way, is it also some curiosity as to, how many व्यन्जन-s can be combined to become a single संयुक्ताक्षरम् ?

Answer is 5 !!! कार्त्स्न्यम् (क्+आ – र्-त्-स्-न्-य्-अ म्) from कृत्स्नम् (= all, whole). By that, कार्त्स्न्यम् = wholesomeness

That is संस्कृत !!!

शुभं भवतु !