Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 24

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 24

Having discussed स्वरसंधि-s in lessons 21, 22 and 23, logically the next step should be to discuss व्यञ्जनसंधि-s and then विसर्गसंधि-s. But it comes to mind that I should devote this lesson to शिवसूत्राणि, also known as माहेश्वरसूत्राणि or प्रत्याहारसूत्राणि.

In Lesson 21, I had made a statement “.. I would think that explaining the rules and patterns, by explaining the पाणिनिसूत्र-s would eminently be beyond the scope of “Simple Sanskrit”. ..” One may ask, “Does it become good to discuss शिवसूत्राणि as a part of Simple Sanskrit ?

I would think it is not only good, rather helpful to discuss शिवसूत्राणि. For one thing शिवसूत्राणि are not as complex as पाणिनिसूत्र-s. They are just 14 lists of Sanskrit alphabets or वर्ण-s. But the arrangement of वर्ण-s is different from the way one learns them when learning the देवनागरी script.

The arrangement is different because in शिवसूत्राणि the वर्ण-s are arranged by their phonetic characteristics.

In the script also the वर्ण-s have some logic of phonetic characteristics, such as place from where the वर्ण emanates, viz. from throat कण्ठ्य (क-वर्ग), from teeth दन्त्य (च-वर्ग), from gums तालव्य (त-वर्ग), from the roof मूर्धन्य (ट-वर्ग), from lips ओष्ठ्य (प-वर्ग). Every वर्ग has a set of 5 वर्ण-s again in an order, first two वर्ण-s are कठोर, next two are मृदु and fifth one is nasal अनुनासिक.

In शिवसूत्राणि वर्ण-s are in an order, such that it becomes easy to explain or understand how two वर्ण-s mix with each other, which is what happens in संधि-s. That is the reason, why it becomes not only good, rather helpful to discuss शिवसूत्राणि in the context of संधि-s.

Let me enumerate the शिवसूत्राणि.

क्रमाङ्कः

सूत्रम्

वर्णसंख्या

अ इ उ ण्

ऋ लृ क्

ए ओ ङ्

ऐ औ च्

ह य व र ट्

ल ण्

ञ म ङ ण न म्

झ भ ञ्

घ ढ ध ष्

१०

ज ब ग ड द श्

११

ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व्

१२

क प य्

१३

श ष स र्

१४

ह ल्

कुलतः

४३

Some important observations –

(1) The consonant at the end of each सूत्र is only an end-marker. So it is not counted in number of वर्ण-s in a सूत्र.

(2) First 4 सूत्र-s cover all vowels though –

  • दीर्घस्वर-s आ ई ऊ ॠ ॡ are not in the list. They are to be taken as contained in their short representatives अ इ उ ऋ लृ

  • When one learns the script the vowels ए ऐ ओ औ are in such order. Here the order is ए ओ ऐ औ.

    • By the order in the script अ आ इ ई उ ऊ … अ is short, आ is long. One may get an impression that ए is short and ऐ is long. Also ओ is short and औ is long. This is wrong.

      • ए is conjoint of अ/आ with इ/ई

      • ऐ however is a conjoint of अ/आ with ए, conjoint with a conjoint or second level conjoint.

      • Similarly ओ is conjoint of अ/आ with उ/ऊ

      • औ however is conjoint of अ/आ with ओ, conjoint with a conjoint or second level conjoint.

      • As can be appreciated ऐ is not long of ए, because ए can itself be pronounced long, say when calling somebody aloud or calling from a long distance ए ऽ ऽ !

  • By finer analysis, grammar considers that most vowels can be pronounced in 18 ways, all of which cannot be represented in scripting. That could be a reason, why Vedas are said to have been transmitted only orally for hundreds or thousands of years, Guru getting the shishya to pronounce every pronunciation only in the manner, which will bring the benevolent effect of every mantra. The benevolent effect will come, only when pronunciation is perfect. By the way the 18 ways of pronouncing a vowel are from the pronunciation being

    • nasal or not nasal अनुनासिक / अननुनासिक

    • short, long or extended ह्रस्व दीर्घ प्लुत

    • stressed, unstressed (level) or low उदात्त स्वरित अनुदात्त

    • 2x3x3 = 18

(3) Among 43 वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्राणि, there are

  • 9 vowels स्वराः in सूत्र-s 1 to 4 and

  • 34 consonants व्यञ्जनानि in सूत्र-s 5 to 14 –

    • actually 33, because ह is repeated in सूत्र-s 5 and 14.

    • In शिवसूत्राणि all consonants have अ vowel mixed in them. This is only to facilitate pronunciation of the शिवसूत्र-s,

(4) In the script वर्ण-s are learnt in the order य र ल व …. ह. In सूत्र-s the order is ह य व र in सूत्र 5 and ल in सूत्र 6. Why the order in सूत्र-s is more appropriate for learning संधि-s can be appreciated by recalling Matrix 3 in Lesson 22.

All संधि-s there were explained by a single सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६/१/७७). This सूत्रम् has 3 प्रत्याहार-s इक् यण् and अच्.

  • प्रत्याहार is the name of a set of वर्ण-s. The elements of the set are all those वर्ण-s, starting with the beginning वर्ण of the प्रत्याहार up to the end-marker.

  • Hence इक् = इ उ ऋ लृ

  • यण् = य व र ल and

  • अच् = अ इ उ ऋ लृ ए ओ ऐ औ

  • From Matrix 3 we can see that there is a nice and intelligent one-to-one correspondence between इ उ ऋ लृ of इक् and य व र ल of यण्.

    • In यण्-संधि-s इ becomes य्, उ becomes व्, ऋ becomes र् and लृ becomes ल्

      • when an element of इक् is followed by and mixes with an element of अच् except when

      • the superseding सूत्रम् अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः applies

(5) Learning विसर्गसंधि-s also becomes easy with शिवसूत्रम् १२ – क प य्. When विसर्ग is followed by क् or प् then the विसर्ग stays.

  • For example in गीता (1) मामकाः पाण्डवाः in श्लोकः 1-1 (2) चेकितानः काशिराजः in श्लोकः 1-5 (3) माधवः पाण्डवः in श्लोकः 1-14 (4) दध्मुः पृथक् in श्लोकः 1-18 (5) कामः कामात् in श्लोकः 2-62 (6) स्थितधीः किं in श्लोकः 2-54

गीता by itself is a good study-material to learn संधि-s of almost all types !

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

6 thoughts on “Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 24

  1. In the script also the वर्ण-s have some logic of phonetic characteristics, such as place from where the वर्ण emanates, viz. from throat कण्ठव्य (क-वर्ग), from teeth दन्तव्य (च-वर्ग), from gums तालव्य (त-वर्ग), from the roof मूर्धन्य (ट-वर्ग), from lips ओष्ठव्य (प-वर्ग). Every वर्ग has a set of 5 वर्ण-s again in an order, first two वर्ण-s are कठोर, next two are मृदु and fifth one is nasal अनुनासिक.

    Strange words: कण्ठव्य (क-वर्ग), from teeth दन्तव्य (च-वर्ग), from the roof , from lips ओष्ठव्य (प-वर्ग). except मूर्धन्य (ट-वर्ग) and from gums तालव्य (त-वर्ग).

    According to Panini’s grammar, the correct words would be कण्ठ्य – कण्ठे भवः कण्ठ्यः; दन्ते भवः दन्त्यः, ओष्ठे भवः – ओष्ठ्यः, वर्णः।

    मूर्ध्नि भवः – मूर्धन्यः AND तालुनि भवः – तालव्यः are correct Sanskrit words, if the Paninian grammar is used and followed.

  2. w.r.t first bullet in second observation above – does deergha ॡ exist? If I understand right, लृ comes only in two flavors – ह्रस्व and प्लुत
    In this context, am also curious about origin of ॡ

    • नमस्ते श्रीमन् नीलेशमहोदय !
      There is certainly a contention that दीर्घ ॡ does not exist. I have not read about your mention that लृ comes only in two flavors – ह्रस्व and प्लुत. But taking clue from this mention of yours –

      If there a प्लुत of लृ why not दीर्घ also ?
      Since अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः applies to all of अक् it certainly includes ॡ !
      I could get facility to type दीर्घ ॡ at https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Sandbox&action=edit&oldid=466665401&edit&summary=Clearing+sandbox&minor=yes which only means somebody does recognize दीर्घ ॡ and has thought it good to even provide for its scripting.
      The consideration then should be whether to recognize it or not, instead of asking whether it exists or not.
      If is recognized, one does not have to append an explanation to अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः that
      दीर्घ ॡ does not exist.
      As it is, it is not used in practice. So, just recognize it and leave it at that. How about that ?

  3. If is recognized, one does not have to append an explanation to अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः that
    दीर्घ ॡ does not exist.
    As it is, it is not used in practice. So, just recognize it and leave it at that. How about that ?

    Only that if you follow Paninian Grammar, for classical Sanskrit, the दीर्घ ॡ was not recognized and hence the necessity of the सवर्णदीर्घ of taking the दीर्घ ॠ as the substitute for the दीर्घ ॡ in सवर्णदीर्घसन्धि. There was no need of this वार्त्तिक । (ऋऌवर्णयोर्मिथः सावर्ण्यं वाच्यम्)। under the सवर्णसूत्र in the case of सवर्णदीर्घ. This was discussed in this thread:

    https://groups.google.com/d/msg/samskrita/N3SwqakMSZQ/EwkpKwfuSncJ

    If there a प्लुत of लृ why not दीर्घ also ?

    The same applies in the case of ए and ओ also. If there are दीर्घ and प्लुत, why not ह्रस्व also cannot be listed?
    in
    In classical Sanskrit, there is no use of ह्रस्व also. But in other regional languages, the short form of ए and ओ are used and लृ is never used in the vocabulary native to the South Indian Languages and Prakrit Languages. But only the use of them in Sanskrit is the only consideration and if you do not take into consideration the use of it, then there is short symbol of ए and ओ also taken as ಎ and ಎ ऎ ऎ and ಏ ಓ ए ओ in Devanagari font. If there are दीर्घ and प्लुत, why not ह्रस्व in the list? Just recognise and leave it because there is the font available in some software for these two also short.

    Herew is how Paninian Grammarians consider this, may be according to you there was no दीर्घ font available to Bhattoji and the Vartikakara, according to you in this sandhi___

    ।लृति सवर्णे लृ वा (वा)।। होत्लृकारः । पक्षे ऋकारः सावर्ण्यात् । ऋति ऋ वा लृति लृ वा इत्युभयत्रापि विधेयं वर्णद्वयं द्विमात्रम् । आद्यस्य मध्ये द्वौ रेफौ तयोरेका मात्रा। अभितोऽज्भक्तेरपरा । द्वितीयस्य तु मध्ये द्वौ लकारौ । शेषं प्राग्वत् । इहोभयत्रापि ऋत्यकः 92 इति पाक्षिकः प्रकृतिभावो वक्ष्यते ।।

  4. I agree that there is a contention that दीर्घ ॡ does not exist. Even the unicode chart provides दीर्घ ॡ [ http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0900.pdf ].

    However, in LSK, Varadaraaj writes (in his comments on मुखनासिकावचनोऽनुनासिकः) as follows –

    “अ ई उ ऋ” एषां वर्णानां प्रत्येकमष्टादशः भेदाः । “ऌ” वर्णस्य द्वादश, तस्य दीर्घाभावात् । एचाम् अपि द्वादश, तेषां ह्रस्वाभावात् ।

    So it appears that Panini’s grammar does not include दीर्घ ॡ, but nevertheless it does exist in modern versions of devanagari script, so there is no harm in recognizing it.

    I am still curious to know when or how did it originate, if we assume that it was “officially prohibited” in LSK.

    Thanks!
    Neelesh.

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