Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 23

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 23

सरलं संस्कृतम् – त्रिविंशतितमः पाठः |

Last among matrices of स्वरसन्धि-s is Matrix 4 for the rows of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. Although this is the order, in which one learns these vowels, for learning संधि-s, they are better put in the sequence ए, ओ and ऐ, औ. The logic is that among these four conjoint vowels, ए, ओ are of गुण-character and ऐ, औ are of वृद्धि-character.

Basically we would be studying स्वरसन्धि-s, wherein we have ए, ओ and ऐ, औ in the पूर्ववर्ण-position and we may have any of the 14 vowels – अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, लॄ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ in the परवर्ण-position. So we have to study 4*14 = 56 स्वरसन्धि-s.

Matrix 4

The general rule for these संधि-s is by the सूत्रम् एचोऽयवायावः। (६/१/७८). It would be good to understand the meaning of this सूत्रम्.  एचोऽयवायावः = एचः अय्-अव्-आय्-आवः

एचः = of एच् = of ए, ओ, ऐ and औ = in place of ए, ओ, ऐ and औ

अय्-अव्-आय्-आवः = take अय्-अव्-आय्-आव् respectively. That is, replace ए, ओ, ऐ and औ by अय्-अव्-आय्-आव् respectively.

Let us take example of ते + आगताः When doing any संधि, we should keep alphabetical analysis in mind. As is obvious, here we have  त् + ए + आ (गताः). We are looking for संधि of ए + आ. As per एचोऽयवायावः we should replace ए by अय्. By that we would have त् + अय् + आ (गताः) The result then becomes तयागताः, right ?

संधि-s as per this rule are also called as यान्तावान्तादेशसन्धि-s. But some other rules also apply in specific instances.

To explain all these 56 स्वरसन्धि-s by examples is going to be quite some exercise. Anyway, there is no shortcut to success !

Case 1 ए + अ For example ते + अत्र By एचोऽयवायावः it should be तयत्र. But ए + अ is an exception. Here the general rule एचोऽयवायावः is superseded by एङः पदान्तादति। (६/१/१०९). संधि-s as per this rule are called as पूर्वरूपसंधि-s. In ते + अत्र the alphabetical analysis is त् + ए + अ(त्र). Between ए + अ, ए is पूर्वरूप or पूर्ववर्ण. That stays. The पररूप or परवर्ण is अ. That vanishes or becomes invisible and is not to be pronounced. So संधि of ते + अत्र becomes तेत्र. When writing there has been a practice of giving an indication of the invisible अ by a symbol ‘s’. This symbol is called as अवग्रह. So, when one sees अवग्रह, one should read तेsत्र with a little prolongation of the ए sound, as if one is also pronouncing अ. So, the symbol ‘s’ means “prolong a little bit, the previous vowel sound”.

Case 2 ए + आ Example for this has already been given. ते + आगताः By alphabetical analysis we have  त् + ए + आ (गताः). Then by एचोऽयवायावः we replace ए by अय्. By that we have त् + अय् + आ (गताः) The result then becomes तयागताः  

Now there is also an OPTION for this संधि. The option is by the rule लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९). लोपः means something gets dropped off. What drops off in this instance is य् from अय् or आय्, also व् from अव् or आव्. So, ते + आगताः ⇒ त् + अय् + आ (गताः) ⇒ त् + अ + आ (गताः) ⇒ त आगताः. It ought to be noted that having dropped य् we get त आगताः. We MUST NOT make further संधि of त आगताः as त + आगताः = तागताः.

Cases 3 to 14 ए + इ, ए + ई … ए + औ All these cases work similar to Case 2, meaning एचोऽयवायावः is the general rule and लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९) is also OPTIONAL. All the twelve cases are explained below by examples

Case 3 ए + इ e.g. ते + इच्छन्ति = तयिच्छन्ति or त + इच्छन्ति.

Case 4 ए + ई e.g. ते + ईशाः = तयीशाः or त ईशाः

Case 5 ए + उ e.g. ते + उपविष्टाः = तयुपविष्टाः or त उपविष्टाः

Case 6 ए + ऊ e.g. ते + ऊर्ध्वम् = तयूर्ध्वम् or त ऊर्ध्वम्

Case 7 ए + ऋ e.g. ते + ऋषयः = तयृषयः or त ऋषयः

Case 8 ए + ॠ e.g. ते + ॠकाराः = तयॄकाराः or त ॠकाराः This example is just composed to explain the संधि. In Sanskrit texts, one would not find any word starting with ॠ

Case 9 ए + लृ e.g. ते + लृकाराः = तयॢकाराः or त लृकाराः This example is just composed to explain the संधि. In Sanskrit texts, one would not find any word starting with लृ

Case 10 ए + ॡ e.g. ते + ॡकाराः = तयॣकाराः or त ॡकाराः This example is just composed to explain the संधि. In Sanskrit texts, one would not find any word starting with ॡ

Case 11 ए + ए e.g. ते + एजन्ति = तयेजन्ति or त एजन्ति

Case 12 ए + ऐ e.g. ते + ऐश्वर्यम् = तयैश्वर्यम् or त ऐश्वर्यम्

Case 13 ए + ओ e.g. ते + ओजः = तयोजः or त ओजः

Case 14 ए + औ e.g. ते + औषधिः = तयौषधिः or त औषधिः

I am a fan of श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता not only because one can learn eternal and universally valid philosophy from it, but also because one can learn Sanskrit, when studying it. There is a phrase in 1’33, which is a good example of Cases 3 and 1. The phrase is त इमेऽवस्थिताः Actually most Sanskrit texts and many Sanskrit words have संधि-s already done. So, the first step in exploring the meaning of a Sanskrit text becomes to decipher or segregate the components. This is called as पदच्छेदनम्. I have already hinted that त इमेऽवस्थिताः has Cases 3 and 1 inherent. Maybe, it would be a good idea to put in such exercises on पदच्छेदनम् in the flow of this lesson.

Cases 15 to 28 for ऐ + अ, ऐ + आ, …. ऐ + औ will all be by एचोऽयवायावः and optionally by लोपः शाकल्यस्य. Here are examples of not all 14 cases but of a few cases. I shall give some cases as exercises.

Case 15 ऐ + अ e.g. कस्मै + अददात् = कस्म् + ऐ + अददात् = कस्म् + आय् + अददात् = कस्मायददात् or कस्मा अददात्

Case 16 ऐ + आ e.g. कस्मै + आनन्दः = ? or ?

Case 17 ऐ + इ e.g. कस्मै + इच्छन्ति = कस्म् + ऐ + इच्छन्ति = कस्म् + आय् + इच्छन्ति = कस्मायिच्छन्ति or कस्मा इच्छन्ति

Case 18 ऐ + ई e.g. कस्मै + ईशः = ? or ?

Case 19 ऐ + उ e.g. कस्मै + उपायः = कस्म् + ऐ + उपायः = कस्म् + आय् + उपायः = कस्मायुपायः or कस्मा उपायः

Case 20 ऐ + ऊ e.g. कस्मै + ऊर्जा = ? or ?

Case 21 ऐ + ऋ e.g. कस्मै + ऋषित्वम् = कस्म् + ऐ + ऋषित्वम् = कस्म् + आय् + ऋषित्वम् = कस्मायृषित्वम् or कस्मा ऋषित्वम्

Cases 22, 23 and 24 for ऐ + ॠ, ऐ + लृ, ऐ + लॄ need not be discussed, because, in Sanskrit texts, one would not find any words starting with ॠ, लृ or लॄ.

Case 25 ऐ + ए e.g. कस्मै + एजन्ति = कस्म् + ऐ + एजन्ति = कस्म् + आय् एजन्ति = कस्मायेजन्ति or कस्मा एजन्ति One good example of this case also is of how one gets चतुर्थी एकवचनम् for रै (meaning wealth). The suffix प्रत्यय for चतुर्थी एकवचनम् is ए. So we have to do रै + ए = र् + आय् + ए = राये. One comes across this word राये in the last stanza of ईशावास्योपनिषत् – अग्ने नय सुपथा राये अस्मान् (O fire ! for wealth, lead us by the righteous path). Such संधि occuring in the process of formation of a word is called as internal संधि. We must not do पदच्छेदनम् for such internal संधि-s.

Case 26 ऐ + ऐ e.g. कस्मै + ऐश्वर्यम् = ? or ?

Case 27 ऐ + ओ e.g. कस्मै + ओजः = कस्मायोजः or कस्मा ओजः

Case 28 ऐ + औ e.g. (a) रै + औ = र् + ए + औ = र् + आय् + औ = रायौ. Note, औ is suffix for formatting प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of words. By रै + औ = रायौ we have रायौ as प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of रै (b) कस्मै + औषधिः = ? or ?

Cases 29 to 42 shall be for ओ + अ, ओ + आ, … ओ + औ.

Case 29 ओ + अ This संधि is similar to that of ए + अ, that is, the rule एङः पदान्तादति। (६/१/१०९) applies. For example सो + अपि = सोऽपि. But there would be instances when only एचोऽयवायावः (६/१/७८) applies. Take for example forming a compound word to say “following a cow”. The word for cow is गो and for “following” is अन्वयः. So we have to do compounding of गो + अन्वयः. This compounding will be only by संधि as गो + अन्वयः = ग् + ओ + अन्वयः = ग् + अव् + अन्वयः = गवन्वयः We cannot do गो + अन्वयः = गोऽन्वयः. This is because the rule एङः पदान्तादति applies, only if ओ is in पदान्त i.e. at the end-position of a word. In the process of making a compound word, गो + अन्वयः the ओ of गो would not remain at the end of the word.

By the way, to understand the meaning of a compound word, one has to decipher how the component words are related to each other. This is called as विग्रह. In गवन्वयः we have

  1. गो = cow
  2. अन्वयः = going behind or one who goes behind
  3. Hence गवन्वयः =
    1. the action of going behind a cow
    2. one, who goes behind a cow, i.e. a cowherd and in a specific instance गवन्वयः means Lord Krishna !

In the lessons thus far, I have not discussed समास-s. This example is a good suggestion to discuss them soon.

Cases 30 to 42 ओ + आ, ओ + इ … will be in the case of compound words, only by एचोऽयवायावः (६/१/७८) and in the case of uncompounded words by एचोऽयवायावः (६/१/७८) or optionally by लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९). In Sanskrit there are not many words like गो, which have ending vowel ओ. So, as examples of cases 30 to 42, we can have compound words with गो as first component. In Sanskrit सम्बोधन-एकवचनम् of उ-कारान्त masculine words would have ending vowel ओ. For example प्रभु ⇒ प्रभो, भानु ⇒ भानो, गुरु ⇒ गुरो, etc. Let us see a few examples and have some for exercise.

Case 30 ओ + आ e.g. (a) गो + आ = ग् + ओ + आ = ग् + अव् + आ = गवा Note, आ is suffix for formatting तृतीया एकवचनम् of words. By गो + आ = गवा we have गवा as तृतीया एकवचनम् of गो. Similarly we get गो + आम् = गवाम् as षष्ठी बहुवचनम् of गो. (b) गो + आगमनम् = ग् + ओ + आगमनम् = ग् + अव् + आगमनम् = गवागमनम् meaning coming of cow. (c) प्रभो + आगच्छतु = प्रभ् + ओ + आगच्छतु = प्रभ् + अव् + आगच्छतु = प्रभवागच्छतु or प्रभ आगच्छतु |

Case 31 ओ + इ e.g. (a) गो + इ = ग् + ओ + इ = ग् + अव् + इ = गवि Note, इ is suffix for formatting सप्तमी एकवचनम् of words. By गो + इ = गवि we have गवि as सप्तमी एकवचनम् of गो (b) गो + इच्छा = ग् + ओ + इच्छा = ग् + अव् + इच्छा = गविच्छा meaning wish of a cow or wish for a cow. (c) प्रभो + इच्छतु = प्रभ् + ओ + इच्छतु = प्रभ् + अव् + इच्छतु = प्रभविच्छतु or प्रभ इच्छतु |

Case 32 ओ + ई e.g. (a) गो + ईशः = ? meaning master of cow(s) i.e. a cowherd. (b) प्रभो + ईशः = ? or ?

Case 33 ओ + उ e.g. (a) गो + उत्सवः = ग् + ओ + उत्सवः = ग् + अव् + उत्सवः = गवुत्सवः meaning festival for the cows and bulls and the oxen. In India, there has been a tradition especially among the farmers, of observing गवुत्सवः a festival for the oxen, for them to acknowledge the great labor lent by the oxen. The festival is observed on श्रावण-अमावस्या or भाद्रपद-अमावस्या.  (b) प्रभो + उपायः = प्रभ् + ओ + उपायः = प्रभ् + अव् + उपायः = प्रभवुपायः or प्रभ उपायः

Case 34 ओ + ऊ e.g. (a) गो + ऊर्जा = गवूर्जा meaning the strength of a bull. (b) प्रभो + ऊर्जा = ? or ?

Case 35 ओ + ऋ e.g. (a) गो + ऋषित्वम् = ग् + ओ + ऋषित्वम् = ग् + अव् + ऋषित्वम् = गवृषित्वम् This is fitting adoration of Nandi, who was given the special distinction of being the carrier of Lord Shiva, in acknowledgement of his exemplary conduct. (b) प्रभो + ऋषित्वम् = प्रभ् + ओ + ऋषित्वम् = प्रभ् + अव् + ऋषित्वम् = प्रभवृषित्वम् or प्रभ ऋषित्वम्

Cases 36, 37 and 38 for ओ + ॠ, ओ + लृ, ओ + लॄ need not be discussed, because, in Sanskrit texts, one would not find any words starting with ॠ, लृ or लॄ.

Case 39 ओ + ए e.g. गो + ए = ग् + ओ + ए = ग् + अव् + ए = गवे Note, ए is the suffix for formatting चतुर्थी एकवचनम् of words. By गो + ए = गवे we have गवे as चतुर्थी एकवचनम् of गो (b) गो + एजनम् = गवेजनम् Because एजनम् means movement, this word गवेजनम् can mean the special characteristics of oxen that by slightest excitement, there will be a shiver on their skin. (b) प्रभो + एजन्ति = प्रभ् + ओ + एजन्ति = प्रभ् + अव् + एजन्ति = प्रभवेजन्ति or प्रभ एजन्ति

Case 40 ओ + ऐ e.g. (a) गो + ऐश्वर्यम् = गवैश्वर्यम् Some bulls have a grace, even by their horns. Grace of a bull is गवैश्वर्यम्. (b) प्रभो + ऐश्वर्यम् = ? or ?

Case 41 ओ + ओ e.g. (a) गो + ओस् = ग् + ओ + ओस् = ग् + अव् + ओस् = गवोस् = गवोः Note, ओस् is the suffix for formatting षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of words. गवोः is षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of गो (b) प्रभो + ओजः = प्रभ् + ओ + ओजः = प्रभ् + अव् + ओजः = प्रभवोजः or प्रभ ओजः

Case 42 ओ + औ e.g. (a) गो + औ = गवौ i.e. प्रथमा or द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of गो (b) प्रभो + औषधिः = ? or ?

Cases 43 to 56 for औ + अ, औ + आ, …. औ + औ will all be by एचोऽयवायावः and optionally by लोपः शाकल्यस्य. Here are examples of not all 14 cases but of a few cases. We shall have some cases as exercises.

Case 43 औ + अ e.g. (a) नौ + अस् = न् + औ + अस् = न् + आव् + अस् = नावस् = नावः Note, अस् is suffix for formatting प्रथमा बहुवचनम् of words. So नावः is प्रथमा बहुवचनम् of नौ. (b) तौ + अक्षरौ = तावक्षरौ or ता अक्षरौ (c) In गीता in श्लोक 2’8, there is the word भूमावसपत्नम्. What would be its पदच्छेदनम् ?

Case 44 औ + आ e.g. (a) नौ + आ = न् + औ + आ = न् + आव् + आ = नावा Note, आ is suffix for formatting तृतीया एकवचनम् of words. So नावा is तृतीया एकवचनम् of नौ. (b)  नौ + आसनम् = नावासनम् becomes a compound word meaning seat in a boat. (c) तौ + आगतौ (meaning, “those two have come”) = ? or ?

Case 45 औ + इ e.g. (a) नौ + इ = न् + औ + इ = न् + आव् + इ = नावि Note, इ is suffix for formatting सप्तमी एकवचनम् of words. So नावि is सप्तमी एकवचनम् of नौ. (b) तौ + इच्छतः (meaning “They two wish”) = ? or ?

Case 46 औ + ई e.g. (a) नौ + ईशः = नावीशः becomes a compound word meaning master, captain of a boat (b) तौ + ईशौ (meaning “those two masters”) = ? or ?

Case 47 औ + उ e.g. (a) नौ + उत्सवः = नावुत्सवः becomes a compound word meaning festival of boats. There is long tradition of boat race festivals in Kerala, in Tripura, even in Laos. (b) तौ + उपविशतः (meaning “those two sit”) = ? or ?

Case 48 औ + ऊ e.g. तौ + ऊर्जे (meaning the two energies) = तावूर्जे or ता ऊर्जे

Case 49 औ + ऋ e.g. तौ + ऋषी = तावृषी or ता ऋषी

Cases 50, 51 and 52 for औ + ॠ, औ + लृ, औ + लॄ need not be discussed, because, in Sanskrit texts, one would not find any words starting with ॠ, लृ or लॄ.

Case 53 औ + ए e.g. (a)  नौ + ए = न् + औ + ए = न् + आव् + ए = नावे Note, ए is suffix प्रत्यय for चतुर्थी एकवचनम्. So नावे is चतुर्थी एकवचनम् of नौ. (b) नौ + एजनम् = नावेजनम् becomes a compound word meaning “movement of the boat” since एजनम् means movement. (c) तौ + एजतः = तावेजतः or ता एजतः  

Case 54 औ + ऐ e.g. तौ + ऐश्वर्ये (meaning the two splendours) = ? or ?

Case 55 औ + ओ e.g. (a) नौ + ओस् = न् + ओ + ओस् = न् + अव् + ओस् = नावोस् = नावोः Note, ओस् is the suffix for formatting षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of words. नावोः is षष्ठी or सप्तमी द्विवचनम् of नौ (b) द्वौ + ओष्ठौ (meaning “two lips”) = ? or ?

Case 56 औ + औ e.g. (a) नौ + औ = न् + औ + औ = न् + आव् + औ = नावौ Note, औ is suffix for formatting प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of words. So नावौ is प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् of नौ. (b) तौ + औषधी (meaning the two medicines) = ? or ?

Exercises – Among विभक्तिप्रत्यय-s case-suffixes following have a vowel at their beginning. Since suffixes affix after the word, in the case of the suffixes having vowels at the beginning, the vowels become परवर्ण-s. So it would become a good exercise to get शब्दरूपाणि of words रै, गो and नौ in following cases.

  1. प्रत्यय for प्रथमा and द्वितीया द्विवचनम् is औ.
  2. प्रत्यय for प्रथमा बहुवचनम् is अस् (अः)
  3. प्रत्यय for तृतीया एकवचनम् is आ.
  4. प्रत्यय for चतुर्थी एकवचनम् is ए.
  5. प्रत्यय for पञ्चमी and षष्ठी एकवचनम् is अस् (अः).
  6. प्रत्यय for षष्ठी and सप्तमी द्विवचनम् is ओस् (ओः)
  7. प्रत्यय for सप्तमी एकवचनम् is इ.

Some of these have been already discussed also. No harm doing them again as exercises.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

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Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 22

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 22

सरलं संस्कृतम् – द्वाविंशतितमः पाठः |

In this lesson we shall study Matrix 3 for 8 rows for इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ and ॡ. The rule for all these 8 rows is stated by a single सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६/१/७७)

It should be noted that in every row there would be two instances of सवर्णदीर्घसंधि as per अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101). For these instances, only सवर्णदीर्घसंधि would apply, because it supersedes इको यणचि (६/१/७७)

Hence there are (8×12 =) 96 संधि-s possible.

संधि-s as per this rule are also called as यण्संधि-s.

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 3

It will be appreciated that it is difficult to give examples of all 96 possible संधि-s within the matrix itself. These are compiled below.

(1) Examples for row इ +

  1. यदि + पि = (यद् + इ + अ + पि = यद् + य् + अ + पि) = यद्यपि।
  2. इति + देशः = इत्यादेशः
  3. इति + त्सवः = इत्युत्सवः
  4. अति + ष्णम् = अत्यूष्णम्
  5. इति + कारः = इत्यृकारः
  6. इति + कारः = इत्यॄकारः
  7. इति + कारः = इत्यॢकारः
  8. इति + कारः = इत्यॣकारः
  9. इति + एतत् = इत्येतत्
  10. इति + श्वर्यम् = इत्यैश्वर्यम्
  11. इति + जः = इत्योजः
  12. इति + षधिः = इत्यौषधिः

(2) Examples for row ई +

  1. नदी + स्ति = (नद् + ई + अ + स्ति = नद् + य् + अ + स्ति) = नद्यस्ति।
  2. लक्ष्मी + गमनम् = लक्ष्म्यागमनम्
  3. लक्ष्मी + त्सवः = लक्ष्म्युत्सवः
  4. नदी + र्जा = नद्यूर्जा
  5. लक्ष्मी + णम् = लक्ष्म्यृणम् । Some people consider that ऋ becomes अर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes लक्ष्म्यर्णम्
  6. लक्ष्मी + ॠकारः = लक्ष्म्यॄकारः Some people consider that ॠ becomes आर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes लक्ष्म्यार्णम्. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  7. लक्ष्मी + ॡकारः = लक्ष्म्य्लृकारः Some people consider that ॡ becomes अल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes लक्ष्म्यल्णम्. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  8. लक्ष्मी + ॡकारः = लक्ष्म्य्लॄकारः Some people consider that ॡ becomes आल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes लक्ष्म्याल्णम्. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  9. लक्ष्मी + एषा = लक्ष्म्येषा
  10. लक्ष्मी + ऐश्वर्यम् = लक्ष्म्यैश्वर्यम्
  11. लक्ष्मी + ओजः = लक्ष्म्योजः
  12. पिप्पली + औषधिः = पिप्पल्यौषधिः

(3) Examples for row उ +

  1. सु + अस्ति = (स् + उ + अ-स्ति = स् + व् + अ-स्ति) = स्वस्ति
  2. सु + आगतम् = (स् + उ + आ + गतम् = स् + व् + आ + गतम्) = स्वागतम्।
  3. मधु + इदम् = मध्विदम्
  4. गुरु + ईश्वरः = गुर्वीश्वरः
  5. गुरु + ऋषिः = गुर्वृषिः Some people consider that ऋ becomes अर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes गुर्वर्षिः
  6. साधु + ॠकारः = साध्वॄकारः Some people consider that ॠ becomes आर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes साध्वार्कारः. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  7. साधु + लृकारः = साध्वॢकारः Some people consider that ॡ becomes अल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes साध्वल्कारः. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  8. साधु + ॡकारः = साध्वॣकारः Some people consider that ॡ becomes आल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes साध्वाल्कारः. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  9. साधु + एतत् = साध्वेतत्
  10. साधु + ऐश्वर्यम् = साध्वैश्वर्यम्
  11. साधु + ओजः = साध्वोजः
  12. साधु + औषधिः = साध्वौषधिः

(4) Examples for row ऊ +

  1. वधू + अपि = (वध् + ऊ + अ + गमनम् = वध् + व् + अ + पि) = वध्वपि
  2. वधू + आगमनम् = वध्वागमनम्
  3. वधू + इच्छा = वध्विच्छा
  4. चमू + ईर्षा = चम्वीर्षा
  5. अमू + ऋकारौ = अम्वृकारौ Some people consider that ऋ becomes अर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes अम्वर्कारौ. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  6. अमू + ॠकारौ = अम्वॄकारौ Some people consider that ॠ becomes आर् and not just र्. In that case the संधि becomes अम्वार्कारौ. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  7. अमू + लृकारौ = अम्वॢकारौ Some people consider that ॡ becomes अल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes अम्वल्कारः. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  8. अमू + ॡकारौ = अम्वॣकारौ Some people consider that ॡ becomes आल् and not just ल्. In that case the संधि becomes अम्वाल्कारः. Actually this example is concocted. Hardly any good example is found in literature.
  9. चमू + एषा = चम्वेषा
  10. चमू + ऐक्यम् = चम्वैक्यम्
  11. चमू + ओजः = चम्वोजः
  12. चमू + औद्धत्यम् = चम्वौद्धत्यम्

(5) Examples for row ऋ +

  1. पितृ + अग्रजः = (पित् + ऋ + अ-ग्रजः) = पित् + र् + अ-ग्रजः = पित्रग्रजः |
  2. पितृ + आदेशः = पित्रादेशः
  3. पितृ + इच्छा = (पित् + ऋ + इ + च्छा = पित् + र् + इ + च्छा) = पित्रिच्छा।
  4. कॄ + इति = (क् + ॠ + इ + ति = क् + र् + इ + ति)  = क्रिति ।
  5. भ्रातृ + ईर्षा = भ्रात्रीर्षा
  6. पितृ + उत्सवः = पित्रुत्सवः
  7. पितृ + ऊर्मिः = पित्रूर्मिः
  8. Hardly any examples with लृ and ॡ
  9. पितृ + एष्टिः = पित्रेष्टिः
  10. पितृ + ऐश्वर्यम् = पित्रैश्वर्यम्
  11. पितृ + ओजः = पित्रोजः
  12. पितृ + औदार्यम् = पित्रौदार्यम्

(6) No Examples for row ॠ + because there are no words ending with ॠकार

(7) Examples for row लृ +

  1. घस्लृ + अङ्गम् = घस्लङ्गम् |
  2. घस्लृ + आदेशः (घस् + लृ + आ + देशः = घस् + ल् + आ + देशः) = घस्लादेशः|

(8) No Examples for row ॡ + because there are no words ending with ॡकार.

It would have been noted that 96 possible was a theoretical calculation. Practically, I have managed to compose only 62 examples. Examples with ऋ ॠ लृ and ॡ in particular had to be ‘managed’ by concoction.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 21

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 21

सरलं संस्कृतम् – एकविंशतितमः पाठः |

Even though I have been discussing स्वरसंधि-s in previous lessons, it has always been on my mind that there should be a structured, tabulated view, sort of a Matrix view. After quite some effort and study, I am glad that I have been able to compile primarily the general rules for all the 196 possible combinations of स्वरसंधि-s in just 4 matrices.

I would like to present them across three lessons matrices 1 and 2 in this lesson 21, Matrix 3 in next lesson No. 22 and Matrix 4 in lesson No. 23.

Here is Matrix 1 covering स्वरसंधि-s as per सूत्रम् – अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101). Examples of all 20 स्वरसंधि-s are also given.

– Note, just one सूत्रम् with just three words becomes the rule covering 20 स्वरसंधि-s ! That is पाणिनि !!

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 1

These संधि-s are also called as सवर्णदीर्घसंधि-s. These are 5 blocks, of 4 संधि-s each, diagonally across 10 rows.

To proceed further, it becomes logical to proceed by rows, firstly by the first two rows for अ + and आ +.

Here is the matrix 2 for the first two rows.

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 2

As can be seen, in Matrix 2,

  1. There are 8 संधि-s under columns for इ, ई, उ, ऊ. These are as per पाणिनिसूत्रम् आद्गुणः (6-1-87). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as गुणसंधि-s.

  2. Next there are 8 more under columns for ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ as per उरण् रपरः (1-1-51).

  3. Further there are 8 more under columns for ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. These are as per वृद्धिरेचि (६/१/८८). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as वृद्धिसंधि-s

I would think that explaining the rules and patterns, by explaining the पाणिनिसूत्र-s would eminently be beyond the scope of “Simple Sanskrit”. But in case of संधि-rules in particular,

  1. It is interesting how a short and crisp सूत्रम् specifies the rule for so many patterns.

  2. one needs to also know special cases, when a particular rule is superseded by another subsequent rule. There is a सूत्रम् even to say that, when applicable, a subsequent सूत्रम् supersedes a previous सूत्रम् !! For those interested, the सूत्रम् is विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (१-४-२)

In this matrix 2

  1. There is a box under the columns for ऋ, ॠ, लृ and ॡ, mentioning the सूत्रम् – उपसर्गादृति धातौ (6-1-91). This सूत्रम् supersedes the सूत्रम् उरण् रपरः (1-1-51) applicable for these columns. Hence, by virtue of this superseding सूत्रम्, in the special cases of अ/आ-ending उपसर्ग-s followed by धातु-s having initial वर्ण ऋ, there is वृद्धिः आर् instead of अर्. Note संधि between उपसर्ग and धातु is compulsory.

  2. There is also another box under the columns for ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, noting सूत्रम् – एङि पररूपम् (६/१/९४) Sanskrit-explanation of this is अवर्णान्तात् उपसर्गात् एङादौ धातौ परतः पूर्वपरयोः स्थाने पररूपमेकादेशः भवति, संहितायां विषये, meaning if अ-ending उपसर्ग is followed by धातु-s having initial वर्ण ए or ओ, then

    1. such संधि of अ + ए does not become ऐ it becomes ए only, e.g. प्र + एजते (प्र् + {अ + ए} + जते = प्र् + {ए} + जते) = प्रेजते

    2. likewise संधि of अ + ओ does not become औ, it becomes ओ only, e.g. उप + ओषति (उप् + {अ + ओ} + षति = उप् + {ओ} + षति) = उपोषति

    3. The box applies only for columns for ए and ओ, not for all the 4 columns. So, these are very special संधि-s of अ + ए and अ + ओ.

    4. Such संधि-s are also called as पररूपसंधि-s

It is important to bear in mind the rule, telling the instances, when it is compulsory to make a संधि.

संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः |

नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते ||

By पदच्छेद,

  1. संहिता एकपदे नित्या

  2. नित्या धातु-उपसर्गयोः

  3. नित्या समासे

  4. वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षां अपेक्षते

संहिता नित्या = संहिता i.e. संधि (is to be done) नित्या, always = it is compulsory to make a संधि

  1. एकपदे = The resultant word is to be used as one word only, e.g. कश्चित् Actually the word is a संधि of कः + चित्

  2. धातूपसर्गयोः = Between धातु and उपसर्ग, e.g. in अपेक्षते there is उपसर्ग अप and धातु ईक्षते These have to be said only as अपेक्षते as per the गुणसंधि of अ + ई = ए See column for ई in Matrix 2.

  3. समासे = The word धातूपसर्गयोः is a compound word having component words धातु and उपसर्ग. Because it is a compound word, there has to be संधि of उ + उ = ऊ, a सवर्णदीर्घसंधि as per अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः in Matrix 1.

वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षां अपेक्षते = In a sentence it is discretionary. For example, one may say त्वं एव माता or त्वमेव माता.

We shall see Matrix 3 in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Lesson 20

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 20

सरलं संस्कृतम् – विंशतितमः पाठः |

It should be appropriate at this point, to appraise of some technical aspects of the process of संधि-s.

  1. संधि is also called as संहिता. Interestingly, in श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम् there is a मन्त्र “संहिता सन्धिः” I am left wondering of the significance of this मन्त्र in श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम्, because, for a student of grammar, these two words of the मन्त्र are just synonyms. But what is the spiritual significance for it to be a मन्त्र in a स्तोत्रम्, an ode to the  deity गणपति / गणेश ?

  2. संधि is a coalescence of two sound-elements,

    1. The sound-element वर्ण at the previous position is called as पूर्ववर्णः

    2. The sound-element वर्ण at the following position is परवर्णः

    3. Coalescence i.e. संधि or संहिता often brings forth a Resultant sound, which is often a change आदेशः

    4. When the resultant sound is only a single sound, it is एकादेशः Most संधि-s result in एकादेश. But there are instances that it would not be so.

    5. The change आदेशः may happen by addition आगम omission लोप or mutation विकार.

  3. Segregating components of a coalesced word is called as पदच्छेद. It is the first step, very much essential, to be able to understand any Sanskrit text. If two elemental sounds would get coalesced in the natural process of pronouncing them, they would get so pronounced very naturally, right ? संधि is a natural process of pronouncing or speaking Sanskrit. Rather, rules of संधि are not really rules, but they are grammatical summary of, what the natural process of coalescence happens during pronunciation.

  4. Since संधि-rules are grammatical summary of, what the natural process of coalescence happens during pronunciation, all the detailing of संधि-rules, becomes a strong evidence to establish that Sanskrit has essentially been a spoken language. This evidence stands to nullify all argument about Sanskrit ever having been a spoken language.

  5. One may ask, “If पदच्छेद is the first step, so very essential, to be able to understand any Sanskrit text, why have I taken it so late in these lessons in “Simple Sanskrit” ? The answer is in the question itself ! Before indulging in पदच्छेद, one needs to know पद-s and how they are formed / obtained. It needed all those 16/17 lessons to discuss that, the पद-s. That discussion is far from complete. But I thought, it is not wiser to postpone discussing संधि-s.

    1. In treatises on grammar, especially in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित discussion on संधि-s starts right from chapter 2.

    2. For my lessons of “Simple Sanskrit”,  I have kept the focus to be simple and step by step. Every step is not necessarily a small step. If one can compose 240 sentences from lesson 1 itself, it is not a small step. But it is not a big step either, because all those sentences are just two-word sentences.  Often enthusiasm of people wanting to learn a new language is high-pitched.

      1. Some want to be able to read and understand such philosophical / spiritual text as गीता,

      2. Some want to start conversing, right from word ‘go’.

        1. It is my firm conviction, that wrong or incorrect Sanskrit is not Sanskrit at all.

        2. I keep listening to conversational Sanskrit, only with a pinch of salt. It becomes discourteous to correct the person at every error, right ?

        3. But if errors are not corrected, whatever Sanskrit is spoken may sound Sanskrit-like, but it would not be Sanskrit.

        4. I for one would never like to be a party to promoting Sanskrit-like Sanskrit.

  6. To start speaking in a new language, the language should be able to tolerate lot of colloquialism. In fact if the language is tolerant of this, it is quite efficient to learn such language, say, in the market-place or in a family. Essentially there should be an overwhelming environment, maybe 24×7, of that language falling on your ears. That is how child learns its mother-tongue. That is how I had learnt Kannada at the place where I did my schooling. That is also how I dare to speak Gujarati and some little bit of Tamil. But I would not dare do that with Sanskrit. I also learnt somewhat German. But I am at quite some unease in conversing in German. I have studied different languages, you see. So, my opinions are from such self-study, deliberations and experience. Protagonists of “Spoken Sanskrit” seem to be going by the argument about how a child learns its mother-tongue, without any bother about the nuances of grammar. To my mind they miss two points –

    1. The language should be tolerant to lot of colloquialism

    2. There should be an overwhelming environment, maybe 24×7, of that language falling on your ears.

    3. Both these aspects do not apply to Sanskrit.

  7. Language-skills are of three types – speak, read, write. By writing skill, I do not mean just the skill of being able to write the script. Writing skill is the flair to express one’s thoughts powerfully. This, generally, is the sequence, in which we learn our mother-tongue. By the way, I know a boy, Raghu, whose mother-tongue was Tamil. After I had attended a few classes to learn Tamil, I had become acquainted with the Tamil script and wrote a short greetings message. I showed it to Raghu and asked him, “Is it correct ?” He surprised me by his reply, “Uncle, I can’t read Tamil !”

  8. Having had that surprise some 15 years back, it surprises me no more. I realize that my own American grandchildren speak Marathi, quite fluently, I would say. But they are struggling to read and write. That would be so, with many, many, many. many children, who can speak their mother-tongue, but cannot read, much less, write. That has now become a great anxiety weighing heavily on the minds of their parents. But  why should the parents be anxious ? What is wrong with being able to only speak, but not be able to read or write ? To my mind, being able to read what is written in a language, connotes getting acquainted with the culture. Yes, every language connotes a culture. Every language has a rich cultural heritage to be carried forth. That cannot be more true for any other language, other than Sanskrit.

See, what they say at http://www.sanskritatstjames.org.uk/why-sanskrit#benefits-of-sanskrit webpage of St. James School, London,

“…

Benefits of Sanskrit

(1) An Education In Beauty – The Sanskrit language is full of beauty: beauty of sound, of structure, of script, of poetry and of prose. Such beauty opens the heart.

(2) A Language Of Impeccable Credentials – Sanskrit is highly respected by the academic community. It often forms a point of interest and admiration when students with Sanskrit qualifications are interviewed for university admission. Sanskrit possesses a remarkably fine grammatical structure giving insights into all language learning;

(3) A New View Of The World – Sanskrit literature expresses a refreshing and expansive view of human nature and its role in creation. In this era of unprecedented change and uncertainty, it can be a valuable tool to assess and look afresh at society.

(4) Sanskrit literature embodies a comprehensive map of the human makeup: spiritual, emotional, mental and physical. It presents a new way of understanding our relationship to the rest of creation and lays out guidelines which, if followed, would lead to a productive and happy life.

(5) A Systematic Grammar – The word ‘Sanskrit’ means ‘perfectly constructed’. Study of its grammar brings order to the mind and clarifies the thinking. Sanskrit has an ordered alphabet and grammar system which makes it easy to learn.

(6) At The Root Of European Languages – Sanskrit stands at the root of many eastern and western languages, including English and most other European languages, classical or modern. Its study illuminates their grammar and etymology. Many English words can be shown to derive from forms still extant in Sanskrit.

(7) A Matchless Literature – Sanskrit has one of the richest and most extensive literature of all languages. It introduces students to vast epics, profound scripture, subtle philosophy, voluminous mythology, exquisite poetry and much else. Sanskrit holds the key to a treasure trove of seminal scriptures, such as the Bhagavad Gita, the depth and quality of which are increasingly being acknowledged around the world. …. “

I came to dwell on all this, as sort of an introduction to the topic of संधि-s and made mention of पदच्छेद. These are important concepts to be able to read and understand Sanskrit.

As an end-note, my recommendation is, “… does not matter, if you are not able to speak Sanskrit and may also not be able to write Sanskrit. But being able to just read Sanskrit and understand it, of course, with whatever effort is required for understanding, becomes such an enriching experience ! ..”

Everything of Sanskrit becomes an enriching experience. Even grammar, especially सूत्राणि in अष्टाध्यायी will astound you by genius of पाणिनि !! When I read and realized, that the verbal root धातु जन् has the sense of passive voice inherent to it, it came to mind, “What a philosophical thought !” Is it not a fact that we do not take birth (active voice), … we are born (passive voice !) If our being born is itself so much of a passive-voice event, how unintelligent it is to have any ego or selfishness or aspirations in any aspect or at any stage of our life !! Isn’t that some grammar and philosophy together ?

In the course of understanding Sanskrit, you can expect to get such revelations ! If such revelations may even differ from conventional interpretations, DO DARE TO DIFFER ! It needs courage to be able to do that. Apart from, rather, more than courage, it needs clarity and correctness in the thought-process. As is said at St. James School’s web-page, you should expect your learning of Sanskrit to get to you that clarity and correctness in the thought-process. Only by such clarity and correctness, you will realize that you will have much better, much more self-satisfying understanding of even scriptures and all that. It is so much more satisfying to read and understand गीता by oneself than by reading commentaries. One should read and study commentaries also. But one must also get understanding by oneself.

That, I think, should be the objective for learning Sanskrit – self-satisfying understanding of Sanskrit texts !

I have been composing my lessons in Simple Sanskrit to serve as a small step towards that.

शुभं भवतु |

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