Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 23

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 23

सरलं संस्कृतम् – त्रिविंशतितमः पाठः |

Last among matrices of स्वरसन्धि-s is Matrix 4 for the rows of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. Although this is the order, in which one learns these vowels, for learning संधि-s, they are better put in the sequence ए, ओ and ऐ, औ. The logic is that although all four are conjoint vowels, ए, ओ are of गुण-character and ऐ, औ are of वृद्धि-character.

The general rule for these संधि-s is by the सूत्रम् एचोऽयवायावः। (६/१/७८).

संधि-s as per this rule are also called as यान्तावान्तादेशसन्धि-s.

However for vowels, ए, ओ of गुण-character there is one more rule, of two specific applications and in those instances supersedes the general rule.

The rule of specific applications is एङः पदान्तादति। (६/१/१०९). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as पूर्वरूपसंधि-s.

Specifics of the applications are –

  1. The first word has ending vowel  ए or ओ

  2. At the beginning of the second word the vowel is अ.

The procedure is ए, ओ stay and the following अ becomes silent, is not pronounced. But its presence is indicated by a symbol ऽ called as अवग्रहः

In the Matrix 4, these instances are marked with fill color red and are detailed in two special rows for ए and ओ. There being only two specific instances, the examples are given in the Matrix 4 below in rows with fill colors orange and green.

The instances for the general rule would be 54 (4 rows x 14 columns – 2 special instances = 54). It will be appreciated that it is difficult to give examples of all possible 54 संधि-s within the matrix itself. These are compiled here.


To see the image clearly, right-click on the image and then click “view image”.

There is obviously an order of supersession between the rules

  1. एङः पदान्तादति (६।१।१०९)

  2. एचोऽयवायावः । (६/१/७८)

By the order

  1. एङः पदान्तादति (६।१।१०९) is to be applied, if the case is any of the two specific instances.

  2. If not, एचोऽयवायावः । (६/१/७८) applies.

For all the 54 संधि-s as per the general rule, there is an optional way. That option is by the सूत्रम् – लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९)

Furthermore, it is to be noted that once संधि is made as per the सूत्रम् लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९), one does not make further संधि. For example

(1) कस्मै + अददात्

1.1) = कस्मायददात् as per एचोऽयवायावः । (६/१/७८)

1.2) = कस्मा अददात् as per लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९). One does not make it further as कस्माददात् by अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101).

That is the smartness of पाणिनि in sequencing of सूत्र-s. Once you have gone ahead all the way to लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९), you do not return to apply 6-1-101 !

Here now examples of all 56 संधि-s

  1. as per the general rule एचोऽयवायावः । (६/१/७८)

  2. also by the option of सूत्रम् – लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९)

  3. adding also two specific instances for ए + अ and ओ + अ




Example by General Rule



ए +

वृक्षे + अस्मिन् = वृक्षेऽस्मिन्

This is specific instance, no option


ए +

ते + आगताः = तयागताः

ते + आगताः =

त आगताः


ए +

ते + इच्छन्ति = तयिच्छन्ति

ते + इच्छन्ति =

त इच्छन्ति


ए +

ते + ईशाः = तयीशाः

ते + ईशाः = त ईशाः


ए +

ते + उपविष्टाः = तयुपविष्टाः

ते + उपविष्टाः =

त उपविष्टाः


ए +

ते + ऊर्ध्वम् = तयूर्ध्वम्

ते + ऊर्ध्वम् = त ऊर्ध्वम्


ए +

ते + ऋषयः = तयृषयः

ते + ऋषयः = त ऋषयः


ए +

ते + ॠकाराः = तयॄकाराः

ते + ॠकाराः =

त ॠकाराः


ए +


ते + ॡकाराः = तयॣकाराः

ते + ॡकाराः =

त ॡकाराः


ए +

ते + ॡकाराः = तयॣकाराः

ते + ॡकाराः =

त ॡकाराः


ए +

ते + एजन्ति = तयेजन्ति

ते + एजन्ति = त एजन्ति


ए +

ते + ऐरावतः = तयैरावतः

ते + ऐरावतः = त ऐरावतः


ए +

ते + ओष्ठौ = तयोष्ठौ

ते + ओष्ठौ = त ओष्ठौ


ए +

ते + औषधिः = तयौषधिः

ते + औषधिः = त औषधिः




Example by General Rule



ऐ +

कस्मै + अददात् = कस्मायददात्

कस्मै + अददात् = कस्मा + अददात्


ऐ +

कस्मै + आनन्दः = कस्मायनन्दः

कस्मै + आनन्दः =

कस्मा + आनन्दः


ऐ +

कस्मै + इच्छन्ति = कस्मायिच्छन्ति

कस्मै + इच्छन्ति =

कस्मा इच्छन्ति


ऐ +

कस्मै + ईशः = कस्मायीशः

कस्मै + ईशः = कस्मा ईशः


ऐ +

कस्मै + उपायः = कस्मायुपायः

कस्मै + उपायः =

कस्मा + उपायः


ऐ +

कस्मै + ऊर्जा = कस्मायूर्जा

कस्मै + ऊर्जा = कस्मा + ऊर्जा


ऐ +

कस्मै + ऋक् = कस्मायृक्

कस्मै + ऋक् = कस्मा ऋक्


ऐ +

कस्मै + ॠकाराः = कस्मायॄकाराः

कस्मै + ॠकाराः =

कस्मा ॠकाराः


ऐ +


कस्मै + ॡकाराः = कस्मायॣकाराः

कस्मै + ॡकाराः =

कस्मा ॡकाराः


ऐ +

कस्मै + ॡकाराः = कस्मायॣकाराः

कस्मै + ॡकाराः =

कस्मा ॡकाराः


ऐ +

कस्मै + एजन्ति = कस्मायेजन्ति

कस्मै + एजन्ति =

कस्मा एजन्ति


ऐ +

कस्मै + ऐरावतः = कस्मायैरावतः

कस्मै + ऐरावतः =

कस्मा ऐरावतः


ऐ +

कस्मै + ओजः = कस्मायोजः

कस्मै + ओजः =

कस्मा + ओजः


ऐ +

कस्मै + औषधिः = कस्मायौषधिः

कस्मै + औषधिः =

कस्मा औषधिः




Example by General Rule



ओ +

को + अपि = कोऽपि

This is specific instance, no option


ओ +

गो + अन्वयः = गवन्वयः

See Notes below.


ओ +

प्रभो + आगच्छतु = प्रभवागच्छतु

प्रभो + आगच्छतु =

प्रभ आगच्छतु


ओ +

प्रभो + इदम् = प्रभविदम्

प्रभो + इदम् =

प्रभ इदम्


ओ +

प्रभो + ईश = प्रभवीश

प्रभो + ईश = प्रभ ईश


ओ +

प्रभो + उपकरोतु = प्रभवुपकरोतु

प्रभो + उपकरोतु =

प्रभ उपकरोतु


ओ +

प्रभो + ऊर्ध्वम् = प्रभवूर्ध्वम्

प्रभो + ऊर्ध्वम् = प्रभ ऊर्ध्वम्


ओ +

प्रभो + ऋषि = प्रभवृषि

प्रभो + ऋषि = प्रभ ऋषि


ओ +

प्रभो + ॠकाराः = प्रभवॄकाराः

प्रभो + ॠकाराः =

प्रभ ॠकाराः


ओ +


प्रभो + ॡकाराः = प्रभवॢकाराः

प्रभो + ॡकाराः =

प्रभ ॡकाराः


ओ +

प्रभो + ॡकाराः = प्रभवॣकाराः

प्रभो + ॡकाराः =

प्रभ ॡकाराः


ओ +

प्रभो + एकः = प्रभवेकः

प्रभो + एकः = प्रभ एकः


ओ +

प्रभो + ऐश्वर्यम् = प्रभवैश्वैर्यम्

प्रभो + ऐश्वैर्यम् =

प्रभ ऐश्वर्यम्


ओ +

प्रभो + ओष्ठे = प्रभवोष्ठे

प्रभो + ओष्ठे = प्रभ ओष्ठे


ओ +

प्रभो + औदार्यम् = प्रभवौदार्यम्

प्रभो + औदार्यम् = प्रभ औदार्यम्

Note on 3.1a

In the संधि गो + अन्वयः = गवन्वयः the ओ of गो is not at the end of a word. It is at the end of a component of a compound word गवन्वयः.

Since गवन्वयः is a compound word, संधि of गो + अन्वयः is compulsory.

Since it is at the end of a component of a compound word गवन्वयः, not at the end of a word, एङः पदान्तादति (६।१।१०९) does not apply. The सूत्रम् very clearly specifies पदान्तात्. That is how every part of a सूत्रम् is important. A सूत्रम् is really a specification, a rule.

Since गवन्वयः is a compound word, the संधि of गो + अन्वयः can also not be ग अन्वयः as per लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९)

So संधि गो + अन्वयः has to be only as गवन्वयः as per the general rule एचोऽयवायावः । (६/१/७८).

By the way विग्रह meaning

  1. गो = cow

  2. अन्वयः = going behind

  3. Hence गवन्वयः =

    1. going behind a cow

    2. one, who goes behind a cow.

  4. By 3a, गवन्वयः means the action of going behind a cow.

  5. By 3b गवन्वयः means cowherd himself and in a specific instance गवन्वयः means Lord Krishna !

In the lessons thus far, I have not discussed समास-s. This example is a good suggestion to discuss them soon.




Example by General Rule



औ +

तौ + अक्षरौ = तावक्षरौ

तौ + अक्षरौ = ता + अक्षरौ


औ +

तौ + आगतौ = तावागतौ

तौ + आगतौ = ता + आगतौ


औ +

तौ + इच्छतः = ताविच्छतः

तौ + इच्छतः = ता इच्छतः


औ +

तौ + ईशौ = तावीशौ

तौ + ईशौ = ता ईशौ


औ +

तौ + उपायौ = तावुपायौ

तौ + उपायौ = ता + उपायौ


औ +

तौ + ऊर्जे = तावूर्जे

तौ + ऊर्जे = ता + ऊर्जे


औ +

तौ + ऋषी = तावृषी

तौ + ऋषी = ता ऋषी


औ +

तौ + ॠकारौ = तावॄकारौ

तौ + ॠकारौ = ता ॠकारौ


औ +


तौ + ॡकारौ = तावॢकारौ

तौ + ॡकारौ = ता ॡकारौ


औ +

तौ + ॡकारौ = तावॣकारौ

तौ + ॡकाराः = ता ॡकारौ


औ +

तौ + एजतः = तावेजतः

तौ + एजतः = ता एजतः


औ +

तौ + ऐन्द्रौ = तावैन्द्रौ

तौ + ऐन्द्रौ = ता ऐन्द्रौ


औ +

तौ + ओजस्विनौ = तावोजस्विनौ

तौ + ओजस्विनौ =

ता + ओजस्विनौ


औ +

तौ + औषधी = तावाषधी

तौ + औषधी = ता औषधी

Following table presents a good, at-a-glance view of the rules discussed in the 4 matrices of  स्वरसंधि-s in Lessons 21, 22 and 23.

Matrix No.

General Rule

No. of संधि-s

Special superseding rule(s)


अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101)



आद्गुणः (6-1-87)


एत्येधत्यूठ्सु (6-1-89)

उरण् रपरः (1-1-51)


उपसर्गादृति धातौ (6-1-91)

वृद्धिरेचि । (६/१/८८)


एङि पररूपम्। (६/१/९४)


इको यणचि (६/१/७७)



एचोऽयवायावः। (६/१/७८)


लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८।३।१९)

एङः पदान्तादति। (६/१/१०९)



शुभं भवतु |



Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 22

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 22

सरलं संस्कृतम् – द्वाविंशतितमः पाठः |


In this lesson we shall study Matrix 3 for 8 rows for इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ and ॡ. The rule for all these 8 rows is stated by a single सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६/१/७७)


It should be noted that in every row there would be two instances of सवर्णदीर्घसंधि as per अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101). For these instances, only सवर्णदीर्घसंधि would apply, because it supersedes इको यणचि (६/१/७७)

Hence there are (8×12 =) 96 संधि-s possible.


संधि-s as per this rule are also called as यण्संधि-s.

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 3

It will be appreciated that it is difficult to give examples of all 96 possible संधि-s within the matrix itself. These are compiled below.

(1) Examples for row इ +

यदि + अपि = (यद् + इ + अ + पि = यद् + य् + अ + पि) = यद्यपि।

इति + आदेशः = इत्यादेशः

इति + उत्सवः = इत्युत्सवः

अति + ऊष्णम् = अत्यूष्णम्

इति + ऋकारः = इत्यृकारः

इति + ॠकारः = इत्यॄकारः

इति + ॡकारः = इत्यॢकारः

इति + ॡकारः = इत्यॣकारः

इति + एतत् = इत्येतत्

इति + ऐश्वर्यम् = इत्यैश्वर्यम्

इति + ओजः = इत्योजः

इति + औषधिः = इत्यौषधिः

(2) Examples for row ई +

नदी + अस्ति = (नद् + ई + अ + स्ति = नद् + य् + अ + स्ति) = नद्यस्ति।

लक्ष्मी + आगमनम् = लक्ष्म्यागमनम्

लक्ष्मी + उत्सवः = लक्ष्म्युत्सवः

नदी + ऊर्जा = नद्यूर्जा

लक्ष्मी + ऋणम् = लक्ष्म्यृणम्

श्री + ॠकारः = श्र्यॄकारः

श्री + ॡकारः = श्र्यॢकारः

श्री + ॡकारः = श्र्यॣकारः

लक्ष्मी + एषा = लक्ष्म्येषा

लक्ष्मी + ऐश्वर्यम् = लक्ष्म्यैश्वर्यम्

लक्ष्मी + ओजः = लक्ष्म्योजः

पिप्पली + औषधिः = पिप्पल्यौषधिः

(3) Examples for row उ +

सु + अस्ति = (स् + उ + अ-स्ति = स् + व् + अ-स्ति) = स्वस्ति

सु + आगतम् = (स् + उ + आ + गतम् = स् + व् + आ + गतम्) = स्वागतम्।

मधु + इदम् = मध्विदम्

गुरु + ईश्वरः = गुर्वीश्वरः

गुरु + ऋषिः = गुर्वृषिः

साधु + ॠकारः = साध्वॄकारः

साधु + लृकारः = साध्वॢकारः

साधु + ॡकारः = साध्वॣकारः

साधु + एतत् = साध्वेतत्

साधु + ऐश्वर्यम् = साध्वैश्वर्यम्

साधु + ओजः = साध्वोजः

साधु + औषधिः = साध्वौषधिः

(4) Examples for row ऊ +

वधू + अपि = (वध् + ऊ + अ + गमनम् = वध् + व् + अ + पि) = वध्वपि

वधू + आगमनम् = वध्वागमनम्

वधू + इच्छा = वध्विच्छा

चमू + ईर्षा = चम्वीर्षा

अमू + ऋकारौ = अम्वृकारौ

अमू + ॠकारौ = अम्वॄकारौ

अमू + लृकारौ = अम्वॢकारौ

अमू + ॡकारौ = अम्वॣकारौ

चमू + एषा = चम्वेषा

चमू + ऐक्यम् = चम्वैक्यम्

चमू + ओजः = चम्वोजः

चमू + औद्धत्यम् = चम्वौद्धत्यम्

(5) Examples for row ऋ +

पितृ + अग्रजः = (पित् + ऋ + अ-ग्रजः) = पित् + र् + अ-ग्रजः = पित्रग्रजः |

पितृ + आदेशः = पित्रादेशः

पितृ + इच्छा = (पित् + ऋ + इ + च्छा = पित् + र् + इ + च्छा) = पित्रिच्छा।

कॄ + इति = (क् + ॠ + इ + ति = क् + र् + इ + ति)  = क्रिति ।

भ्रातृ + ईर्षा = भ्रात्रीर्षा

पितृ + उत्सवः = पित्रुत्सवः

पितृ + ऊर्मिः = पित्रूर्मिः

Hardly any examples with लृ and ॡ

पितृ + एष्टिः = पित्रेष्टिः

पितृ + ऐश्वर्यम् = पित्रैश्वर्यम्

पितृ + ओजः = पित्रोजः

पितृ + औदार्यम् = पित्रौदार्यम्

(6) No Examples for row ॠ + because there are no words ending with ॠकार

(7) Examples for row लृ +

घस्लृ + अङ्गम् = घस्लङ्गम् |

घस्लृ + आदेशः (घस् + लृ + आ + देशः = घस् + ल् + आ + देशः) = घस्लादेशः|

(8) No Examples for row ॡ + because there are no words ending with ॡकार.

It would have been noted that 96 possible was a theoretical calculation. Practically, I have managed to compose only 62 examples. Examples with ऋ ॠ लृ and ॡ in particular had to be ‘managed’.

शुभं भवतु |


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 21

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 21

सरलं संस्कृतम् – एकविंशतितमः पाठः |

Even though I have been discussing स्वरसंधि-s in previous lessons, it has always been on my mind that there should be a structured, tabulated view, sort of a Matrix view. After quite some effort and study, I am glad that I have been able to compile primarily the general rules for all the 196 possible combinations of स्वरसंधि-s in just 4 matrices.

I would like to present them across three lessons matrices 1 and 2 in this lesson 21, Matrix 3 in next lesson No. 22 and Matrix 4 in lesson No. 23.

Here is Matrix 1 covering स्वरसंधि-s as per सूत्रम् – अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101). Examples of all 20 स्वरसंधि-s are also given.

– Note, just one सूत्रम् with just three words becomes the rule covering 20 स्वरसंधि-s ! That is पाणिनि !!

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 1

These संधि-s are also called as सवर्णदीर्घसंधि-s. These are 5 blocks, of 4 संधि-s each, diagonally across 10 rows.

To proceed further, it becomes logical to proceed by rows, firstly by the first two rows for अ + and आ +.

Here is the matrix 2 for the first two rows.

स्वरसन्धि Matrix 2

As can be seen, in Matrix 2,

  1. There are 8 संधि-s under columns for इ, ई, उ, ऊ. These are as per पाणिनिसूत्रम् आद्गुणः (6-1-87). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as गुणसंधि-s.

  2. Next there are 8 more under columns for ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ as per उरण् रपरः (1-1-51).

  3. Further there are 8 more under columns for ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. These are as per वृद्धिरेचि (६/१/८८). संधि-s as per this rule are also called as वृद्धिसंधि-s

I would think that explaining the rules and patterns, by explaining the पाणिनिसूत्र-s would eminently be beyond the scope of “Simple Sanskrit”. But in case of संधि-rules in particular,

  1. It is interesting how a short and crisp सूत्रम् specifies the rule for so many patterns.

  2. one needs to also know special cases, when a particular rule is superseded by another subsequent rule. There is a सूत्रम् even to say that, when applicable, a subsequent सूत्रम् supersedes a previous सूत्रम् !! For those interested, the सूत्रम् is विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (१-४-२)

In this matrix 2

  1. There is a box under the columns for ऋ, ॠ, लृ and ॡ, mentioning the सूत्रम् – उपसर्गादृति धातौ (6-1-91). This सूत्रम् supersedes the सूत्रम् उरण् रपरः (1-1-51) applicable for these columns. Hence, by virtue of this superseding सूत्रम्, in the special cases of अ/आ-ending उपसर्ग-s followed by धातु-s having initial वर्ण ऋ, there is वृद्धिः आर् instead of अर्. Note संधि between उपसर्ग and धातु is compulsory.

  2. There is also another box under the columns for ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, noting सूत्रम् – एङि पररूपम् (६/१/९४) Sanskrit-explanation of this is अवर्णान्तात् उपसर्गात् एङादौ धातौ परतः पूर्वपरयोः स्थाने पररूपमेकादेशः भवति, संहितायां विषये, meaning if अ-ending उपसर्ग is followed by धातु-s having initial वर्ण ए or ओ, then

    1. such संधि of अ + ए does not become ऐ it becomes ए only, e.g. प्र + एजते (प्र् + {अ + ए} + जते = प्र् + {ए} + जते) = प्रेजते

    2. likewise संधि of अ + ओ does not become औ, it becomes ओ only, e.g. उप + ओषति (उप् + {अ + ओ} + षति = उप् + {ओ} + षति) = उपोषति

    3. The box applies only for columns for ए and ओ, not for all the 4 columns. So, these are very special संधि-s of अ + ए and अ + ओ.

    4. Such संधि-s are also called as पररूपसंधि-s

It is important to bear in mind the rule, telling the instances, when it is compulsory to make a संधि.

संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः |

नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते ||

By पदच्छेद,

  1. संहिता एकपदे नित्या

  2. नित्या धातु-उपसर्गयोः

  3. नित्या समासे

  4. वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षां अपेक्षते

संहिता नित्या = संहिता i.e. संधि (is to be done) नित्या, always = it is compulsory to make a संधि

  1. एकपदे = The resultant word is to be used as one word only, e.g. कश्चित् Actually the word is a संधि of कः + चित्

  2. धातूपसर्गयोः = Between धातु and उपसर्ग, e.g. in अपेक्षते there is उपसर्ग अप and धातु ईक्षते These have to be said only as अपेक्षते as per the गुणसंधि of अ + ई = ए See column for ई in Matrix 2.

  3. समासे = The word धातूपसर्गयोः is a compound word having component words धातु and उपसर्ग. Because it is a compound word, there has to be संधि of उ + उ = ऊ, a सवर्णदीर्घसंधि as per अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः in Matrix 1.

वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षां अपेक्षते = In a sentence it is discretionary. For example, one may say त्वं एव माता or त्वमेव माता.

We shall see Matrix 3 in the next lesson.

शुभं भवतु |


Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 20

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 20

सरलं संस्कृतम् – विंशतितमः पाठः |

It should be appropriate at this point, to appraise of some technical aspects of the process of संधि-s.

  1. संधि is also called as संहिता. Interestingly, in श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम् there is a मन्त्र “संहिता सन्धिः” I am left wondering of the significance of this मन्त्र in श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम्, because, for a student of grammar, these two words of the मन्त्र are just synonyms. But what is the spiritual significance for it to be a मन्त्र in a स्तोत्रम्, an ode to the  deity गणपति / गणेश ?

  2. संधि is a coalescence of two sound-elements,

    1. The sound-element वर्ण at the previous position is called as पूर्ववर्णः

    2. The sound-element वर्ण at the following position is परवर्णः

    3. Coalescence i.e. संधि or संहिता often brings forth a Resultant sound, which is often a change आदेशः

    4. When the resultant sound is only a single sound, it is एकादेशः Most संधि-s result in एकादेश. But there are instances that it would not be so.

    5. The change आदेशः may happen by addition आगम omission लोप or mutation विकार.

  3. Segregating components of a coalesced word is called as पदच्छेद. It is the first step, very much essential, to be able to understand any Sanskrit text. If two elemental sounds would get coalesced in the natural process of pronouncing them, they would get so pronounced very naturally, right ? संधि is a natural process of pronouncing or speaking Sanskrit. Rather, rules of संधि are not really rules, but they are grammatical summary of, what the natural process of coalescence happens during pronunciation.

  4. Since संधि-rules are grammatical summary of, what the natural process of coalescence happens during pronunciation, all the detailing of संधि-rules, becomes a strong evidence to establish that Sanskrit has essentially been a spoken language. This evidence stands to nullify all argument about Sanskrit ever having been a spoken language.

  5. One may ask, “If पदच्छेद is the first step, so very essential, to be able to understand any Sanskrit text, why have I taken it so late in these lessons in “Simple Sanskrit” ? The answer is in the question itself ! Before indulging in पदच्छेद, one needs to know पद-s and how they are formed / obtained. It needed all those 16/17 lessons to discuss that, the पद-s. That discussion is far from complete. But I thought, it is not wiser to postpone discussing संधि-s.

    1. In treatises on grammar, especially in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित discussion on संधि-s starts right from chapter 2.

    2. For my lessons of “Simple Sanskrit”,  I have kept the focus to be simple and step by step. Every step is not necessarily a small step. If one can compose 240 sentences from lesson 1 itself, it is not a small step. But it is not a big step either, because all those sentences are just two-word sentences.  Often enthusiasm of people wanting to learn a new language is high-pitched.

      1. Some want to be able to read and understand such philosophical / spiritual text as गीता,

      2. Some want to start conversing, right from word ‘go’.

        1. It is my firm conviction, that wrong or incorrect Sanskrit is not Sanskrit at all.

        2. I keep listening to conversational Sanskrit, only with a pinch of salt. It becomes uncourteous to correct the person at every error, right ?

        3. But if errors are not corrected, whatever Sanskrit is spoken may sound Sanskrit-like, but it would not be Sanskrit.

        4. I for one would never like to be a party to promoting Sanskrit-like Sanskrit.

  6. To start speaking in a new language, the language should be able to tolerate lot of colloquialism. In fact if the language is tolerant of this, it is quite efficient to learn such language, say, in the market-place or in a family. Essentially there should be an overwhelming environment, maybe 24×7, of that language falling on your ears. That is how child learns its mother-tongue. That is how I had learnt Kannada at the place where I did my schooling. That is also how I dare to speak Gujarati and some little bit of Tamil. But I would not dare do that with Sanskrit. I also learnt somewhat German. But I am at quite some unease in conversing in German. I have studied different languages, you see. So, my opinions are from such self-study, deliberations and experience. Protagonists of “Spoken Sanskrit” seem to be going by the argument about how a child learns its mother-tongue, without any bother about the nuances of grammar. To my mind they miss two points –

    1. The language should be tolerant to lot of colloquialism

    2. There should be an overwhelming environment, maybe 24×7, of that language falling on your ears.

    3. Both these aspects do not apply to Sanskrit.

  7. Language-skills are of three types – speak, read, write. By writing skill, I do not mean just the skill of being able to write the script. Writing skill is the flair to express one’s thoughts powerfully. This, generally, is the sequence, in which we learn our mother-tongue. By the way, I know a boy, Raghu, whose mother-tongue was Tamil. After I had attended a few classes to learn Tamil, I had become acquainted with the Tamil script and wrote a short greetings message. I showed it to Raghu and asked him, “Is it correct ?” He surprised me by his reply, “Uncle, I can’t read Tamil !”

  8. Having had that surprise some 15 years back, it surprises me no more. I realize that my own American grandchildren speak Marathi, quite fluently, I would say. But they are struggling to read and write. That would be so, with many, many, many. many children, who can speak their mother-tongue, but cannot read, much less, write. That has now become a great anxiety weighing heavily on the minds of their parents. But  why should the parents be anxious ? What is wrong with being able to only speak, but not be able to read or write ? To my mind, being able to read what is written in a language, connotes getting acquainted with the culture. Yes, every language connotes a culture. Every language has a rich cultural heritage to be carried forth. That cannot be more true for any other language, other than Sanskrit.

See, what they say at webpage of St. James School, London,


Benefits of Sanskrit

(1) An Education In Beauty – The Sanskrit language is full of beauty: beauty of sound, of structure, of script, of poetry and of prose. Such beauty opens the heart.

(2) A Language Of Impeccable Credentials – Sanskrit is highly respected by the academic community. It often forms a point of interest and admiration when students with Sanskrit qualifications are interviewed for university admission. Sanskrit possesses a remarkably fine grammatical structure giving insights into all language learning;

(3) A New View Of The World – Sanskrit literature expresses a refreshing and expansive view of human nature and its role in creation. In this era of unprecedented change and uncertainty, it can be a valuable tool to assess and look afresh at society.

(4) Sanskrit literature embodies a comprehensive map of the human makeup: spiritual, emotional, mental and physical. It presents a new way of understanding our relationship to the rest of creation and lays out guidelines which, if followed, would lead to a productive and happy life.

(5) A Systematic Grammar – The word ‘Sanskrit’ means ‘perfectly constructed’. Study of its grammar brings order to the mind and clarifies the thinking. Sanskrit has an ordered alphabet and grammar system which makes it easy to learn.

(6) At The Root Of European Languages – Sanskrit stands at the root of many eastern and western languages, including English and most other European languages, classical or modern. Its study illuminates their grammar and etymology. Many English words can be shown to derive from forms still extant in Sanskrit.

(7) A Matchless Literature – Sanskrit has one of the richest and most extensive literature of all languages. It introduces students to vast epics, profound scripture, subtle philosophy, voluminous mythology, exquisite poetry and much else. Sanskrit holds the key to a treasure trove of seminal scriptures, such as the Bhagavad Gita, the depth and quality of which are increasingly being acknowledged around the world. …. “

I came to dwell on all this, as sort of an introduction to the topic of संधि-s and made mention of पदच्छेद. These are important concepts to be able to read and understand Sanskrit.

As an end-note, my recommendation is, “… does not matter, if you are not able to speak Sanskrit and may also not be able to write Sanskrit. But being able to just read Sanskrit and understand it, of course, with whatever effort is required for understanding, becomes such an enriching experience ! ..”

Everything of Sanskrit becomes an enriching experience. Even grammar, especially सूत्राणि in अष्टाध्यायी will astound you by genius of पाणिनि !! When I read and realized, that the verbal root धातु जन् has the sense of passive voice inherent to it, it came to mind, “What a philosophical thought !” Is it not a fact that we do not take birth (active voice), … we are born (passive voice !) If our being born is itself so much of a passive-voice event, how unintelligent it is to have any ego or selfishness or aspirations in any aspect or at any stage of our life !! Isn’t that some grammar and philosophy together ?

In the course of understanding Sanskrit, you can expect to get such revelations ! If such revelations may even differ from conventional interpretations, DO DARE TO DIFFER ! It needs courage to be able to do that. Apart from, rather, more than courage, it needs clarity and correctness in the thought-process. As is said at St. James School’s web-page, you should expect your learning of Sanskrit to get to you that clarity and correctness in the thought-process. Only by such clarity and correctness, you will realize that you will have much better, much more self-satisfying understanding of even scriptures and all that. It is so much more satisfying to read and understand गीता by oneself than by reading commentaries. One should read and study commentaries also. But one must also get understanding by oneself.

That, I think, should be the objective for learning Sanskrit – self-satisfying understanding of Sanskrit texts !

I have been composing my lessons in Simple Sanskrit to serve as a small step towards that.

शुभं भवतु |