Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 19

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 19

सरलं संस्कृतम् – एकोनविंशतितमः पाठः |

As mentioned at the end of previous chapter, we now proceed to discuss study of स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is इ/ई, उ/ऊ, ऋ/ॠ, लृ/ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ. and at and beginning of next component is another vowel, including अ, आ.

As can be appreciated this study should be in two parts –

  1. In the first part, study of स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is इ/ई, उ/ऊ, ऋ/ॠ, लृ/ॡ, and at and beginning of next component is another vowel, including अ, आ.
  2. In the second part, study of स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ. and at and beginning of next component is another vowel, including अ, आ.
  3. The logic of these two parts is that vowels ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ are inherently ‘mixed vowels’, since ए = अ/आ + इ/ई, ऐ = अ/आ + ए/ऐ, ओ = अ/आ + उ/ऊ, or औ = अ/आ + ओ/औ. This has been already so understood from गुण-संधि-s and वृद्धि-संधि-s.

In the first part of the study there will be following patterns.

  1. इ/ई as ending of first component followed by अ, आ, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ at the beginning of second component. for example (1) एक + एकम् = एकैकम्, (2) अद्य + एव = अद्यैव
  2. उ/ऊ as ending of first component followed by अ, आ, इ, ई, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ at the beginning of second component.  अ + ऐ = ऐ for example तव + ऐश्वर्यम् = तवैश्वर्यम्
  3. ऋ/ॠ as ending of first component followed by अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, लृ, ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ at the beginning of second component.  आ + ए = ऐ for example सदा + एव = सदैव
  4. लृ/ॡ as ending of first component followed by अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ at the beginning of second component.आ + ऐ = ऐ for example महा + ऐश्वर्यम् = महैश्वर्यम्
  5. It may be noticed that in each set, among options for vowel at the beginning of second component, respective सवर्ण-s are omitted. Hence each set has 12 options for vowel at the beginning of second component.
  6. That makes 24 examples to be developed and understood for each set, since in every set there are two options for the vowel at the end of first component, e.g. इ and ई, the two options for the first set.
  7. So, totally we should have 96 examples and this section thus would cover 96 out of 196 स्वरसंधि-s !

Interestingly a single सूत्र of पाणिनि covers all these 96 ! The सूत्र is इको यणचि (६-१-७७).

  • इको यणचि = इकः (६-१) यण् (१-१) अचि(७-१)
  • It is interesting to see what the numbers stand for !
    • इकः (६-१) means षष्ठी विभक्तिः (६) एकवचनम् (१) of the प्रत्याहार-‘इक्’
      •  प्रत्याहार is the extraction (extracted) code from शिवसूत्राणि
      • ‘इक्’ – from शिवसूत्राणि 1. अइउण् 2. ऋलृक्, ‘इक्’ connotes the vowels starting from इ and going up to the marker क्. Hence इक् = इ, उ, ऋ, लृ Note, here अ from अइउण् is to be omitted, because प्रत्याहार इक् starts from इ.
    • यण् (१-१) means प्रथमा (१) एकवचनम् (१) of the प्रत्याहार-‘यण्’
      • यण् from शिवसूत्राणि 5. हयवरट् 6. लण् means the consonants startng from य and stopping before ण्. Hence यण् means the consonants य, व, र, ल. Note, here also ह from हयवरट् is omitted, because प्रत्याहार यण् starts from य.
    • अचि(७-१) means सप्तमी (७) एकवचनम् (१) of अच्.
      • प्रत्याहार अच् from शिवसूत्राणि 1. अइउण् 2. ऋलृक् 3. एओङ् 4. ऐऔच् means all vowels starting from अ and going up to the marker च्.
      • Because प्रत्याहार अच् connotes all vowels, grammarians call स्वरसंधि-s also by the name अच्-संधि-s !

On the whole इको यणचि = इकः (६-१) यण् (१-१) अचि (७-१) means –

  • इकः (६-१) = of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, लृ (including their long forms ई, ऊ, ॠ, ॡ)
  • यण् (१-१) = become the consonants य, व, र, ल (respectively). That is
    • of इ, ई, becomes य,
    • of उ, ऊ, becomes व,
    • of ॠ, ऋ, becomes र, and
    • of लृ ॡ becomes ल
  • अचि (७-१) means ‘when followed by (any) vowel (excepting of course सवर्णे-vowels).

As said earlier इको यणचि defines 96 types of स्वरसंधि-s or अच्-संधि-s. Examples will explain. Let us see.

  1. इति + अधिकम् = इत् + ( + अ)धिकम् = इत् + (य् + अ)धिकम् = इत् + य-धिकम् = इत्यधिकम्
    • “इति = this much, अधिकम् = too much”
    • इत्यधिकम् = this much is too much
  2. प्रति + आशा = प्रत् + (इ + आ)शा = प्रत् + (य् + आ)शा = प्रत् + या-शा = प्रत्याशा
    • प्रति = towards/from, आशा = expectation
    • प्रत्याशा = expectation from (somebody)”).
  3. प्रति + उषस् = प्रत् + (इ + उ)षस् = प्रत् + (य् + उ)षस् = प्रत् + यु-षस् = प्रत्युषस्
    • प्रति = every, उषस् = dawn, morning
    • प्रत्युषस् = every dawn, every morning
  4. गति + ऊर्जा = गत् + (इ + ऊ)र्जा = गत् + (य् + ऊ)र्जा = गत् + यू-र्जा = गत्यूर्जा
    • गति = velocity, speed, ऊर्जा = energy
    • गत्यूर्जा = energy of speed, kinetic energy
  5. अगस्ति + ऋषिः = अगस्त् + (इ + ऋ)षिः = अगस्त् + (य् + अर्)षिः = अगस्त् + यर्-षिः = अगस्त्यर्षिः
    1. Note, here इ becomes य् as per इको यणचि. Also ऋ becomes अर् as per आद्गुणः as studied in गुणसन्धि
  6. इति + ॠकारः = इत् + (इ + ॠ)कारः = इत् + (य् + अर्)कारः = इत् + यर्-कारः = इत्यर्कारः
    1. This is an academic example to explain सन्धि of इ + ॠ, whereas there are no words starting from ॠ.
    2. Actually when splitting (doing विच्छेद) इत्यर्कारः can be split in two ways इति + ॠकारः also इति + ऋकारः, both with long ॠ and short ऋ
  7. इति + लृकारः = इत् + (इ + लृ)कारः = इत् + (य् + अल्)कारः = इत् + यल्-कारः = इत्यल्कारः
    1. This also is an academic example to explain सन्धि of इ + लृ, whereas there are no words starting from लृ.
  8. इति + ॡकारः = इत् + (इ + ॡ)कारः = इत् + (य् + अल्)कारः = इत् + यल्-कारः = इत्यल्कारः
    1. Some people contend that there is no vowel as ॡ. If the vowel itself does not exist, this संधि also becomes redundant.
    2. Also this academic example, in the reverse process of संधि-विच्छेद इत्यल्कारः can be split in two ways इति + लृकारः also इति + ॡकारः, both with long लृ and short ॡ.
  9. प्रति + एकम् = प्रत् + (इ + ए)कम् = प्रत् + (य् + ए)कम् = प्रत् + ये-कम् = प्रत्येकम्
  10. इति + ऐच्छत् = इत् + (इ + ऐ)च्छत् = इत् + (य् + ऐ)च्छत् = इत् + यै-च्छत् = इत्यैच्छत्
    • इति = thus ऐच्छत् =wished, इत्यैच्छत् = wished thus
  11. दधि + ओदनम् = दध् + (इ + ओ)दनम् = दध् + (य् + ओ)दनम् = दध् + यो-दनम् = दध्योदनम्
    • दधि = curd ओदनम् = rice, दध्योदनम् = curd-rice
  12. हरि + औदार्यम् = हर् + (इ + औ)दार्यम् = हर् + (य् + औ)दार्यम् = हर् + (यौ)दार्यम् = हर्यौदार्यम्
    1. हर्यौदार्यम् is a compound word, हरि = person named Hari औदार्यम् = philanthropy, large-heartedness. Meaning of हर्यौदार्यम् is philanthropy of Hari. The two parts are connected by the preposition ‘of’
    2. In Sanskrit compound words can be formed just by putting the two words together.
    3. And in the context of संधि, when two words are put together like this, it is compulsory to make their संधि.**
  13. We can have examples of 12 more संधि-s, where ending sound/vowel of first component will be ई. In the process of संधि, just as इ, ई also will be substituted by य्. Just a few examples –
    1. स्त्री + अङ्गम् = स्त्र्यङ्गम् (When joined this becomes a compound word meaning body (or proximity) of a lady)
    2. सुधी + उपास्यः = सुध्युपास्यः (This also becomes a compound word meaning सुधीभिः उपास्यः – सुधीभिः = by those with good mind/intellect उपास्यः = deserving to be approached, adored. Hence सुध्युपास्यः = deserving to be approached (or adored) by wise men.
    3. नदी + ओघः = नद्योघः (This also becomes a compound word meaning ‘the flow of a river’).

We shall continue with examples of संधि-s, where ending sound/vowel of first component will be उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ, rather, examples of only first three उ, ऊ, ऋ, since there are no words ending with ॠ, लृ, ॡ-vowels.

शुभमस्तु

-o-O-o-

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