Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 18

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 18

सरलं संस्कृतम् – अष्टादशः पाठः |

Having discussed in previous chapters स्वर-संधि-s, conforming to अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः and  गुण-संधि-s, we now proceed to discuss वृद्धि-संधि-s. As mentioned in previous chapter, वृद्धि-संधि-s cover अ/आ + (ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ).

The pattern is similar to those of गुण-संधि-s. Hence

  1. अ + ए = ऐ for example (1) एक + एकम् = एकैकम्, (2) अद्य + एव = अद्यैव
  2. अ + ऐ = ऐ for example तव + ऐश्वर्यम् = तवैश्वर्यम्
  3. आ + ए = ऐ for example सदा + एव = सदैव
  4. आ + ऐ = ऐ for example महा + ऐश्वर्यम् = महैश्वर्यम्
  5. अ + ओ = औ for example जल + ओघः = जलौघः
  6. अ + औ = औ (1) मङ्गल + औक्षणम् = मङ्गलौक्षणम् (2) तव + औदार्यम् = तवौदार्यम्
  7. आ + ओ = औ for example गङ्गा + ओघः = गङ्गौघः
  8. आ + औ = औ for example तदा + औषधम् = तदौषधम्

For these संधि-s पाणिनि gives a सूत्र – वृद्धिरेचि (६-१-८८)

  • वृद्धिरेचि = वृद्धिः एचि
  • एचि is seventh case singular सप्तमी एकवचनम् of एच्.
  • As usual एच्, from शिवसूत्र-s – एओङ् and ऐऔच् means the vowels ए, ओ, ऐ and औ.
  • Then एचि means when vowels ए, ओ ऐ or औ will coalesce with अ or आ, (note, “with अ or आ” is to be understood), the resultant sound will be a वृद्धि-vowel.
    • वृद्धि-vowels are summarized in very first सूत्र – वृद्धिरादैच् (= वृद्धिः आत् ऐच्) (१-१-१)
    • आत् means आ only and ऐच् means ऐ and औ.
  • Thus the सूत्र – वृद्धिरेचि covers all the 8 permutations of वृद्धि-संधि-s detailed above.

People all over the world and across all times are wonder-struck by the extreme intelligence of पाणिनि in composing the सूत्र-s.

By these studies of अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः, गुण-संधि-s and वृद्धि-संधि-s, we have studied संधि-s with  अ/आ + (अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ), i.e. basically we have studied those स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is अ or आ. (Under अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः we have studied some more.)

Logical next step becomes to study स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is इ/ई, उ/ऊ, ऋ/ॠ, लृ/ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ. and at and beginning of next component is another vowel, including अ, आ.

We shall proceed with these in the next chapter.




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