Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 17

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 17

सरलं संस्कृतम् – सप्तदशः पाठः |

In the previous chapter we discussed 20 स्वर-संधि-s, conforming to अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः. The next set of स्वरसंधि-s one considers स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is अ or आ and beginning of next component is इ, ई, उ, ऊ, This covers 8 more of the total 196 स्वरसंधि-s. The resultant sounds from these 8 स्वरसंधि-s is ए or ओ.

These are called as गुण स्वर-संधि-s or simply गुण संधि-s. These are better explained with examples in Table 17-1.

Table 17-1
गुण स्वर-संधि-s or गुण-संधि-s
Ending vowel of first component Beginning vowel of second component इ Beginning vowel of second component ई Beginning vowel of second component उ Beginning vowel of second component ऊ

अ + इ = ए
सुर + इन्द्रः = सुरेन्द्रः
अ + ई = ए
गण + ईशः = गणेशः
अ + उ = ओ
सूर्य + उदयः = सूर्योदयः
अ + ऊ = ओ
एक + ऊनः = एकोनः

आ + इ = ए
महा + इन्द्रः = महेन्द्रः
आ + ई = ए
महा + ईशः = महेशः
आ + उ = ओ
महा + उत्सवः = महोत्सवः
आ + ऊ = ओ
गङ्गा + ऊर्मिः = गङ्गोर्मिः
The reason why these are called as गुण स्वर-संधि-s is hidden in first and third of शिवसूत्राणि viz. – (1) अइउण् and (3) एओङ्

In the first सूत्र we have अ, इ and उ. In third सूत्र we have ए and ओ.

Since in शिवसूत्राणि we do not have आ, ई and ऊ explicit, we have to take them as included when we think of the first सूत्र – अइउण्.

पाणिनि gives a सूत्र – अदेङ्गुणः (१-१-२) meaning अत् and एङ् are गुण by nature. Here अत् means अ only and एङ् means ए and ओ. So, vowels अ, ए and ओ are गुण by nature.

Result of अ/आ + इ/ई is गुण i.e. ए. Likewise result of अ/आ +  उ/ऊ is also the other गुण i.e. ओ.

When learning vowels

  • we learn them in the sequence ए, ऐ, ओ, औ.
  • In शिवसूत्राणि, they are
    • ए and ओ together in एओङ् and
    • ऐ and औ together in ऐऔच्.
  • In शिवसूत्राणि, they are arranged by their nature – गुण and वृद्धि. The sequence then matches with the sequence in अइउण्.
    • By the way ऐ and औ are वृद्धि by nature. This is specified by पाणिनि in the very first सूत्र – वृद्धिरादैच् (= वृद्धिः आत् ऐच्)
      • आत् means आ only and ऐच् means ऐ and औ.
      • We shall come to that when discussing वृद्धि-संधि-s.
  • So the सूत्र-s अइउण् and एओङ् together connote the गुण स्वर-संधि-s detailed in Table 15-1.

All these 8 गुण स्वर-संधि-s are summarized by पाणिनि’s सूत्रम्॥ आद्गुणः॥ ६।१।८४.

Important point to be noted is that the resultant sound after mixing of two vowels, as detailed in Table 15-1, is a single sound, which is called as एकादेशः.

In गुण-संधि-s the resultant एकादेश is गुण – ए and ओ. That is why they are called as गुण-संधि-s.

Next let us understand संधि-s of अ/आ with ऋ, ॠ, लृ, or ॡ. These also become another 8 out of 196.

Here also the resultant sound is एकादेशः. This concept of एकादेशः is explained by पाणिनि’s सूत्रम् एकः पूर्वपरयोः॥६।१।८१॥

  1. The एकादेशः for अ/आ + ऋ/ॠ is अर्
  2. The एकादेशः for अ/आ + लृ/ॡ is अल्

Actually in Sanskrit

  • there are few words starting with ऋ e.g.
    • देव + ऋषिः = [देव् + (अ + ऋ) षिः] = देव् + अर्-षिः = देवर्षिः Note (अ + ऋ) = अर्
    • महा + ऋषिः = [मह् + (आ + ऋ) षिः] = मह् + अर्-षिः = महर्षिः Note (आ + ऋ) = अर् not आर्
  • there are no words starting with ॠ, लृ or ॡ. So, occasions for these संधि-s are as good as nil.
    • Text-books of grammar devise some examples just to explain the procedure.

Textbooks on grammar of Sanskrit discuss these संधि-s – अ/आ + ऋ/ॠ, and अ/आ + लृ/ॡ as a part of गुण-संधि-s.

  • The resultant sounds अर् and अल् are not even एकादेश strictly speaking. The resultant sound has a combination of a vowel and a consonant. So it is not just one sound, not really एकः पूर्वपरयोः.
  • However there is some aspect of गुण, since regardless of whether the पूर्व-vowel is अ or आ with  ऋ or ॠ, the result is अर्, where अ is गुण

This is more academic. To learn “Simple Sanskrit”, we need to just understand how गुण-संधि-s happen and how to separate two sounds/words coalesced by गुण-संधि-s.

Of course learning संधि-s always has these two aspects –

  1. How to coalesce i.e. how to combine sounds into a संधि and
  2. How to separate two sounds/words coalesced by संधि. This is known as संधि-विच्छेद.

शुभमस्तु

-o-O-o-

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2 thoughts on “Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 17

  1. dear sir ,
    great.i am a big beneficiary of your lessons.
    i am waiting for your lessons 20 to 30.
    please provide them.
    thanking you.
    krishnamurthi.

  2. The best site for solution of Sanskrit problems. You are solving some of the biggest problems of students who study Sanskrit. This my humble request dear sir/madam please keep this good work going!

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