Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 19

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 19

सरलं संस्कृतम् – एकोनविंशतितमः पाठः |

As mentioned at the end of previous chapter, we now proceed to discuss study of स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is इ/ई, उ/ऊ, ऋ/ॠ, लृ/ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ. and at and beginning of next component is another vowel, including अ, आ.

As can be appreciated this study should be in two parts –

  1. In the first part, study of स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is इ/ई, उ/ऊ, ऋ/ॠ, लृ/ॡ, and at and beginning of next component is another vowel, including अ, आ.
  2. In the second part, study of स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ. and at and beginning of next component is another vowel, including अ, आ.
  3. The logic of these two parts is that vowels ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ are inherently ‘mixed vowels’, since ए = अ/आ + इ/ई, ऐ = अ/आ + ए/ऐ, ओ = अ/आ + उ/ऊ, or औ = अ/आ + ओ/औ. This has been already so understood from गुण-संधि-s and वृद्धि-संधि-s.

In the first part of the study there will be following patterns.

  1. इ/ई as ending of first component followed by अ, आ, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ at the beginning of second component. for example (1) एक + एकम् = एकैकम्, (2) अद्य + एव = अद्यैव
  2. उ/ऊ as ending of first component followed by अ, आ, इ, ई, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ at the beginning of second component.  अ + ऐ = ऐ for example तव + ऐश्वर्यम् = तवैश्वर्यम्
  3. ऋ/ॠ as ending of first component followed by अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, लृ, ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ at the beginning of second component.  आ + ए = ऐ for example सदा + एव = सदैव
  4. लृ/ॡ as ending of first component followed by अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ at the beginning of second component.आ + ऐ = ऐ for example महा + ऐश्वर्यम् = महैश्वर्यम्
  5. It may be noticed that in each set, among options for vowel at the beginning of second component, respective सवर्ण-s are omitted. Hence each set has 12 options for vowel at the beginning of second component.
  6. That makes 24 examples to be developed and understood for each set, since in every set there are two options for the vowel at the end of first component, e.g. इ and ई, the two options for the first set.
  7. So, totally we should have 96 examples and this section thus would cover 96 out of 196 स्वरसंधि-s !

Interestingly a single सूत्र of पाणिनि covers all these 96 ! The सूत्र is इको यणचि (६-१-७७).

  • इको यणचि = इकः (६-१) यण् (१-१) अचि(७-१)
  • It is interesting to see what the numbers stand for !
    • इकः (६-१) means षष्ठी विभक्तिः (६) एकवचनम् (१) of the प्रत्याहार-‘इक्’
      •  प्रत्याहार is the extraction (extracted) code from शिवसूत्राणि
      • ‘इक्’ – from शिवसूत्राणि 1. अइउण् 2. ऋलृक्, ‘इक्’ connotes the vowels starting from इ and going up to the marker क्. Hence इक् = इ, उ, ऋ, लृ Note, here अ from अइउण् is to be omitted, because प्रत्याहार इक् starts from इ.
    • यण् (१-१) means प्रथमा (१) एकवचनम् (१) of the प्रत्याहार-‘यण्’
      • यण् from शिवसूत्राणि 5. हयवरट् 6. लण् means the consonants startng from य and stopping before ण्. Hence यण् means the consonants य, व, र, ल. Note, here also ह from हयवरट् is omitted, because प्रत्याहार यण् starts from य.
    • अचि(७-१) means सप्तमी (७) एकवचनम् (१) of अच्.
      • प्रत्याहार अच् from शिवसूत्राणि 1. अइउण् 2. ऋलृक् 3. एओङ् 4. ऐऔच् means all vowels starting from अ and going up to the marker च्.
      • Because प्रत्याहार अच् connotes all vowels, grammarians call स्वरसंधि-s also by the name अच्-संधि-s !

On the whole इको यणचि = इकः (६-१) यण् (१-१) अचि (७-१) means –

  • इकः (६-१) = of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, लृ (including their long forms ई, ऊ, ॠ, ॡ)
  • यण् (१-१) = become the consonants य, व, र, ल (respectively). That is
    • of इ, ई, becomes य,
    • of उ, ऊ, becomes व,
    • of ॠ, ऋ, becomes र, and
    • of लृ ॡ becomes ल
  • अचि (७-१) means ‘when followed by (any) vowel (excepting of course सवर्णे-vowels).

As said earlier इको यणचि defines 96 types of स्वरसंधि-s or अच्-संधि-s. Examples will explain. Let us see.

  1. इति + अधिकम् = इत् + ( + अ)धिकम् = इत् + (य् + अ)धिकम् = इत् + य-धिकम् = इत्यधिकम्
    • “इति = this much, अधिकम् = too much”
    • इत्यधिकम् = this much is too much
  2. प्रति + आशा = प्रत् + (इ + आ)शा = प्रत् + (य् + आ)शा = प्रत् + या-शा = प्रत्याशा
    • प्रति = towards/from, आशा = expectation
    • प्रत्याशा = expectation from (somebody)”).
  3. प्रति + उषस् = प्रत् + (इ + उ)षस् = प्रत् + (य् + उ)षस् = प्रत् + यु-षस् = प्रत्युषस्
    • प्रति = every, उषस् = dawn, morning
    • प्रत्युषस् = every dawn, every morning
  4. गति + ऊर्जा = गत् + (इ + ऊ)र्जा = गत् + (य् + ऊ)र्जा = गत् + यू-र्जा = गत्यूर्जा
    • गति = velocity, speed, ऊर्जा = energy
    • गत्यूर्जा = energy of speed, kinetic energy
  5. अगस्ति + ऋषिः = अगस्त् + (इ + ऋ)षिः = अगस्त् + (य् + अर्)षिः = अगस्त् + यर्-षिः = अगस्त्यर्षिः
    1. Note, here इ becomes य् as per इको यणचि. Also ऋ becomes अर् as per आद्गुणः as studied in गुणसन्धि
  6. इति + ॠकारः = इत् + (इ + ॠ)कारः = इत् + (य् + अर्)कारः = इत् + यर्-कारः = इत्यर्कारः
    1. This is an academic example to explain सन्धि of इ + ॠ, whereas there are no words starting from ॠ.
    2. Actually when splitting (doing विच्छेद) इत्यर्कारः can be split in two ways इति + ॠकारः also इति + ऋकारः, both with long ॠ and short ऋ
  7. इति + लृकारः = इत् + (इ + लृ)कारः = इत् + (य् + अल्)कारः = इत् + यल्-कारः = इत्यल्कारः
    1. This also is an academic example to explain सन्धि of इ + लृ, whereas there are no words starting from लृ.
  8. इति + ॡकारः = इत् + (इ + ॡ)कारः = इत् + (य् + अल्)कारः = इत् + यल्-कारः = इत्यल्कारः
    1. Some people contend that there is no vowel as ॡ. If the vowel itself does not exist, this संधि also becomes redundant.
    2. Also this academic example, in the reverse process of संधि-विच्छेद इत्यल्कारः can be split in two ways इति + लृकारः also इति + ॡकारः, both with long लृ and short ॡ.
  9. प्रति + एकम् = प्रत् + (इ + ए)कम् = प्रत् + (य् + ए)कम् = प्रत् + ये-कम् = प्रत्येकम्
  10. इति + ऐच्छत् = इत् + (इ + ऐ)च्छत् = इत् + (य् + ऐ)च्छत् = इत् + यै-च्छत् = इत्यैच्छत्
    • इति = thus ऐच्छत् =wished, इत्यैच्छत् = wished thus
  11. दधि + ओदनम् = दध् + (इ + ओ)दनम् = दध् + (य् + ओ)दनम् = दध् + यो-दनम् = दध्योदनम्
    • दधि = curd ओदनम् = rice, दध्योदनम् = curd-rice
  12. हरि + औदार्यम् = हर् + (इ + औ)दार्यम् = हर् + (य् + औ)दार्यम् = हर् + (यौ)दार्यम् = हर्यौदार्यम्
    1. हर्यौदार्यम् is a compound word, हरि = person named Hari औदार्यम् = philanthropy, large-heartedness. Meaning of हर्यौदार्यम् is philanthropy of Hari. The two parts are connected by the preposition ‘of’
    2. In Sanskrit compound words can be formed just by putting the two words together.
    3. And in the context of संधि, when two words are put together like this, it is compulsory to make their संधि.**
  13. We can have examples of 12 more संधि-s, where ending sound/vowel of first component will be ई. In the process of संधि, just as इ, ई also will be substituted by य्. Just a few examples –
    1. स्त्री + अङ्गम् = स्त्र्यङ्गम् (When joined this becomes a compound word meaning body (or proximity) of a lady)
    2. सुधी + उपास्यः = सुध्युपास्यः (This also becomes a compound word meaning सुधीभिः उपास्यः – सुधीभिः = by those with good mind/intellect उपास्यः = deserving to be approached, adored. Hence सुध्युपास्यः = deserving to be approached (or adored) by wise men.
    3. नदी + ओघः = नद्योघः (This also becomes a compound word meaning ‘the flow of a river’).

We shall continue with examples of संधि-s, where ending sound/vowel of first component will be उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ, rather, examples of only first three उ, ऊ, ऋ, since there are no words ending with ॠ, लृ, ॡ-vowels.

शुभमस्तु

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Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 18

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 18

सरलं संस्कृतम् – अष्टादशः पाठः |

Having discussed in previous chapters स्वर-संधि-s, conforming to अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः and  गुण-संधि-s, we now proceed to discuss वृद्धि-संधि-s. As mentioned in previous chapter, वृद्धि-संधि-s cover अ/आ + (ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ).

The pattern is similar to those of गुण-संधि-s. Hence

  1. अ + ए = ऐ for example (1) एक + एकम् = एकैकम्, (2) अद्य + एव = अद्यैव
  2. अ + ऐ = ऐ for example तव + ऐश्वर्यम् = तवैश्वर्यम्
  3. आ + ए = ऐ for example सदा + एव = सदैव
  4. आ + ऐ = ऐ for example महा + ऐश्वर्यम् = महैश्वर्यम्
  5. अ + ओ = औ for example जल + ओघः = जलौघः
  6. अ + औ = औ (1) मङ्गल + औक्षणम् = मङ्गलौक्षणम् (2) तव + औदार्यम् = तवौदार्यम्
  7. आ + ओ = औ for example गङ्गा + ओघः = गङ्गौघः
  8. आ + औ = औ for example तदा + औषधम् = तदौषधम्

For these संधि-s पाणिनि gives a सूत्र – वृद्धिरेचि (६-१-८८)

  • वृद्धिरेचि = वृद्धिः एचि
  • एचि is seventh case singular सप्तमी एकवचनम् of एच्.
  • As usual एच्, from शिवसूत्र-s – एओङ् and ऐऔच् means the vowels ए, ओ, ऐ and औ.
  • Then एचि means when vowels ए, ओ ऐ or औ will coalesce with अ or आ, (note, “with अ or आ” is to be understood), the resultant sound will be a वृद्धि-vowel.
    • वृद्धि-vowels are summarized in very first सूत्र – वृद्धिरादैच् (= वृद्धिः आत् ऐच्) (१-१-१)
    • आत् means आ only and ऐच् means ऐ and औ.
  • Thus the सूत्र – वृद्धिरेचि covers all the 8 permutations of वृद्धि-संधि-s detailed above.

People all over the world and across all times are wonder-struck by the extreme intelligence of पाणिनि in composing the सूत्र-s.

By these studies of अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः, गुण-संधि-s and वृद्धि-संधि-s, we have studied संधि-s with  अ/आ + (अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ), i.e. basically we have studied those स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is अ or आ. (Under अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः we have studied some more.)

Logical next step becomes to study स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is इ/ई, उ/ऊ, ऋ/ॠ, लृ/ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, or औ. and at and beginning of next component is another vowel, including अ, आ.

We shall proceed with these in the next chapter.

शुभमस्तु

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Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 17

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 17

सरलं संस्कृतम् – सप्तदशः पाठः |

In the previous chapter we discussed 20 स्वर-संधि-s, conforming to अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः. The next set of स्वरसंधि-s one considers स्वरसंधि-s, where ending of first component is अ or आ and beginning of next component is इ, ई, उ, ऊ, This covers 8 more of the total 196 स्वरसंधि-s. The resultant sounds from these 8 स्वरसंधि-s is ए or ओ.

These are called as गुण स्वर-संधि-s or simply गुण संधि-s. These are better explained with examples in Table 17-1.

Table 17-1
गुण स्वर-संधि-s or गुण-संधि-s
Ending vowel of first component Beginning vowel of second component इ Beginning vowel of second component ई Beginning vowel of second component उ Beginning vowel of second component ऊ

अ + इ = ए
सुर + इन्द्रः = सुरेन्द्रः
अ + ई = ए
गण + ईशः = गणेशः
अ + उ = ओ
सूर्य + उदयः = सूर्योदयः
अ + ऊ = ओ
एक + ऊनः = एकोनः

आ + इ = ए
महा + इन्द्रः = महेन्द्रः
आ + ई = ए
महा + ईशः = महेशः
आ + उ = ओ
महा + उत्सवः = महोत्सवः
आ + ऊ = ओ
गङ्गा + ऊर्मिः = गङ्गोर्मिः
The reason why these are called as गुण स्वर-संधि-s is hidden in first and third of शिवसूत्राणि viz. – (1) अइउण् and (3) एओङ्

In the first सूत्र we have अ, इ and उ. In third सूत्र we have ए and ओ.

Since in शिवसूत्राणि we do not have आ, ई and ऊ explicit, we have to take them as included when we think of the first सूत्र – अइउण्.

पाणिनि gives a सूत्र – अदेङ्गुणः (१-१-२) meaning अत् and एङ् are गुण by nature. Here अत् means अ only and एङ् means ए and ओ. So, vowels अ, ए and ओ are गुण by nature.

Result of अ/आ + इ/ई is गुण i.e. ए. Likewise result of अ/आ +  उ/ऊ is also the other गुण i.e. ओ.

When learning vowels

  • we learn them in the sequence ए, ऐ, ओ, औ.
  • In शिवसूत्राणि, they are
    • ए and ओ together in एओङ् and
    • ऐ and औ together in ऐऔच्.
  • In शिवसूत्राणि, they are arranged by their nature – गुण and वृद्धि. The sequence then matches with the sequence in अइउण्.
    • By the way ऐ and औ are वृद्धि by nature. This is specified by पाणिनि in the very first सूत्र – वृद्धिरादैच् (= वृद्धिः आत् ऐच्)
      • आत् means आ only and ऐच् means ऐ and औ.
      • We shall come to that when discussing वृद्धि-संधि-s.
  • So the सूत्र-s अइउण् and एओङ् together connote the गुण स्वर-संधि-s detailed in Table 15-1.

All these 8 गुण स्वर-संधि-s are summarized by पाणिनि’s सूत्रम्॥ आद्गुणः॥ ६।१।८४.

Important point to be noted is that the resultant sound after mixing of two vowels, as detailed in Table 15-1, is a single sound, which is called as एकादेशः.

In गुण-संधि-s the resultant एकादेश is गुण – ए and ओ. That is why they are called as गुण-संधि-s.

Next let us understand संधि-s of अ/आ with ऋ, ॠ, लृ, or ॡ. These also become another 8 out of 196.

Here also the resultant sound is एकादेशः. This concept of एकादेशः is explained by पाणिनि’s सूत्रम् एकः पूर्वपरयोः॥६।१।८१॥

  1. The एकादेशः for अ/आ + ऋ/ॠ is अर्
  2. The एकादेशः for अ/आ + लृ/ॡ is अल्

Actually in Sanskrit

  • there are few words starting with ऋ e.g.
    • देव + ऋषिः = [देव् + (अ + ऋ) षिः] = देव् + अर्-षिः = देवर्षिः Note (अ + ऋ) = अर्
    • महा + ऋषिः = [मह् + (आ + ऋ) षिः] = मह् + अर्-षिः = महर्षिः Note (आ + ऋ) = अर् not आर्
  • there are no words starting with ॠ, लृ or ॡ. So, occasions for these संधि-s are as good as nil.
    • Text-books of grammar devise some examples just to explain the procedure.

Textbooks on grammar of Sanskrit discuss these संधि-s – अ/आ + ऋ/ॠ, and अ/आ + लृ/ॡ as a part of गुण-संधि-s.

  • The resultant sounds अर् and अल् are not even एकादेश strictly speaking. The resultant sound has a combination of a vowel and a consonant. So it is not just one sound, not really एकः पूर्वपरयोः.
  • However there is some aspect of गुण, since regardless of whether the पूर्व-vowel is अ or आ with  ऋ or ॠ, the result is अर्, where अ is गुण

This is more academic. To learn “Simple Sanskrit”, we need to just understand how गुण-संधि-s happen and how to separate two sounds/words coalesced by गुण-संधि-s.

Of course learning संधि-s always has these two aspects –

  1. How to coalesce i.e. how to combine sounds into a संधि and
  2. How to separate two sounds/words coalesced by संधि. This is known as संधि-विच्छेद.

शुभमस्तु

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Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 16

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 16

सरलं संस्कृतम् – षोडशः पाठः |

In the previous chapter there was an introduction to the topic of संधि-s, also called as संहिता. We shall proceed with स्वरसंधि-s coalescence of vowels. Basically संधि is resultant sound, as happens naturally. When two vowels come in succession, there would be a natural ‘resultant’ sound. For example, मूल + आधार = मूलाधार Here, ending sound of the first word मूल is अ and beginning of second word is आ. So there is a natural ‘resultant’ sound of mixing of two vowels अ + आ = आ.

As such there are 14 vowels. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. There will be 196 ways of these 14 vowels mixing in each other.

By the way, it may be noted that the vowels आ, ई, ऊ, ॠ, and ॡ are not enlisted in शिवसूत्राणि also known as प्रत्याहारसूत्राणि. Let me quote them again for ease of reference.
शिवसूत्राणि or माहेश्वरसूत्राणि
1. अइउण् 2. ऋलृक् 3. एओङ् 4. ऐऔच् 5. हयवरट् 6. लण् 7. ञमङ्णनम् 8. झभञ्
9. घढधष् 10. जबगडदश् 11. खफछठथचटतव् 12. कपय् 13. शषसर् 14. हल्

The vowels आ, ई, ऊ, ॠ, and ॡ are, by one way of thinking, elongated pronunciations दीर्घ उच्चार-s of the short vowels अ, इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ. The short vowels are covered in  the first 3 of  शिवसूत्राणि and by the प्रत्याहार ‘अक्’.

पाणिनि mentions three levels of pronunciation of the vowels – ह्रस्व, दीर्घ and  प्लुत, primarily denoting the time taken in pronunciation. Unit of time of pronunciation is called as मात्रा. So time for ह्रस्व-उच्चार is one मात्रा, that for दीर्घ-उच्चार is two मात्रा-s and time for  प्लुत-उच्चार is three मात्रा-s. Of these, the ह्रस्व and दीर्घ उच्चार-s are relevant for the topic of संधि-s.

अ + आ = आ is one of four permutations of mixing of vowels. The four permutations of mixing of अ and आ are – अ + अ, अ + आ, आ + अ, and आ + आ.

As can be appreciated the vowels अ and आ make one category of vowels. Similarly, other categories are

  • Category 2 – इ and ई
  • Category 3 – उ and ऊ
  • Category 4 – ऋ and ॠ
  • Category 5 – लृ and ॡ.

पाणिनि calls vowels belonging to one and the same category as being सवर्ण स्वर-s. Resultant sound of mixing of vowels of one and the same category will be the elongated sound दीर्घ उच्चार. This is summarized by पाणिनि in one सूत्रम् the aphorism अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

This aphorism thus becomes the rule for as many as 20 of the 196 permutations of स्वर-संधि-s. This pattern is also known as सवर्ण-दीर्घ-संधि. It is natural and logical, right ? It would be further better if we can compile examples of all these 20 permutations. These are detailed in Tables 1 to 5 below.

Table 16-1

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Resultant sound आ for the combinations अ + अ or अ + आ or आ + अ or आ + आ

अ + अ = आ

अ + आ = आ

आ + अ = आ

आ + आ = आ

कृष्ण + अर्जुन = कृष्णार्जुन

देव + आलय = देवालय

पूजा + अर्चन = पूजार्चन

विद्या + आलय = विद्यालय

Table 16-2

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

Resultant sound ई for the combinations इ + इ or इ + ई or ई + इ or ई + ई

इ + इ = ई

इ + ई = ई

ई + इ = ई

ई + ई = ई

पति + इच्छा = पतीच्छा

कवि + ईश्वर = कवीश्वर

देवी + इच्छा = देवीच्छा

लक्ष्मी + ईश्वर = लक्ष्मीश्वर

Table 16-3

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

Resultant sound ऊ for the combinations उ + उ or उ + ऊ or ऊ + उ or ऊ + ऊ

उ + उ = ऊ

उ + ऊ = ऊ

ऊ + उ = ऊ

ऊ + ऊ = ऊ

सु + उक्त = सूक्त

भानु + ऊर्जा = भानूर्जा

चमू + उन्नति = चमून्नति

चमू + ऊर्ध्व = चमूर्ध्व

Table 16-4

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

Resultant sound ऋ-दीर्घ for the combinations ऋ + ऋ or ऋ + ऋ-दीर्घ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ-दीर्घ

ऋ + ऋ = ऋ-दीर्घ

पितृ + ऋण = पितॄण and मातृ + ऋण = मातॄण

ऋ + ऋ-दीर्घ = ऋ-दीर्घ

ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ = ऋ-दीर्घ

ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ-दीर्घ = ऋ-दीर्घ

There are hardly any examples of this type. But thanks to Dr. Sampadanand Mishra of Aravindashram Puduchchery for suggesting examples पितृ + ऋण = पितॄण and मातृ + ऋण = मातॄण

Table 16-5

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

Resultant sound लृ-दीर्घ for the combinations लृ + लृ or लृ + लृ-दीर्घ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ

लृ + लृ = -दीर्घ

लृ + लृ-दीर्घ = -दीर्घ

लृ + लृ-दीर्घ + = लृ-दीर्घ

लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ = लृ-दीर्घ

There are hardly any examples of this type also.
All these संधि-s qualifying अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः also qualify conformance to एकः पूर्व-परयोः (पाणिनि-सूत्र 6-1-84) because there is one एकः resultant sound, in place of the two original sounds at पूर्व and पर positions i.e. at the end of first पूर्व component and at the beginning of second पर component.This rule अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः was also discussed at http://grammarofsanskrit.wordpress.com/2012/04/22/study-of-%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8B-%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A3%E0%A5%87-%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%98%E0%A4%83/. There were many comments on that post. Here the rule is discussed as a lesson under “Simple Sanskrit”. So, one need not get overawed by the discussions there.This rule अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः covers 20 out of 196 possible combinations of स्वर-संधि-s, just a little more than 10% of स्वर-संधि-s. Maybe, we shall have to have 10 chapters to cover all the 196 स्वर-संधि-s. No problem, because we are studying “Simple Sanskrit” we shall proceed at an easy pace, not worrying about the number of chapters, it may take.

शुभमस्तु

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