Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 8

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 8

सरलं संस्कृतम् – अष्टमः पाठः|

Having discussed numerals extensively in the previous Lesson No. 7, some discussion about interrogatives with numerals is yet left out.

“How much ?” and “How many ?” are the common interrogatives that yield numerical answers. Sanskrit interrogative is कति.

  • When we go to a shop, we would ask,
    • “How much does this thing cost ?” कति मूल्यं अस्य ? (** Note – As detailed below, कति is always plural. Hence using it with मूल्यं, which is singular, becomes wrong. Thanks to Mr. Dhananjay Nanivadekar for pointing this error. The question can rather be कियद् मूल्यम् अस्य ? or किम् मूल्यम् अस्य ?)
    • The shopkeeper may say “Ten Rupees” दश रूप्यकाणि.
  • Since coinage-systems will be different at different places, we will have to adapt in Sanskrit-speaking same names, as they prevail. These are proper nouns. Proper Nouns are never to be translated.
  • The other day I could not go to a meeting. But was curious to know how many people turned out.
    • I asked my friend, “How many people were there ? कति जनाः आसन् ? Note, आसन् is भूतकाल प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन inflection of verb अस् (= to be) Hence आसन् = were. We shall discuss past tense separately in another chapter.
    • Surprisingly, he told, “Only two of us, Mr. Ramesh and Myself” केवलं आवां द्वौ रमेशवर्यः अहं च |
    • Some people think it good to do inflections of proper-nouns also. In रामायणम् महाभारतम् भागवतम् there are inflections of large number of proper nouns. But proper nouns in many countries around the world may not be easy to make their inflections. Mr. John may rather be called as जॉन्-वर्यः It would sound odd to say जॉन:, right ? Actually जॉन् is a consonant-ending word. So जॉन: would not be grammatically correct. That becomes the problem to do inflections of proper nouns.
      • In fact Hindi-speaking people who also follow Devanagari script for Hindi may write and pronounce the name as जोन्
      • In Marathi writing, which also uses Devanagari script, writing the pronunciation as जॉन् with a crescent above जा is accepted almost as a norm.
      • Likewise “Ann” may be called एन्-महोदया ऐन्-महोदया.

Anyway, these are digressions from the main subject of “Numbers”.

By the way, the interrogative कति is by convention “always plural”. And it has identical inflections for all genders. Its inflections in different cases are – कति (प्रथमा), कति (द्वितीया), कतिभिः (तृतीया), कतिभ्यः (चतुर्थी), कतिभ्यः (पञ्चमी), कतीनाम् (षष्ठी), कतिषु (सप्तमी).

Answers of questions asked using कति could be vague or uncertain. In Lesson 5 towards its end, there was the mention of the suffix चित् and its usage with all inflections of the pronoun किम्. The suffix चित् can as well be used with all inflections of कति to obtain a meaning “some” or “few”. For example –

  • The proposal was accepted by some people = प्रस्तावः (proposal) कतिभिश्चित् (by some or few) जनैः (people) स्वीकृतः (was accepted).
  • “It is useful for some” = कतिभ्यश्चित् उपयोगि इदम् Note –
    • कतिभ्यश्चित् (= कतीभ्यः+चित् = for some)
    • उपयोगि (useful)
    • इदम् (= this)
  • This phrase कतिभ्यश्चित् उपयोगि इदम् could as well be a question, “Is it useful for (at least) a few ?” Right at the beginning of Lesson 3, there was introduction to making interrogatives from simple sentences by using pronoun किम्. However, since  some interrogative sense is implicit in कति,  a question can be formed even without using any other obvious or clear interrogative.
    • कतिभ्यश्चित् उपयोगि इदम् is a good example of this. Just a change in intonation would make it affirmative or interrogative.

In Apte’s dictionary many more interesting details about कति are given.

  • Meaning 1 of कति – ‘How many’
  • Meaning 2 of कति – ‘some’
  • When followed by चित् चन अपि the pronoun कति loses its interrogative force and becomes indefinite in sense, meaning ‘some’, ‘several’, ‘a few’
    • This detail in Apte’s dictionary puts in doubt usage of कति in the interrogative, as shown above in the phrase कतिभ्यश्चित् उपयोगि इदम् as a question, “Is it useful for (at least) a few ?” Sanskrit-experts may please comment.
  • In the dictionary, some more words derived from कति are detailed separately.
  • कतिकृत्वस् or कतिकृत्व: an indeclinable अव्यय meaning ‘how many times’
    • Here I would like to thankfully acknowledge an important comment posted by Dr. H. N. Bhat. To ensure that the comment may not be missed out, I am editing this Lesson 8 itself.
    • The point is that कृत्वस् or कृत्व: is a suffix which makes an adverb from a numeral nominal. कति is a numeral nominal, similar to other numeral nominals such as एक द्वि त्रि चतुर् सहस्र
    • A good example of derivation of an indeclinable अव्यय by affixing a suffix कृत्वस् or कृत्व: to a numeral nominal is in नमो नमस्तेऽस्तु सहस्रकृत्वः पुनश्च भूयोऽपि नमो नमस्ते (गीता, ११-३९)
    • Meaning of नमो नमस्तेऽस्तु सहस्रकृत्वः पुनश्च भूयोऽपि नमो नमस्ते (गीता, ११-३९) is “May my obeisances be a thousand times, again and again
    • Note पुनश्च means ‘again’ भूयोऽपि also means ‘again’. Arjuna is so overwhelmed that he wants to pay obeisances be a thousand times and again and again !
  • कतिधा an indeclinable अव्यय meaning ‘how often’, ‘in how many places or parts’
    • A good example of this is possibly the quotation विष्णुः त्रेधा निदधे पदम् (= ViShNu put his foot at three places). This quotation can prompt a question विष्णुः कतिधा निदधे पदम् ? (= At how many places did ViShNu put his foot ?)
      • This quotation विष्णुः त्रेधा निदधे पदम् has the context of वामनावतार when Lord विष्णु asks of दैत्य-king बलि land enough for just four steps. Although विष्णु appears as वामन, as a small boy, in three steps विष्णु pervades all three worlds – the heaven, the earth and also the netherworld. True to his offer of land of four steps, बलि kneels before विष्णु for विष्णु to put the fourth step on his own head.
  • कतिपय an adjective विशेषणम्, hence would have inflections in all three genders, all seven cases and in all three numbers. कतिपय means ‘some, ‘several’, ‘a certain number of’ (Here ‘a certain’ has indefinite sense)
    • Comes to mind an example from बाण-भट्ट’s  कादंबरी where, वैशंपायन is narrating of early days of his second birth as a parrot with human tongue. He says – एवं च अवहितचेतसा हारीतेन संवर्ध्यमानः कतिपयैः एव दिवसैः संजातपक्षः अभवम्  Here एवं च (= Thus) being lovingly tended by हारीत (the son of Rishi Jaabaala) अवहितचेतसा हारीतेन संवर्ध्यमानः, in a few कतिपयैः days दिवसैः I had wings grown on me संजातपक्षः अभवम्.
    • Note, कतिपयैः as adjective of दिवसैः has identical (masculine) gender, (third) case and (plural) number.
  • कतिविध, an adjective, विशेषणम् hence declinable in all three genders, all seven cases and in all three numbers. Its meaning ‘of how many kinds’. For example, कतिविधानि भूतानि Living beings are of how many kinds ? – द्विपदा: (= bipeds) चतुष्पदा: (= quadrupeds) खगाः (= birds) मत्स्याः (= aquatic) सर्पाः (= reptiles) जन्तवः (= insects and microbes)
    • Here also I would like to thankfully acknowledge an important comment posted by Dr. H. N. Bhat. To ensure that the comment may not be missed out, I am editing this Lesson 8 itself here also.
    • The point is that विध is a suffix, which makes an adjecttive from a numeral nominal. कति is a numeral nominal, similar to other numeral nominals such as एक द्वि त्रि चतुर् सहस्र
    • So adjectives derived from एक द्वि त्रि चतुर् सहस्र by affixing the suffix विध are एकविध द्विविध त्रिविध चतुर्विध सहस्रविध also कतिविध.
    • A few examples of these in different genders and numbers will be –
      • Volunteers have a common uniform स्वयंसेवकानां एकविधः गणवेशः
        • स्वयंसेवकानां = of volunteers
        • एकविधः = of one type, common, identical
        • गणवेशः = uniform
      • A mind dwelling on this or that is not good for decision-making द्विविधस्य मनसः न निर्णयः
        • द्विविधस्य = of two types (of thoughts)
        • मनसः = of mind
        • न निर्णयः = no decision
        • द्विविधस्य मनसः न निर्णयः = no decision (happens) of mind of two types of thoughts
      • Of people who become my devotees, there are four types, i.e. Four types of people become my devotees चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनोऽर्जुन (गीता, ७-१६). Note चतुर्विधा is actually चतुर्विधाः
  • कतिशस् or कतिशः an indeclinable अव्यय, meaning ‘how many at a time’ Say, for example, “In how many pieces did the wood-cutter break the log ?” दारुकर्मिणा दारुः कतिशः विभक्तः ?
    • दारुकर्मिणा = by the wood-worker (i.e. wood-cutter)
    • दारुः = log
    • कतिशः = in how many pieces
    • विभक्तः = was cut

As mentioned above from Apte’s dictionary, कति may be followed by another suffix चन. There it was also mentioned, “… When followed by चित् चन अपि the pronoun कति loses its interrogative force and becomes indefinite in sense, meaning ‘some’, ‘several’, ‘a few’…” By that कतिचन would mean ‘few’, ‘some’. For example, नेतुः स्वागताय कार्यकर्तारः कतिचन मालाः अर्पयन्ति meaning नेतुः (= of the leader) स्वागताय (= for welcome) कार्यकर्तारः (= workers) कतिचन (a few) मालाः (= garlands) अर्पयन्ति (= offer) i.e. Workers offer a few garlands for welcome of the leader.

By the way, it is to be noted that चित्, चन and अपि can as well be affixed to interrogative adverbs such as कदा कुत्र कथम्. With these suffixes the adverbs also will lose their interrogative force. They may get some negative shade of meaning !

In fact some people contend that चन has the derivation च + न = and not. By that token use of चन lends some different shade of meaning than use of चित्. Use of अपि also has an effect similar to that of चन. For example –
Is it possible any time ? कदाचन शक्यं इदम् ?
May be possible शक्यं कदाचित्

  • It may be noted that here कदाचित् has the meaning of ‘may be’ and not just as ‘some time’

Never possible न कदापि शक्यम्

  • Here suffix अपि makes the negative न so much more forceful !

Instead of the question कदाचन शक्यं इदम् ? one could as well say कदाचित् शक्यं इदम् ? or कदापि शक्यं इदम् ? But conventionally the force becomes different.

  • कदाचन शक्यं इदम् ? = Is it any time possible ? Here the questioner could just be inquisitive.
  • कदाचित् शक्यं इदम् ? = Is there a possibility that this would be possible ? Here the questioner implies some positive possibility.
  • कदापि शक्यं इदम् ? = Is it ever possible ? The questioner is almost implying that it is never possible.

The difference in force in use of चित्, चन and अपि is substantially conventional.

Just see how the interrogative कदाचन can also become affirmative कदाचन or negative कदाचन —
कदाचन शक्यं इदम् ? = Is it any time possible ?
कदाचन तु शक्यं | किं न ? = Some time or other possible, why not ? or
कदाचन न शक्यम् = Not possible any time, i.e. never possible.

Here is another example of कदापि.

Two and two will be four always. Never otherwise. द्व्यधिके द्वे चत्वारि सर्वदा | न अन्यथा कदापि |

  • द्व्यधिके द्वे = two added to two Note, द्व्यधिके is द्वि + अधिके
  • चत्वारि सर्वदा = four always
  • न अन्यथा कदापि = not otherwise ever.

Note in द्व्यधिके द्वे चत्वारि they are all in neuter gender, again by convention. When speaking of numbers as numbers they will be by neuter gender.

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 7

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 7

सरलं संस्कृतम् – सप्तमः  पाठः |

In Lesson 6, we studied vowel-ending words up to इ-कारान्त along with the numerals द्वि त्रि. It would become mundane to keep on detailing declensions of other vowel-ending words and also consonant-ending words. Those could possibly be added later on in annexes.

Having detailed in the previous lesson, the declensions of the numerals एक द्वि त्रि and having noted towards the closing, “There is much more to learn about numbers. That merits a separate chapter.” it should be appropriate to discuss “numbers” संख्या: right away.

We use numbers in different ways. For counting we use cardinal numbers. They are adjectival and have gender, case and number, corresponding to the person or thing being counted. That is why we had in the previous lesson, declensions of एक द्वि त्रि in all three genders and in all cases. It should be appropriate to note declensions of चतुर् (= four) right away.

Table 7-1

Declensions of pronoun-adjective चतुर् (= four)

विभक्तिः ↓    वचनम् → पुंल्लिङ्ग- बहुवचनम् नपुंसकलिङ्ग- बहुवचनम् स्त्रीलिङग- बहुवचनम्

प्रथमा

चत्वारः

चत्वारि

चतस्रः

द्वितीया

चतुरः

चत्वारि

चतस्रः

तृतीया

चतुर्भिः

चतुर्भिः

चतसृभिः

चतुर्थी

चतुर्भ्यः

चतुर्भ्यः

चतसृभ्यः

पञ्चमी

चतुर्भ्यः

चतुर्भ्यः

चतसृभ्यः

षष्ठी

चतुर्णाम्

चतुर्णाम्

चतसृणाम्

सप्तमी

चतुर्षु

चतुर्षु

चतसृषु

It would be noted that

  • declensions are in plural
  • declensions in masculine and neuter genders are same in third case onwards.

For numbers from पञ्च (= five) right up to शत (= hundred), declensions are common in all three genders.

We also need numbers for telling the rank or serial order. Such numbers are called the Ordinals . In Table 7-2 are listed प्रातिपदिक-s both cardinal and ordinal for numbers from 1 to 20.

Table 7-2

cardinal and ordinal प्रातिपदिक-s for numbers from 1 to 20

Number

संख्यावाचक-विशेषणम्

Ordinal

क्रमवाचक-विशेषणम्

स्त्रीलिङ्गि क्रमवाचक-विशेषणम् e.g. for विभक्ति or तिथि

Group of

समेत्य

1

१ एक

First

प्रथम

प्रथमा

2

२ द्वि

Second

द्वितीय

द्वितीया

Pair or couplet

द्वयम् द्वयी

3

३ त्रि

Third

तृतीय

तृतीया

triplet, trio

त्रयम् त्रयी

4

४ चतुर्

Fourth

चतुर्थ

चतुर्थी

quartet

5

५ पञ्च

Fifth

पञ्चम

पञ्चमी

quintet

पञ्चकम्

6

६ षट्

Sixth

षष्ठ

षष्ठी

sextet

7

७ सप्त

Seventh

सप्तम

सप्तमी

heptad

सप्तकम्

8

८ अष्ट

Eighth

अष्टम

अष्टमी

octet, octave

अष्टकम्

9

९ नव

Ninth

नवम

नवमी

10

१० दश

Tenth

दशम

दशमी

decade

दशकम्

11

११ एकादश

Eleventh

एकादश

एकादशी

12

१२ द्वादश

Twelfth

द्वादश

द्वादशी

dozen

13

१३ त्रयोदश

Thirteenth

त्रयोदश

त्रयोदशी

14

१४ चतुर्दश

Fourteenth

चतुर्दश

चतुर्दशी

15

१५ पञ्चदश

Fifteenth

पञ्चदश

पञ्चदशी,  पौर्णिमा-तिथि: अमावस्या-तिथि:

(तिथीनां) पक्षः

16

१६ षोडश

Sixteenth

षोडश

षोडशी

17

१७ सप्तदश

Seventeenth

सप्तदश

सप्तदशी

18

१८ अष्टादश

Eighteenth

अष्टादश

अष्टादशी

19

१९ नवदश एकोनविंशति एकान्नविंशति ऊनविंशति

Nineteenth

नवदश एकोनविंशतितम

नवदशी  एकोनविंशतितमा

20

२० विंशति

Twentieth

विंश, विंशतितम

विंशी, विंशतितमा

score

विंशति

Further multiples of ten are ३० त्रिंशत् ४० चत्वारिंशत् ५० पञ्चाशत् ६० षष्टि ७० सप्तति ८० अशीति ९० नवति १०० शत
For cardinal numbers every set of ten has the number of unit’s place first followed by the multiple of ten, e.g.
२१ एकविंशति २२ द्वाविंशति २३ त्रयोविंशति २४ चतुर्विंशति २५ पञ्चविंशति
२६ षड्-विंशति २७ सप्तविंशति २८ अष्टाविंशति २९ नवविंशति ३० त्रिंशत्

३१ एकत्रिंशत् ३२ द्वात्रिंशत् ३३ त्रयस्त्रिंशत् ३४ चतुस्त्रिंशत् ३५ पञ्चत्रिंशत्
३६ षट्-त्रिंशत् ३७ सप्तत्रिंशत् ३८ अष्टात्रिंशत् ३९ नवत्रिंशत्  ४० चत्वारिंशत्

४१ एकचत्वारिंशत् ४२ द्वाचत्वारिंशत् द्विचत्वारिंशत् ४३ त्रयश्चत्वारिंशत् त्रिचत्वारिंशत् ४४ चतुश्चत्वारिंशत्
४५ पञ्चचत्वारिंशत् ४६ षट्-चत्वारिंशत् ४७ सप्तचत्वारिंशत् ४८ अष्टचत्वारिंशत् ४९ नवचत्वारिंशत् ५० पञ्चाशत्

५१ एकपञ्चाशत् ५२ द्विपञ्चाशत् ५३ त्रिपञ्चाशत्  ५४ चतुःपञ्चाशत् ५५ पञ्च-पञ्चाशत्
५६ षट्-पञ्चाशत् ५७ सप्तपञ्चाशत् ५८ अष्ट-पञ्चाशत् ५९ नव-पञ्चाशत् ६० षष्टिः

६१ एकषष्टिः ६२ द्वाषष्टिः द्विषष्टिः ६३ त्रयः-षष्टिः त्रिषष्टिः ६४ चतुः-षष्टिः ६५ पञ्च-षष्टिः
६६ षट्-षष्टिः ६७ सप्त-षष्टिः ६८ अष्ट-षष्टिः ६९ नवषष्टिः ७० सप्ततिः

७१ एकसप्ततिः ७२ द्वासप्ततिः द्विसप्ततिः ७३ त्रयस्सप्ततिः त्रिसप्ततिः ७४ चतुस्सप्ततिः
७५ पञ्चसप्ततिः ७६ षट्-सप्ततिः ७७ सप्तसप्ततिः ७८ अष्ट-सप्ततिः ७९ नवसप्ततिः ८० अशीतिः

८१ एकाशीतिः ८२ द्वाशीतिः द्व्यशीतिः  ८३ त्र्यशीतिः ८४ चतुरशीतिः ८५ पञ्चाशीतिः
८६ षडशीतिः ८७ सप्ताशीतिः ८८ अष्टाशीतिः ८९ नवाशीतिः ९० नवतिः

९१ एकनवतिः ९२ द्वानवतिः द्विनवतिः ९३ त्रयोनवतिः त्रिनवतिः ९४ चतुर्नवतिः ९५ पञ्चनवतिः
९६ षण्णवतिः ९७ सप्तनवतिः ९८ अष्टनवतिः ९९ नवनवतिः १०० शतम्

It has been good to list all the cardinal numbers up to 100. There are two options for 22, 23, 32, 33 …. etc., even if I have missed them at some places.

Although only one option for 29, 39, etc. has been listed, there would be four options for each of them, as noted for the number 19 in Table 7-2.

In 81, 82 etc. they become एकाशीतिः … etc., since एकाशीतिः = एक + अशीतिः Also द्व्यशीतिः = द्वि + अशीतिः  Here, the concept of resultant sound called as conjugation संधि gets naturally applied. Similar is the case for ८६ षडशीतिः, ९६ षण्णवतिः and many other numbers.

It should be noted that all cardinal numbers are to be used as adjectives but in singular and for numbers 5 and above, their declensions are common in all genders. Numbers ending in त् are त्-कारान्त and neuter नपुंसकलिङ्गी. Numbers ending in तिः are इ-कारान्त स्त्रीलिङ्गी and would have declensions as per मति detailed in Table 6-10.

Masculine ordinal adjectives are found as number of every अध्याय in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता, e.g. अष्टमोऽध्यायः. Here also concept of resultant sound called as conjugation संधि applies. Much larger ordinal numbers are found in श्रीमन्महाभारतम्. In पर्व १२ शान्तिपर्व there are ३६५ अध्याय-s and the ordinal number of this अध्याय is given as पञ्चषष्ट्यधिकत्रिशततमोऽध्यायः
पञ्चषष्ट्यधिकत्रिशततमोऽध्यायः

  • पञ्चषष्ट्यधिक = पञ्चषष्टि (65) adding to i.e. अधिक
  • त्रिशत = three hundred
  • तमोऽध्यायः = तमः अध्यायः = __ th Chapter
  • पञ्चषष्ट्यधिकत्रिशततमोऽध्यायः = 365 th Chapter

In Book 4 of an edition of श्रीमन्महाभारतम् there is a tabulation of total number of श्लोक-s. The gross count of श्लोक-s is given as 100,217 संपूर्णा श्लोकसंख्या सप्तदशाधिकद्विशतोत्तरैकलक्षमिता. Note –
सप्तदशाधिकद्विशतोत्तरैकलक्षमिता =

  • सप्तदशाधिकद्विशत =  सप्तदश (17) अधिक i.e. adding to द्विशत (200) = 217
  • उत्तरैकलक्ष = उत्तर-एकलक्ष = after one lakh i.e. after 100,000
  • मिता = of so much count is संपूर्णा श्लोकसंख्या i.e. total number of श्लोक-s

It is to be noted that in both the examples above, numbers are composed by speaking of numbers in the unit’s place, then ten’s place and so on towards left. This is opposite of English style where we say 365 three hundred sixty five speaking the numbers from left to right.

Before going into such manner of speaking of large cardinal and ordinal numbers, it is pertinent to take note of some interesting points, which should come to notice in Table 7-2.

  1. The last column for ‘Group of i.e. समेत्य’ is very much in use. For example, instead of saying “60 boys षष्टिः कुमाराः”, one can say “three twenty’s of boys or three scores of boys कुमाराणां तिस्रः विंशतयः”.
  2. When saying “60 boys षष्टिः कुमाराः” 60 षष्टिः is numerical adjective of the noun ‘boys कुमाराः’.
  3. But when saying “three twenty’s of boys कुमाराणां तिस्रः विंशतयः”, ‘twenty’s विंशतयः’ is a noun in plural. तिस्रः is its numerical adjective also in plural.
  4. It is also to be noted that in “60 boys षष्टिः कुमाराः”, although 60 षष्टिः is numerical adjective of ‘boys कुमाराः’ in this construction षष्टिः the adjective is used only in singular. Also, षष्टिः is feminine, though कुमाराः is masculine. So the rule that adjective and the noun, which the adjective qualifies, must both be of same gender, in same case and of same number

यल्लिङ्गं  यद्वचनं  या  च  विभक्तिर्विशेष्यस्य ।

तल्लिङ्गं  तद्वचनं  सा  च  विभक्तिर्विशेषणस्यापि ।।

does not apply to numerical adjectives.

5. In the third column, one can see four options for 19. Such four options can be used for all other numbers as 29, 39, …. etc. Here

  • ऊन means less. So ऊनविंशतिः means less than 20
  • एकोन = एक + ऊन means one less (than); So, एकोनविंशति = one less than twenty
  • एकान्न = एकात् न means ‘not due to one’; एकान्नविंशति: = not twenty due to one

6. In columns 4 and 5 the ordinals of numbers 20 and above can be formed in two ways –

  • by enjoining a suffix तम or
  • by deriving an अकारान्त प्रातिपदिक by dropping ति for example by getting विंश from विंशति.

We also use numbers to say ‘how many times’. In Sanskrit we use a suffix वारम् with the प्रातिपदिक, for example द्विवारम् (=twice, two times) त्रिवारम् (= thrice, three times) वारं वारम् (= again and again) बहुवारम् (= many times)

We also use ‘how many times’ to tell ratio of one quantity with other, e.g. “Four is double of two”, “Nine is triple of three”.

Rishi-s indulged in evolving a number system counting very large numbers. This involved having in the number system the concept of zero and of decimals दशांश, multiples (10, 20, 30 … etc.) and powers of 10 (10, 100, 1000…. etc.)

Table 7-3

Sanskrit numbers by powers of ten

Index of power of ten

Value

Number of ‘zero’s after 1

Name of the number

0

1 One

0

एक

1

10 Ten

1

दश

2

100 Hundred

2

शत

3

1000 Thousand

3

सहस्र

4

10,000 Ten thousand

4

अयुत

5

100,000 Hundred thousand

5

लक्ष

6

1,000,000 Million

6

प्रयुत

7

10,000,000 Ten million

7

कोटि

8

100,000,000 Hundred nillion

8

अर्बुद

9

1000,000,000 Billion / Gega

9

अब्ज

10

10,000.000,000 Ten billion

10

खर्व

11

100,000.000,000 Hundred billion

11

निखर्व

12

1000,000.000,000 Trillion

12

महापद्म

13

10,000,000.000,000 Ten Trillion

13

शङ्कु

14

100,000.000,000,000 Hundred trillion

14

जलधि

15

1,000,000.000,000,000

15

अन्त

16

10,000,000.000,000,000

16

मध्य

17

100,000.000,000,000,000

17

परार्ध

All these are summarized in a shloka as follows –

एक-दश-शत सहस्रायुत-लक्ष-प्रयुत-कोटयः क्रमशः |

अर्बुदमब्ज खर्व-निखर्व-महापद्म-शङ्कवस्तस्मात् |

जलधिश्चान्तं मध्यं परार्धमिति दशगुणोत्तराः संज्ञाः |

संख्यायाः स्थानानां व्यवहारार्थं कृताः पूर्वैः ||

All the above names of powers of 10 are neuter singular नपुंसकलिङ्गी.

Roman numerals are alphabetical, starting from I, II, III, IV, V, ….. L (=50) C (=100) D (=500) and M (= 1000). There is no symbol of zero.

When writing numbers, using numerals 1, 2, 3, we have use of commas for every 3 zero’s. The names for large numbers are also in steps of 3 zero’s – after ‘Thousand’ (3 zero’s), next name is ‘Million’ (6 zero’s) then ‘Billion’ (9 zeros). Number-names in Sanskrit are for every extra zero i.e. for every power of 10 !

There is a shloka in अथर्ववेद wherein value of π (the ratio of circumference to diameter of a circle) is composed up to 32 digits. It reads –

गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रात-श्रुङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग |

खलजीवितखाताव गलहालारसंधर ||

For deciphering the value of π from this shloka, one needs to apply कटपयादि सूत्र –

कादि-नव टादि-नव पादि-पञ्चक याद्यष्टक क्षः शून्यम् |

Method of using the कटपयादि सूत्र is –
कादि-नव = nine letters starting from क would stand for numbers from 1 to 9
टादि-नव = nine letters starting from ट would stand for numbers from 1 to 9
पादि-पञ्चक = five letters starting from प would stand for numbers from 1 to 5
याद्यष्टक = eight letters starting from य would stand for numbers from 1 to 8
क्षः शून्यम् = क्ष for zero

Table 7-4

Alphabetical options for numerals as per कटपयादि सूत्र

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

कादि-नव

टादि-नव

पादि-पञ्चक

याद्यष्टक

शून्यम्

क्ष

Table 7-4 is similar to composing a sms on a mobile having only number keys. The concept of alphabetical coding of numerals is that old !! And how intelligently it is used for value of π up to 32 digits ! Isn’t it easy to remember a shloka than all the 32 digits correctly ? How intelligently the shloka is composed ! It has three interpretations – one, as a eulogy to Lord Krishna, secondly, as eulogy to Lord Shiva and thirdly as the value of π !! The scientific mode of calculator available on computers have a key for π. Once when exploring this key for π. I got value of π to 32 digits. When I checked the value with that by the above shloka, I found a difference only in the last 32nd digit. In the above shloka the 32nd digit is र = 2. In calculator of that computer I got 32nd digit to be 5.

When wondering why Rishi’s would have needed value of π to 32 digits, it comes to mind that the Rishi’s did indulge deeply in understanding movements of planets and their orbits, i.e. understanding astronomy in depth. Calculations in the realm of astronomy would certainly need value of π to be as accurate as possible. In astrology, it seems, they link up an astronomical combination of planets to the occurrence of an event in lives of people. This could be by some theory of probability, such as, if astronomical combination of planet-positions is working out to be so and so, likelihood of occurrence of a particular type of event is so much. For such analysis to be as accurate and in turn as reliable, the calculation of astronomical combination of planet-positions has to be accurate in the first place. That can be accurate only if value of π is used as accurate as possible.

In Sanskrit the concept of coding has been employed quite charmingly. There are codes derived from mythological concepts associated with different numbers.

Table 7-4

Mythological concepts associated with numbers and their use for coding

Number

Code-word

Mythological concept

Reference

1

ब्रह्म

ब्रह्म is only one

2

नेत्र, कर्ण

नेत्र and कर्ण are two

3

गुण

Implying the त्रिगुण-s सत्त्व-रज-तम

सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसंभवाः (गीता १४-५)

4

वेद

वेद-s are four

5

भूत

implying the पञ्चमहाभूत-s – पृथ्वी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु, आकाश

6

दर्शन, शास्त्र

दर्शन-s or शास्त्र-s are six :- सांख्य योग न्याय वैशेषिक मीमांसा वेदान्त

7

स्वर्ग, महर्षयः

स्वर्ग-s are seven भूः भुवः स्वः महः जनः तपः सत्यम्

महर्षयः सप्त पूर्वे (गीता, १०-६)

8

वसु, करि

वसु-s and करि-s are eight

9

ग्रह

Planets are nine

ग्रहवसुकरिचंद्रमिते वर्षे = In the year 1889
There are many more concepts associated with different numbers, e.g.
मनु – They are said to be fourteen. However there is this quotation also चत्वारो मनवस्तथा (गीता, १०-६)
Numbers are important not just for counting and arithmetic. Numbers are important in day-to-day life for all metrological needs, for measuring distances, volumes, weights, time, etc. Systems of measurement have been various at different places at different times for different situations. In Mahabharata system of measurement is detailed to denote strength of armies. Strength of army on side of Pandava-s was 7 अक्षौहिणी and on side of Kaurava-s was 11 अक्षौहिणी. There is a long sequence of calculations defining what one अक्षौहिणी is.

Coming to measurement of time, there is a quotation in GeetA, where it is said, one day of Brahma is equivalent to 1000 eras on earth and so is one night of Brahma.

सहस्रयुगपर्यन्तं अहर्यद्-ब्रह्मणो विदुः |

रात्रिं युगसहस्राणां तेऽहोरात्रविदो जनाः || ८-१७ ||

Measurement of Time has occupied the minds of scientists since time immemorial. In SI system of units 1 second is defined as – The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom.

The smallest unit of time in Sanskrit is possibly निमिष or निमेष, which is time taken by eyelids to make one wink. But there is also क्षण translated as ‘moment’. In Apte’s dictionary क्षण is defined as measure of time equal to ⅘ of a second.

Then there is घटिका or घटी a measure of 24 minutes (Ref. – Apte’s dictionary) Also, मुहूर्त or मुहूर्तक a period of 48 minutes (Ref. – Apte’s dictionary)

Some detailed definition is available in मनुस्मृति There it is said –

निमेषे दश चाष्टौ च काष्ठा त्रिंशत्तु ताः कलाः |

त्रिंशत्कला मुहूर्तः स्यात् अहोरात्रं तु तावतः || (१-६८)

निमेष is time taken by eyelids to make one wink
18 निमेष-s = 1 काष्ठा; 30 काष्ठा-s = 1 कला; 30 कला-s = 1 मुहूर्त; 30 मुहूर्त-s = 1 day-night (average 24 hours) That makes 1 day-night = 306,000 निमेष-s  At 3600 seconds to an hour, 24 hours become 86,400 seconds. By that 1 second = 3.541666666666667 निमेष-s

Most common unit of measurement of time is ‘day’. But if ‘day’ is to be understood as duration from one sunrise to the next, geographically its duration varies widely. They say, on the North pole there is sunlight for 6 months ! ‘Day’ as distinct from night is often considered to be the duration from sunrise to sunset. In अमरकोश one finds five synonyms for ‘day’ as घस्रो दिनाऽहनी वा तु क्लीबे दिवसवासरौ ।।१-४-२।। (इति पञ्च “दिनस्य” नामानि)

That makes one think how we shall tell time by the clock in Sanskrit. Since there are no exact words in Sanskrit for second, minute or hour, it has become an accepted practice to speak as follows –

Table 7-5

Time by the clock

Time In words

Time by clock

In Sanskrit

5 O’clock

5:00

पञ्च-वादनसमयः

Quarter past 3

3:15

सपाद-त्रिवादनम्

Half past 7

7:30

सार्ध-सप्त-वादनम्

Quarter to one

12:45

पादोनैक-वादनम्

8 minutes past 9

9:08

अष्टाधिक-नव-वादनम्

12 minutes to 12

11:48

द्वादशोन-द्वादश-वादनम्

am

माध्याह्न-पूर्वम्

pm

माध्याह्नपश्चात्

12 noon

12:00

माध्याह्न:

12 midnight

0:00 am

मध्यरात्रिः

Units of measurement of distance, mass/weight have all changed over time. In the context of mass and weight one finds the concepts of even atom and molecule mentioned in अणोरणीयान् समनुस्मरेद्यः (गीता ८-९)

However it would be appropriate to adopt into Sanskrit, names of units, as they are in common usage. It should be alright to speak of 2 kg of sugar as किलोद्वय-शर्करा or of 5 litres of oil as पञ्च लिटर-तावत् तैलम् (Note तावत् = that much).

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 6

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 6

सरलं संस्कृतम् – षष्ठः पाठः |

Declensions of अ-कारान्त masculine and neuter nouns were detailed in Lesson 5.
Declensions of nouns follow patterns, which are different depending upon its ending sound and also its gender.

By its ending sound, there will be two broad categories –

  • Those having vowel-ending
  • Those having consonant-ending. Among the pronouns, which were already detailed, अस्मद्, युष्मद्, भवत्, तत्, एतत्, इदम्, अदस्, किम् all of these have consonant-ending.

Among vowel-ending words, we already have a good collection of अ-कारान्त masculine and neuter nouns. In the Table 6-1 below words with ending of all vowels are compiled. Words listed in rows from आ-कारान्त and down, have been taken from the web-pages by Mr. G. S. S. Murthy, compiled at http://murthygss.tripod.com/Sabda_1.htm Mr. G. S. S. Murthy has not only listed all these words but has done a wonderful job of also detailing declensions of all of them.

Table 6-1

प्रातिपदिक-s having vowel-ending

अन्ते स्वरः

पुंल्लिङ्गी

स्त्रीलिङ्गी

नपुंसकलिङ्गी

अ-कारान्तः

(1) लेखक, विजय, अश्वत्थ, श्रेष्ठ, वाचक, राक्षस, शिक्षक, हस्त, खग, अभ्यास, कर्ण, वानर, श्रीगणेश, बालक, चतुर, चोर, आचार्य, सैनिक, पुत्र, वीर, घट, पाद, वृक्ष, एक

There are no feminine words having ending sound अ

(2) पुस्तक, एक

Declensions of the word पुस्तक have been already detailed.

आकारान्तः

(3) विश्वपा

(4) रमा, अम्बा, जरा, नासिका, निशा, उमा,

सर्वा, एका

Rare

इ-कारान्तः

(5) हरि, पति, सखि, कति द्वि, त्रि

(6) मति, द्वि, त्रि

(7) वारि, सुधि, दधि

द्वि, त्रि

ई-

(8) दंपती, प्रधी, सुधी,

(9) गौरी, स्त्री, श्री, लक्ष्मी

भवन्ती, भवती

Nil

उ-

(10) गुरु, क्रोष्टु

(11) धेनु

(12) मधु, सानु

ऊ-

(13) स्वभू

(14) वधू, भ्रू

Nil

ऋ-

(15) धातृ, पितृ, कर्तृ

(16) स्वसृ, मातृ, कर्तृ

(17) कर्तृ

Nil ?

Nil ?

Nil ?

(18) रै

Nil ?

Nil

(19) गो

(21) द्यो (= heaven)

(22) प्रद्यो (= ?)

(23) ग्लौ

(24) नौ (= ship)

(25) सुनौ (= ?)

Examples of द्यो and प्रद्यो as feminine and neuter ओ-कारान्त words and  नौ, सुनौ as feminine and neuter औ-कारान्त words are very kindly suggested by Dr. Avinash Sathaye of University of Kentucky giving reference of a book रूपचन्द्रिका. Following his suggestion, I could locate द्यो (= heaven) and नौ (= ship) in Apte’s dictionary also.

By the way, पाणिनि makes all vowel-ending words into a set by the name अजन्त (Note अजन्त = अच् + अन्त where अच् means all vowels). How अच् means all vowels, will become a different study of grammar-aphorisms. Mention here is just to appraise readers that all vowel-ending words become elements of a set, which is given a short name as अजन्त.

In the above table, one gets to notice patterns of declensions for vowel-ending अजन्त words numbered from 1 to 25. Of these we have done two patterns of अ-कारान्त पुंल्लिङ्गी and नपुंसकलिङ्गी. Actually these 25 patterns are not just for nouns, but also for adjectives. For example, in the above lists we have quite a number of adjectives such as लेखक, श्रेष्ठ, वाचक, सर्व, एक, द्वि, त्रि, कर्तृ or तृषार्त, संतुष्ट from the story of thirsty crow in previous lesson 5. For adjectives we will need to have declensions in all three genders, because these will have to qualify a noun of any of three genders. As such

  • भवती is feminine of pronoun भवत्,
  • We have already studied declensions of भवत्, in all cases and in all three genders.

I am doing copy–>paste of tables directly from http://murthygss.tripod.com/ (Many thanks to Mr. G. S. S. Murthy !)

Table 6-2

अकारान्तः ‘एक’-शब्दः (एक = one)

विभक्तिः ↓    वचनम् →

पुंल्लिङ्ग- एकवचनम्

नपुंसकलिङ्ग- एकवचनम्

स्त्रीलिङग- एकवचनम्

प्रथमा

एकः

एकम्

एका

संबोधनप्रथमा

हे एक

हे एक

हे एके

द्वितीया

एकम्

एकम्

एकाम्

तृतीया

एकेन

एकेन

एकया

चतुर्थी

एकस्मै

एकस्मै

एकस्यै

पञ्चमी

एकस्मात्

एकस्मात्

एकस्याः

षष्ठी

एकस्य

एकस्य

एकस्याः

सप्तमी

एकस्मिन्

एकस्मिन्

एकस्याम्

The numerical adjective एक will have common usage of declensions only in singular. I hence thought it good to save space by compiling declensions in all three genders in one table.

It may be noticed that the declensions of masculine and neuter genders are identical in all cases except in प्रथमा.

It may be also noticed that declensions of this numerical adjective एक in third, fourth, fifth and seventh cases is similar to those of the pronoun किम् and not like those of noun खग. Actually, कश्चित् काक: तृषार्त: and एकः काक: तृषार्त: convey the same meaning, right ? That may be the reason, why the declensions of numerical adjective एक are similar to those of the pronoun किम्. In fact in Apte’s dictionary, एक is detailed both as pronoun and adjective.

An indefinite numeral like सर्व will have declensions in all three genders and in all three numbers – singular, dual, plural. Although its meaning sounds to be closer to plural, we have its usage as “all that’, or ‘whole of it’, which is singular ! Aren’t grammarians very minute observers ! सर्व has declensions very similar to those of किम्. In fact in Apte’s dictionary सर्व is also detailed both as pronoun and adjective.

It is now interesting to note that the feminine प्रातिपदिक of एक is to be considered to be एका. Likewise feminine प्रातिपदिक of सर्व is to be considered as सर्वा. In fact feminine प्रातिपदिक of किम् was also का (See Table 4-1). Well, there are rules of obtaining feminine प्रातिपदिक-s for different nouns, pronouns and adjectives. For example, from common knowledge we know that बालक <> बालिका, शिक्षक <> शिक्षिका, वाचक <> वाचिका are related pairs of masculine and feminine प्रातिपदिक-s. That also gives some logic to why there are no अ-कारान्त feminine nouns. Conversely, there are no आकारान्त neuter प्रातिपदिक-s.  आकारान्त masculine प्रातिपदिक-s are there, as if only as exceptions. An example is in Table 6-3 below.

Table 6-3

आकारान्तः पुल्लिङ्ग: ‘विश्वपा’-शब्दः (विश्वपा = Protector of the Universe)

विभक्तिः ↓ वचनम् →

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

प्रथमा

विश्वपाः

विश्वपौ

विश्वपः

संबोधनप्रथमा

हे विश्वपाः

हे विश्वपौ

हे विश्वपाः

द्वितीया

विश्वपाम्

विश्वपौ

विश्वपः

तृतीया

विश्वपा

विश्वपाभ्याम्

विश्वपाभिः

चतुर्थी

विश्वपे

विश्वपाभ्याम्

विश्वपाभ्यः

पञ्चमी

विश्वपः

विश्वपाभ्याम्

विश्वपाभ्यः

षष्ठी

विश्वपः

विश्वपोः

विश्वपाम्

सप्तमी

विश्वपि

विश्वपोः

विश्वपासु

Likewise (एवं) सोमपा इत्यादयः (=etc.)

Table 6-4

आकारान्तस्त्रीलिङग: रमाशब्दः (रमा = Goddess LakShmi)

विभक्तिः ↓ वचनम् →

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

प्रथमा

रमा

रमे

रमाः

संबोधनप्रथमा

हे रमे

हे रमे

हे रमाः

द्वितीया

रमाम्

रमे

रमाः

तृतीया

रमया

रमाभ्याम्

रमाभिः

चतुर्थी

रमायै

रमाभ्याम्

रमाभ्यः

पञ्चमी

रमायाः

रमाभ्याम्

रमाभ्यः

षष्ठी

रमायाः

रमयोः

रमाणाम्

सप्तमी

रमायाम्

रमयोः

रमासु

एवम् (Likewise) – अम्बिका दुर्गा सीता बाला छाया etc. (इत्यादयः)

Proceeding with words of other vowel-ending –

Table 6-5

इकारान्तः पुल्ल्लिङ्ग: हरिशब्दः (हरि = God ViShNu)

विभक्तिः ↓ वचनम् →

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

प्रथमा

हरिः

हरी

हरयः

संबोधनप्रथमा

हे हरे

हे हरी

हे हरयः

द्वितीया

हरिम्

हरी

हरीन्

तृतीया

हरिणा

हरिभ्याम्

हरिभिः

चतुर्थी

हरये

हरिभ्याम्

हरिभ्यः

पञ्चमी

हरेः

हरिभ्याम्

हरिभ्यः

षष्ठी

हरेः

हर्योः

हरीणाम्

सप्तमी

हरौ

हर्योः

हरिषु

Likewise (एवम्) – अग्नि कवि रवि etc. (इत्यादयः). It should be noted that in third case singular, and sixth and seventh case plural there is ण-inflection in place of न and ष-inflection in place of  स, due to र in हरि. Such inflection will not be there for कवि.

Declensions of पति are exceptional. They need to be noted separately.

Table 6-6

इकारान्तः पुल्ल्लिङ्ग: पतिशब्दः (पति = Master, Husband)

विभक्तिः ↓ वचनम् →

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

प्रथमा

पतिः

पती

पतयः

संबोधनप्रथमा

हे पते

हे पती

हे पतयः

द्वितीया

पतिम्

पती

पतीन्

तृतीया

पत्या

पतिभ्याम्

पतिभिः

चतुर्थी

पत्ये

पतिभ्याम्

पतिभ्यः

पञ्चमी

पत्युः

पतिभ्याम्

पतिभ्यः

षष्ठी

पत्युः

पत्योः

पतीनाम्

सप्तमी

पत्यौ

पत्योः

पतिषु

Notable exceptions are in singulars of third to seventh cases.

Declensions of सखि also are exceptional. They need to be noted separately.

Table 6-7

इकारान्तः पुल्ल्लिङ्ग: सखिशब्दः (सखि = Friend)

विभक्तिः ↓ वचनम् →

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

प्रथमा

सखा

सखायौ

सखायः

संबोधनप्रथमा

हे सखे

हे सखायौ

हे सखायः

द्वितीया

सखायम्

सखायौ

सखीन्

तृतीया

सख्या

सखिभ्याम्

सखिभिः

चतुर्थी

सख्ये

सखिभ्याम्

सखिभ्यः

पञ्चमी

सख्युः

सखिभ्याम्

सखिभ्यः

षष्ठी

सख्युः

सख्योः

सखीनाम्

सप्तमी

सख्यौ

सख्योः

सखिष

Table 6-8

इकारान्तः नपुंसकलिङ्ग: वारिशब्दः (वारि = water)

विभक्तिः ↓ वचनम् →

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

प्रथमा

वारि

वारिणी

वारीणि

संबोधनप्रथमा

हे वारे, हे वारि

हे वारिणी

हे वारीणि

द्वितीया

वारि

वारिणी

वारीणि

तृतीया

वारिणा

वारिभ्याम्

वारिभिः

चतुर्थी

वारिणे

वारिभ्याम्

वारिभ्यः

पञ्चमी

वारिणः

वारिभ्याम्

वारिभ्यः

षष्ठी

वारिणः

वारिणोः

वारीणाम्

सप्तमी

वारिणि

वारिणोः

वारिषु

Note two optional forms for address-case singular.

Word अक्षि has exceptional declensions. Hence these should be noted.

Table 6-9

इकारान्तः नपुंसकलिङ्ग: ‘अक्षि’-शब्दः (अक्षि = eye)

विभक्तिः ↓ वचनम् →

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

प्रथमा

अक्षि

अक्षिणी

अक्षीणि

संबोधनप्रथमा

अक्षे, अक्षि

अक्षिणी

अक्षीणि

द्वितीया

अक्षि

अक्षिणी

अक्षीणि

तृतीया

अक्ष्णा

अक्षिभ्याम्

अक्षिभिः

चतुर्थी

अक्ष्णे

अक्षिभ्याम्

अक्षिभ्यः

पञ्चमी

अक्ष्णः

अक्षिभ्याम्

अक्षिभ्यः

षष्ठी

अक्ष्णः

अक्ष्णोः

अक्ष्णाम्

सप्तमी

अक्ष्णि, अक्षणि

अक्ष्णोः

अक्षिषु

Table 6-10

इकारान्तः स्त्रीलिङ्ग: मतिशब्दः (मति = Intellect)

विभक्तिः ↓ वचनम् →

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

प्रथमा

मतिः

मती

मतयः

संबोधनप्रथमा

हे मते

हे मती

हे मतयः

द्वितीया

मतिम्

मती

मतीः

तृतीया

मत्या

मतिभ्याम्

मतिभिः

चतुर्थी

मत्यै, मतये

मतिभ्याम्

मतिभ्यः

पञ्चमी

मत्याः, मतेः

मतिभ्याम्

मतिभ्यः

षष्ठी

मत्याः

मत्योः

मतीनाम्

सप्तमी

मत्याम्, मतौ

मत्योः

मतिषु

Likewise (एवम्) – बुद्धि रुचि श्रुति स्मृति etc. (इत्यादयः)
Note that there are optional declensions for singulars of fourth, fifth and seventh cases.

Having noted the declensions for इकारान्त-words in all three genders, it would be good to note the declensions of the numerical pronoun-adjectives द्वि and त्रि, which also are इकारान्त. द्वि will have declensions primarily in dual and त्रि will have declensions primarily in plural. So, we shall tabulate their declensions by columns for genders, as was done for एक.

Table 6-11

Declensions of pronoun-adjective द्वि- (द्वि = two)

विभक्तिः ↓    वचनम् →

पुंल्लिङ्ग- द्विवचनम्

नपुंसकलिङ्ग- द्विवचनम्

स्त्रीलिङग- द्विवचनम्

प्रथमा

द्वौ

द्वे

द्वे

द्वितीया

द्वौ

द्वे

द्वे

तृतीया

द्वाभ्याम्

द्वाभ्याम्

द्वाभ्याम्

चतुर्थी

द्वाभ्याम्

द्वाभ्याम्

द्वाभ्याम्

पञ्चमी

द्वाभ्याम्

द्वाभ्याम्

द्वाभ्याम्

षष्ठी

द्वयोः

द्वयोः

द्वयोः

सप्तमी

द्वयोः

द्वयोः

द्वयोः

Interestingly there are only four variants – द्वौ द्वे द्वाभ्याम् द्वयोः – in all the 21 declensions. That makes it simple, right ? There again declensions for six of the seven cases are same in all genders. Only in first case they are different. There too, those of feminine and neuter genders are identical.

Yet द्वि in its प्रातिपदिक-form does not appear anywhere or no declension is close enough to the प्रातिपदिक-form द्वि.

When two persons or things are together, there is the style of speaking of the pair or couple, e.g. pair of shoes. For this the Sanskrit word is द्वय e.g. हस्तद्वयम्, पादद्वयम्, कर्णद्वयम्. It should be noted that द्वय is noun primarily neuter नपुंसकलिङ्गि प्रातिपदिकम्. So, its declensions will be as per those of पुस्तक. It will have declensions in all numbers according as the number of pairs – singular, dual, plural. By that token, हस्तद्वयाभ्याम् would mean ‘by two pairs of hands, i.e. by four hands ! There is the special pair of husband and wife, for which there is a special word दंपती. As detailed in Apte’s dictionary, it is ईकारान्त पुंल्लिङ्गी प्रातिपदिक. I just added it in the Table 6-1.

Table 6-12

Declensions of pronoun-adjective त्रि (त्रि = three)

विभक्तिः ↓    वचनम् →

पुंल्लिङ्ग- बहुवचनम्

नपुंसकलिङ्ग- बहुवचनम्

स्त्रीलिङग- बहुवचनम्

प्रथमा

त्रयः

त्रीणि

तिस्रः

द्वितीया

त्रीन्

त्रीणि

तिस्रः

तृतीया

त्रिभिः

त्रिभिः

तिसृभिः

चतुर्थी

त्रिभ्यः

त्रिभ्यः

तिसृभ्यः

पञ्चमी

त्रिभ्यः

त्रिभ्यः

तिसृभ्यः

षष्ठी

त्रयाणाम्

त्रयाणाम्

तिसृणाम्

सप्तमी

त्रिषु

त्रिषु

तिसृषु

Declensions of त्रि have close correspondence with the प्रातिपदिक, त्रि. Declensions of masculine and neuter genders are common except in first and second cases.

There is also the style of speaking of a ‘trio’, three persons or things together. Sanskrit word for this is त्रय. It is an adjective and its feminine प्रातिपदिक is त्रयी, meaning a trio or triplet. The feminine प्रातिपदिक त्रयी is often used as a noun, especially referring to the three primary Vedas – ऋक् यजुः and साम – together.

There is much more to learn about numbers. That merits a separate chapter.

-o-O-o-