Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 4

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 4

सरलं संस्कृतम् – चतुर्थः पाठः ।

Carrying ahead from last lesson, given below are forms for किम् in feminine and neuter genders.

Table 4-1

Forms of Feminine किम्

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

का

के

काः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

काम्

के

काः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

कया

काभ्यां

काभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

कस्यै

काभ्याम्

काभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

कस्याः

काभ्याम्

काभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

कस्याः

कयोः

कासाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

कस्याम्

कयोः

कासु

Table 4-2

Forms of Neuter किम्

Gender लिङ्ग

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

किम्

के

कानि

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

किम्

के

कानि

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

केन

काभ्याम्

कैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

कस्मै

काभ्याम्

केभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

कस्मात्

काभ्याम्

केभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

कस्य

कयोः

केषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

कस्मिन्

कयोः

केषु

In lessons 1 and 2 together we made simple sentences with 24 pronoun-forms. They were all of First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा विभक्ति and hence were handy to make sentences using them as subjects. It is time to learn their forms in all विभक्ति-s. These are called as declensions.

An interesting observation – Across the 63 declensions in 3 genders, the word कयोः occurs 6 times and the word काभ्याम् occurs 9 times. We can say that there are as many meanings of these words ! काभ्याम् would mean “By which two men ?, For which two men ?, From which two men ?, By which two women ? For which two women ? From which two women ? By which two things ? For which two things ? or From which two things ?

Which meaning is appropriate will of course be decided by the context.

Table 4-3

Declensions of Pronoun of First Person – अस्मद्

(Note these are common in all genders)

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

अहम्

आवाम्

वयम्

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

माम्, मा

आवाम्, नौ

अस्मान्, नः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

मया

आवाभ्याम्

अस्माभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

मह्यम्, मे

आवाभ्याम्, नौ

अस्मभ्यम्, नः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

मत्

आवाभ्याम्

अस्मत्

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

मम, मे

आवयोः, नौ

अस्माकम्, नः

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

मयि

आवयोः

अस्मासु

Some interesting observations –

  • The declensions are common in all genders. This is so in English also. First person pronoun is ‘I’. Only for the Third Person, the pronouns are different – he, she, it – according to gender.
  • The name of the pronoun is अस्मद् . A form closest to this is at Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी बहुवचनम्
  • Optional forms are provided for Second द्वितीया, Fourth चतुर्थी and Sixth षष्ठी cases. This is so possibly because these are the cases which are in much more use than the other cases and hence optional forms come handy in composing poetry and making writing short and crisp.
  • Especially when thinking of the optional form मे in the sixth case, comes to mind a ‘good verse’ सुभाषितम्
    • अशनं मे वसनं मे जाया मे बन्धुवर्गो मे | इति मे मे कुर्वाणं हन्ति कालवृको पुरुषाजम् ||
    • Meaning – A person who keeps saying “my food, my dress, my wife, my relatives” is like a goat in human form, whom the wolf of ‘Time’ devours (for sure).
    • See how beautifully and smartly the word मे , the optional form is used to bring an onomatopoeia in the poetry and also to simulate the baying मे मे  of a goat, aptly calling the person a goat !
    • A good glimpse of Sanskrit poetry ?!
    • A detailed study of this सुभाषितम् is available at Lesson No. 26 at http://slabhyankar.wordpress.com/

Table 4-4

Declensions of Pronoun of Second Person – युष्मद्

(Note these are common in all genders)

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

त्वम्

युवाम्

यूयम्

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

त्वाम्, त्वा

युवाम् वाम्

युष्मान् वः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

त्वया

युवाभ्याम्

युष्माभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

तुभ्यम्, ते

युवाभ्याम्, वाम्

युष्मभ्यम्, वः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

त्वत्

युवाभ्याम्

युष्मत्

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

तव, ते

युवयोः, वाम्

युष्माकम्, वः

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

त्वयि

युवयोः

युष्मासु

The interesting observations noted for अस्मद् are valid here also –

  • The declensions are common in all genders. This is so in English also. Second person pronoun is ‘You’. Only for the Third Person, the pronouns are different – he, she, it – according to gender.
  • The name of the pronoun is युष्मद् . A declension closest to this is at Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी बहुवचनम्
  • Optional forms are provided for Second द्वितीया, Fourth चतुर्थी and Sixth षष्ठी cases. This is so possibly because these are the cases which are in much more use than the other cases and hence optional forms come handy in composing poetry and making writing short and crisp.
  • As noted in the beginning of Lesson 2, this second person pronoun is to be used, only when one is sure that one is not offending linguistic etiquette. Safer linguistic etiquette is to use the pronoun भवत् – the Respectful second person pronoun.
  • Even when speaking of Respectful second person pronoun, and knowing that God is respectful, comes to mind a famous prayer
    • त्वमेव माता च पिता त्वमेव ।  त्वमेव बन्धुश्च सखा त्वमेव । त्वमेव विद्या द्रविणं त्वमेव । त्वमेव सर्वं मम देव देव ॥
    • All across this prayer this pronoun युष्मद् only is used. Endorsement for such offence of etiquette is possibly obtained from use of the word सखा. सखा means friend.  When one is talking to a friend, one is not bound to follow the etiquettes. Rather, following etiquette becomes offensive to the concept of friendship.
    • In eleventh chapter in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता, on being blessed with the sight of imposing Universal form of भगवान् श्रीकृष्ण, अर्जुन gets a feeling of remorse and pleads pardon for having behaved with श्रीकृष्ण all along as a mere friend. सखेति मत्त्वा प्रसभं यदुक्तम् | हे कृष्ण हे यादव हे सखेति (११-४१)….. तत्क्षामये त्वामहमप्रमेयम्  (११-४२). Even when pleading for pardon, अर्जुन still uses this second person pronoun, saying  त्वाम्
    • Pronoun युष्मद् can very much be used, but always keeping judicious balance about when to use it.
    • Etiquette of speech is so much inherent in Sanskrit ! Marvellous !

Since we are at pronoun of second person, we should see declensions of the respectful second person pronoun  भवत्.

Table 4-5

Declensions of Pronoun भवत्  in masculine पुंल्लिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

भवान्

भवन्तौ

भवन्तः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

भवन्तम्

भवन्तौ

भवतः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

भवता

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

भवते

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

भवतः

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

भवतः

भवतोः

भवताम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

भवति

भवतोः

भवत्सु

Table 4-6

Declensions of Pronoun भवत्  in Feminine – स्त्रीलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

भवती

भवत्यौ

भवत्यः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

भवतीम्

भवत्यौ

भवतीः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

भवत्या

भवतीभ्याम्

भवतीभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

भवत्यै

भवतीभ्याम्

भवतीभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

भवत्याः

भवतीभ्याम्

भवतीभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

भवत्याः

भवत्योः

भवतीनाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

भवत्याम्

भवत्योः

भवतीषु

Table 4-7

Declensions of Pronoun भवत्  in Neuter – नपुंसकलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

भवत्

भवती

भवन्ति

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

भवत्

भवती

भवन्ति

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

भवता

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

भवते

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

भवतः

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

भवतः

भवतोः

भवताम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

भवति

भवतोः

भवत्सु

It may be noted that except for First and Second cases, declensions in all other cases are identical for Masculine and Neuter.

On to pronouns of Third Person. First case declensions of the pronouns in Masculine (He), Feminine (She) and Neuter (It) in all three numbers have been already detailed. All the declensions in all cases and numbers are now in Tables 4-8, 4-9 and 4-10. The root name of the pronoun is तत्

Table 4-8

Masculine Declensions of Pronoun तत् – पुंल्लिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

सः

तौ

ते

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

तम्

तौ

तान्

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

तेन

ताभ्याम्

तैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

तस्मै

ताभ्याम्

तेभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

तस्मात्

ताभ्याम्

तेभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

तस्य

तयोः

तेषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

तस्मिन्

तयोः

तेषु

Table 4-9

Feminine Declensions of Pronoun तत् – स्त्रीलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

सा

ते

ताः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

ताम्

ते

ताः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

तया

ताभ्याम्

ताभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

तस्यै

ताभ्याम्

ताभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

तस्याः

ताभ्याम्

ताभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

तस्याः

तयोः

तासाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

तस्याम्

तयोः

तासु

Table 4-10

Neuter Declensions of Pronoun तत् – नपुंसकलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

तत्

ते

तानि

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

तत्

ते

तानि

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

तेन

ताभ्याम्

तैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

तस्मै

ताभ्याम्

तेभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

तस्मात्

ताभ्याम्

तेभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

तस्य

तयोः

तेषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

तस्मिन्

तयोः

तेषु

The Pronoun तत् is as much a pronoun of third person as it is also an indicative pronoun, equivalent of ‘that’ in English.

Another indicative pronoun in English is ‘this’. For this indicative pronoun, there are three options in Sanskrit – एतत्, इदम् and अदस्. Somehow in common usage, these seem to be popular in this order only – एतत् इदम् and अदस्. But a student should learn them without being concerned of the degree of popularity.

By the way अदस् has both shades of meaning – that of तत् (that) and also of एतत् (this). So it is the option for both.

Table 4-11

Masculine Declensions of Pronoun एतत् – पुंल्लिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

एषः

एतौ

एते

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

एतम्, एनम्

एतौ, एनौ

एतान्, एनान्

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

एतेन

एताभ्याम्

एतैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

एतस्मै

एताभ्याम्

एतेभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

एतस्मात्

एताभ्याम्

एतेभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

एतस्य

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतेषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

एतस्मिन्

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतेषु

Table 4-12

Feminine Declensions of Pronoun एतत् – स्त्रीलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

एषा

एते

एताः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

एताम्, एनाम्

एते, एने

एताः, एनाः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

एतया, एनया

एताभ्याम्

एताभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

एतस्यै

एताभ्याम्

एताभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

एतस्याः

एताभ्याम्

एताभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

एतस्याः

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतासाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

एतस्याम्

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतासु

Table 4-13

Neuter Declensions of Pronoun एतत् – नपुंसकलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

एतत्, एतद्

एते

एतानि

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

एतत्, एतद्, एनत्, एनद्

एते, एने

एतानि, एनानि

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

एतेन, एनेन

एताभ्याम्

एतैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

एतस्मै

एताभ्याम्

एतेभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

एतस्मात्

एताभ्याम्

एतेभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

एतस्य

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतेषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

एतस्मिन्

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतेषु

This is the pronoun with maximum number of optional declensions.

Table 4-14

Masculine Declensions of Pronoun इदम् – पुंल्लिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

अयम्

इमौ

इमे

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

इमम्, एनम्

इमौ, एनौ

इमान्, एनान्

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अनेन, एनेन

आभ्याम्

एभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अस्मै

आभ्याम्

एभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अस्मात्

आभ्याम्

एभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अस्य

अनयोः, एनयोः

एषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अस्मिन्

अनयोः, एनयोः

एषु

Table 4-15

Feminine Declensions of Pronoun इदम् – स्त्रीलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

इयम्

इमे

इमाः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

इमाम्, एनाम्

इमे, एने

इमाः, एनाः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अनया, एनया

आभ्याम्

आभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अस्यै

आभ्याम्

आभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अस्याः

आभ्याम्

आभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अस्याः

अनयोः, एनयोः

आसाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अस्याम्

अनयोः, एनयोः

आसु

Table 4-16

Neuter Declensions of Pronoun इदम् – नपुंसकलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

इदम्

इमे

इमानि

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

इदम्, एनत्

इमे, एने

इमानि, एनानि

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अनेन, एनेन

आभ्याम्

एभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अस्मै

आभ्याम्

एभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अस्मात्

आभ्याम्

एभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अस्य

अनयोः, एनयोः

एषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अस्मिन्

अनयोः, एनयोः

एषु

Table 4-17

Masculine Declensions of Pronoun अदस् – पुंल्लिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

असौ

अमू

अमी

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

अमूम्

अमू

अमून्

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अमुना

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अमुष्मै

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अमुष्मात्

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अमुष्य

अमुयोः

अमीषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अमुष्मिन्

अमुयोः

अमीषु

Table 4-18

Feminine Declensions of Pronoun अदस् – स्त्रीलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

असौ

अमू

अमूः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

अमूम्

अमू

अमूः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अमुया

अमूभ्याम्

अमूभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अमुष्यै

अमूभ्याम्

अमूभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अमुष्याः

अमूभ्याम्

अमूभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अमुष्याः

अमुयोः

अमूषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अमुष्याम्

अमुयोः

अमूषु

Table 4-19

Neuter Declensions of Pronoun अदस् – नपुंसकलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

अमु

अमुनी

अमूनि

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

अमु

अमुनी

अमूनि

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अमुना

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अमुष्मै

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अमुष्मात्

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अमुष्य

अमुयोः

अमीषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अमुष्मिन्

अमुयोः

अमीषु

With as many as 19 tabulations above, this lesson may sound to be drab. But details provided here are possibly the most useful. Most of conversations take place using pronouns.

For example, on meeting a stranger, first question one would ask would be “What is your name ?” There are two pronouns here – what and your. In Sanskrit and to ask the question respectfully, one would ask भवतः नाम किम् ? If a stranger were to ask this question to me, I would reply, “My name is Shreepaada.” In Sanskrit मम नाम श्रीपाद-इति.

If two friends are talking between them and one of them knows me, and the other person wants to know my name from his friend, he would ask his friend “What is his name ?” In Sanskrit तस्य नाम किम् ? His friend would reply तस्य नाम श्रीपाद-इति.

But consider another situation. Ramesh accompanies Suresh to Suresh’s school. Ramesh is new to the school. When looking around, he spots a respectable person. He wants to enquire with Suresh, who the person is. In English he would ask, “Who is he ?” सः कः ? But asking of a respectable person this way would not be good etiquette. He could rather enquire भवान् कः ? Suresh may reply भवान् आचार्यः “Sir is a Professor”. This becomes a good example to illustrate why the pronoun भवत् should have verbs of Third Person.

Consider yet another situation. I am accompanying my friend Ashok. We meet Ashok’s friend Deepak. Somehow Ashok forgets introducing me to Deepak. Deepak himself enquires with Ashok, “Who is this ?” How do we translate this in Sanskrit. For the pronoun ‘this’ in Sanskrit we have options. कः एषः ? or कः अयम् ? or कः असौ ? I would think that कः अयम् ? is more informal, smoother, more intimate and softer than कः एषः ? It may be noted that the vowel अ consonant य in अयम् are softer than vowel ए and consonant ष in एषः Naturally कः अयम् ? would make a softer and more decent speech than कः एषः ?

With minimum 21 declensions detailed for अस्मद् and युष्मद् and with minimum 63 declensions detailed for each of भवत् तत् एतत् इदम् अदस् किम् we have such a vast (2×21 + 6×63 = 420) repertoire of diction learnt. But we can consider all this repertoire really acquired only when we can use with ease. There is a ‘good verse’ सुभाषितम् which says –

पुस्तकस्था तु या विद्या परहस्तगतं धनम् |

कार्यकाले समुत्पन्ने न सा विद्या न तद्धनम् ||

meaning, “The knowledge which stays in the book, is like wealth in some else’s hands. When occasion demands prompt usage, that knowledge in the book and the wealth in some else’s hands, both are meaningless.” (A study of this सुभाषितम् is detailed in lesson No. 14 at http://slabhyankar.wordpress.com/)

People do not like the ‘rote learning’ method. I do not know whether there is any other method to get ease in the use of so many declensions.

One impressive thing of the structuring of so many declensions of each pronoun is that they can be recited with a beautiful rhythm. I guess, the Dual number द्विवचन also has a significance in facilitating that rhythm.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

7 thoughts on “Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 4

  1. सुललितं सुलभं भवत: शिक्षणं खलु! एक: प्रश्न: उत्पन्न: | I am learning Sanskrit myself – इति वाक्यं संस्कृते कथम् भवति? “अहं मया सह एव संस्कृतं पठामि” वा “अहं स्वेन / स्वयं एव संस्कृतं पठामि” वा “अहं आत्मना एव संस्कृतं पठामि” वा? एतेषु वाक्येषु किं साधु?

  2. Oh geez, I didnt think that, although I was just reading “Tapasvi svaadhyaayanirathaam…” (balakanda) just few mins back then, thanks. I have to improve my vocabulary.

  3. Gayatri — ( Amarakosam) Gayantham trayate iti Gayatri. Here, Gayantham being its dhathu sabda… pls let me know its roopani in dhathus…Thank you in advance.

    • नमस्ते “एस् के शास्त्री”-महोदय !
      गायन्तम् – “गै” इति भ्वादि (1 प.) धातुः । तस्मात् “अत्”-इति शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणं “गायत्” (= singing one) । तस्य पुंल्लिङ्गे द्वितीया-विभक्त्यां एकवचनम् ।
      पुंल्लिङ्गे प्रथमा विभक्त्यां – गायन् (ए. व.) गायन्तौ (द्वि. व.) गायन्तः (बहुवचनं) – इत्यादीनि रूपाणि ।

  4. Leaving the popularity and just regarding the proper usage of अदस्, एतद्, इदम् , I found a verse in “Higher Sanskrit Grammar by M R Kale”, saying

    “The
    following couplet (Karika) givesa rule for thecorrect use of the pronouns :-
    इदमस्तु सन्निकृष्टं समीपतरवर्ति चैतदो रूपम् |
    अदमस्तु विप्रकृष्टं तदिति परोक्षे विजानीयात् ||

    इदम् is used with reference to a person or thing near at hand, and एतद् to one nearer still;
    अदस् i used of a person or thing at a distance, while तद् is used of one that is absent.”

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