Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 5

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 5

सरलं संस्कृतम् – पञ्चमः पाठः |

In Lesson 3, when explaining flexibility of syntax available in Sanskrit, the point was illustrated by the sentence पुस्तके चित्राणि सन्ति. When doing this and also in Tables 3-5, 3-6 and 3-7, a good number of new words had been introduced. In Table 5-1, they are now tabulated by case and gender.

Table 5-1

Tabulation of words by Case and Gender

‘case’ विभक्ति Masculine Nouns Neuter Nouns Feminine Nouns
First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा लेखकः, पिता, वाचकाः, राक्षसाः, विजयः, अश्वत्थः, श्रेष्ठः (8) पुस्तकम् , ज्ञानम् ,गीतम ्, वेष्टणम्, भयम् , शौर्यम्, जलम्,  चित्राणि, पादत्राणे (9) सिद्धिः, माता, प्रशस्तिः (3)
Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया शिक्षकम्, हस्तौ, खगान् (3) अन्नम् (1) ,
Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया अभ्यासेन, कर्णाभ्याम्, वानरैः (3) पुस्तकेन
Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी श्रीगणेशाय, बालकाभ्याम्, चतुरेभ्यः (3) पुस्तकाय, नमनाय (1)
Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी चोरात्, हस्ताभ्याम्, आचार्येभ्यः (3) पुस्तकात्
Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी सैनिकस्य, पुत्रयोः, वीराणाम्  (3) पुस्तकस्य
Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी घटे, पादयोः वृक्षेषु  (3) खे, पुस्तके

Wow ! As many as 41 new words were introduced ! But we do not have their declensions in all seven cases and all three numbers. You will wonder whether I intend to make 41 tabulations for the 41 words. Well, the answer is ‘yes’ and ‘no’. Some patterns are already obvious. So, we shall explore the patterns. Since Sanskrit is a structured language, we have to identify patterns and learn primarily the patterns. For example 26 noun-forms in the ‘masculine’ column can be sorted by their number in the following manner. For ready reference and comparison, masculine declensions of pronoun किम् are also added from Table 3-4 in bold.

Table 5-2

Masculine Nouns by their Number and Cases

‘case’ विभक्ति Singular एकवचनम् Dual द्विवचनम् Plural बहुवचनम्
First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा लेखकः, (पिता), विजयः, अश्वत्थः, श्रेष्ठः कः कौ वाचकाः, राक्षसाः के
Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया शिक्षकम् कम् हस्तौ कौ खगान् कान्
Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया अभ्यासेन, केन कर्णाभ्याम् काभ्याम् वानरैः कैः
Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी श्रीगणेशाय कस्मै बालकाभ्याम्  काभ्याम् चतुरेभ्यः केभ्य:
Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी चोरात् कस्मात् हस्ताभ्याम्  काभ्याम् आचार्येभ्यः केभ्य:
Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी सैनिकस्य, कस्य पुत्रयो: कयोः वीराणाम् केषाम्
Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी घटे, कस्मिन् पादयोः  कयोः वृक्षेषु केषु

Noticeable differences with declensions of किम् are at

  • वाचकाः, राक्षसाः के First Case, plural
  • श्रीगणेशाय कस्मै Fourth case, singular
  • चोरात् कस्मात् Fifth case, singular and
  • घटे, कस्मिन् Seventh case, singular
  • In First case singular (पिता) is different from the rest. That is why I have put into brackets.

Leaving aside these differences, pattern of as many as 17 declensions is identical. The differences are because किम् is a pronoun and others are nouns. Actually श्रेष्ठः is an adjective. That is okay. Looking somewhat deeper into the following 24 words, (Word हस्त is used both at second and fifth case, dual) their root words are –

  • लेखक, विजय, अश्वत्थ, श्रेष्ठ,
  • वाचक, राक्षस, शिक्षक, हस्त, खग,
  • अभ्यास, कर्ण, वानर, श्रीगणेश, बालक,
  • चतुर, चोर, आचार्य, सैनिक, पुत्र,
  • वीर, घट, पाद, and वृक्ष

All these root words have ending sound of the vowel अ. So, these root words are अ-स्वरान्त or अकारान्त (Note स्वरान्त = स्वर + अन्त = having स्वर vowel at the end; अकारान्त = अकार + अन्त = having अ at the end)
By the way, root words of nouns are called as प्रातिपदिक. It was mentioned in the first lesson that root words of verbs are called as धातु.
All Masculine nouns having अ at the end will follow declensions in a particular pattern as is evident in Table 5-2. The 21 declensions are like 21 dress-codes to be worn by the प्रातिपदिक if it is अकारान्त पुंल्लिङ्गि.
Just to mention, the प्रातिपदिक ‘ख’ is both पुंल्लिङ्गि and नपुंसकलिङ््गि. When पुंल्लिङ्गि it means ‘sun’ and when नपुंसकलिङ््गि it means ‘sky’. In Table 3-7 in the row for second case, I had used it with the meaning of ‘sky’. So in Table 5-1, I have put it in the column of neuter nouns. This information that “…प्रातिपदिक ‘ख’ is both पुंल्लिङ्गि and नपुंसकलिङ््गि. When पुंल्लिङ्गि it means ‘sun’ and when नपुंसकलिङ््गि it means ‘sky’….” is from dictionary. We can expect to find प्रातिपदिक-s in dictionary.
When we would know what to expect to be available in dictionary, ‘referring the dictionary’ should be considered as an important part of study of Sanskrit or for study of any language for that matter.
Coming back to the concept that patterns of declensions are like dress-codes, we can tabulate the declensions for any of the 24 words. For ready reference let me tabulate the declensions of खग.

Table 5-3

Declensions of अकारान्त पुंल्लिङ्गि प्रातिपदिक खग

‘case’ विभक्ति Singular एकवचनम् Dual द्विवचनम् Plural बहुवचनम्
First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा खग: खगौ खगाः
Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया खगम् खगौ खगान्
Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया खगेन खगाभ्याम् खगैः
Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी खगाय खगाभ्याम् खगेभ्यः
Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी खगात् खगाभ्याम् खगेभ्यः
Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी खगस्य खगयोः खगानाम्
Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी खगे खगयोः खगेषु

By using this pattern one should be able to make declensions of all the 24 words.
However one needs to be conscious of the forms/declensions at

  • singular of third case and
  • plural of sixth case.

If the प्रातिपदिक contains vowel ऋ or ऋ-दीर्घ or consonant र् or consonant ष्, then the ending न changes to ण. So for the प्रातिपदिक-s श्रेष्ठ, राक्षस, वानर, चतुर, चोर, आचार्य, पुत्र, वीर, and वृक्ष the declensions will be

  • श्रेष्ठेण, राक्षसेण, वानरेण, चतुरेण, चोरेण, आचार्येण, पुत्रेण, वीरेण, and वृक्षेण in the third case and
  • श्रेष्ठाणाम्, राक्षसाणाम्, वानराणाम्, चतुराणाम्, चोराणाम्, आचार्याणाम्, पुत्राणाम्, वीराणाम् and वृक्षाणाम् in the sixth case.

In Table 3-3, we already have the Singular एकवचनम् declensions of the root word प्रातिपदिक, पुस्तक. This word is also अकारान्त, but its gender is neuter नपुंसकलिङ््गि. We can complete the table by adding its declensions in Dual द्विवचनम् and Plural बहुवचनम्.

Table 5-4

Declensions of अकारान्त नपुंसकलिङ््गि प्रातिपदिक पुस्तक

‘case’ विभक्ति Singular एकवचनम् Dual द्विवचनम् Plural बहुवचनम्
First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा पुस्तकम् पुस्तके पुस्तकानि
Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया पुस्तकम् पुस्तके पुस्तकानि
Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया पुस्तकेन पुस्तकाभ्याम् पुस्तकैः
Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी पुस्तकाय पुस्तकाभ्याम् पुस्तकेभ्यः
Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी पुस्तकात् पुस्तकाभ्याम् पुस्तकेभ्यः
Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी पुस्तकस्य पुस्तकयोः पुस्तकानाम्
Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी पुस्तके पुस्तकयोः पुस्तकेषु

Following the above pattern we can make declensions of 11 more neuter nouns noted in Table 5-1 ज्ञान, गीत, वेष्टण, भय, शौर्य, जल,  चित्र, पादत्राण, अन्न, नमन and ख.
By the way the rule of change from न to ण would not apply for वेष्टण and पादत्राण, because they have the change already therein. But the rule will apply to शौर्य and चित्र.
With lot of declensions of verbs, nouns and pronouns on hand with us, let us try an exercise of translating the story of the thirsty crow into Sanskrit.
1. A crow was very thirsty.
2. He looked for water here and there.
3. He did not see water anywhere
4. He went to another place.
4. He saw a jar.
5. There was little water in the jar.
6. He thought of an idea.
7. He picked up stones and put them in the jar.
8. Water came up.
9. He drank the water and became happy.
First we need to compile glossary of words which will help us to make the sentences.

Table 5-5

Glossary

No. Word प्रातिपदिक or धातु or अव्यय
1 crow काक
2 to be अस्
3 very thirsty तृषार्त
4 to look दृश्
5 water जल
6 here अत्र
7 and
8 there तत्र
9 anywhere कुत्रापि
10 to go to गम्
11 to another place अन्यत्र
12 to see दृश्
13 jar घट
14 little किञ्चित्
15 to think चिन्त्
16 idea उपाय
17 to pick up गृह्
18 stone पाषाणखण्ड
19 to put, to drop क्षिप्
20 to come आ + गम्
21 up उपरि
22 to drink पा
23 to be भू
24 happy संतुष्ट

It is better to do translations analytically. By that we would be able to select proper declensions of nouns and verbs.
We can make do using just the present tense instead of past tense.

Table 5-6

Analytical view of sentences

No. Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial phrases and conjunctions
1 A crow
काक:
was
अस्ति
very thirsty
तृषार्त:
2 He
सः
looked
पश्यति
for water
जलाय
here and there
अत्र तत्र च
3 He
सः
did not see
न पश्यति
water
जलम्
anywhere
कुत्रापि
4 He
सः
went to
गच्छति
another place
अन्यत्र
5 He
सः
saw
पश्यति
a jar
घटम्
6 little water
किञ्चित् जलम्
(There) was
अस्ति
in the jar
घटे
7 He
सः
thought of
चिन्तयति
an idea
उपायम्
8-a He
सः
picked up
गृह्णाति
stones पाषाणखण्डान् (and)
8-b put
क्षिपति
them
तान्
in the jar
घटे
9 Water
जलम्
came
आगच्छति
up
उपरि
10-a He
सः
drank
पिबति
the water
जलम्
(and)
10-b became
भवति
happy
संतुष्टः

It would be interesting to see how the story would read as one continuous narration !
काक: अस्ति तृषार्त: | सः पश्यति जलाय अत्र तत्र च | न पश्यति जलम् कुत्रापि | सः गच्छति अन्यत्र | सः पश्यति घटम् |
किञ्चित् जलम् अस्ति घटे | सः चिन्तयति उपायम् | सः गृह्णाति पाषाणखण्डान् च क्षिपति तान् घटे | जलम् आगच्छति उपरि | सः पिबति जलम् च भवति संतुष्टः |
One can turn the words around to get syntax and the reading to one’s liking. But sounds good for a first attempt ! Rather the placement of च in compound sentences has not happened properly. Its place should rather be after the second verb, i.e.

  • सः गृह्णाति पाषाणखण्डान् च क्षिपति तान् घटे | should rather be सः गृह्णाति पाषाणखण्डान् क्षिपति च तान् घटे | Also
  • सः पिबति जलम् च भवति संतुष्टः | should rather be सः पिबति जलम् भवति च संतुष्टः |

Important to note that –

  1. In Sanskrit subject, object and complement and also adverbial phrases are declensions of nouns, pronouns, adjectives. They all have a प्रातिपदिक. So nouns, pronouns and adjectives make one class of words. Their declensions are dictated by gender, लिङ्ग case विभक्ति and वचन number.
  2. Verbs are from धातु-s. Their declensions are dictated by tense काल or अर्थ mood, पुरुष person and वचन number
  3. Conjunctions such as च and adverbs such as अत्र तत्र and verbal auxiliaries such as न are primarily indeclinables अव्यय.
  4. We can say that as against eight parts of speech in English, in Sanskrit we have primarily three classes of words –
    1. derived (or declined) from प्रातिपदिक
    2. derived (or declined) from धातु and
    3. अव्यय-s, which are indeclinable.
  5. If subject is a pronoun, its person and number must match with the person and number of the verb and vice versa.
    1. When subject is a noun its person is third person. Its number could be Singular एकवचनम् or Dual द्विवचनम् or Plural बहुवचनम्. The verb will be in third person and corresponding number. Again the rule, “..person and number of the verb must match with the person and number of the subject.” applies.
    2. When the verb intransitive, the sentence would often contain complements. They are adjectival in nature, qualifying the subject. The rule is that gender, लिङ्ग case विभक्ति and वचन number of an adjective must match the gender, लिङ्ग case विभक्ति and वचन number of the noun or pronoun, which it qualifies. There is a good verse on this having for its meaning exactly this rule –

यल्लिङ्गं  यद्वचनं  या  च  विभक्तिर्विशेषस्य ।
तल्लिङ्गं  तद्वचनं  सा  च  विभक्तिर्विशेषणस्यापि ।।

      1. A study of this verse is detailed in Lesson No. 22 at http://slabhyankar.wordpress.com/
      2. The complements – very thirsty तृषार्त: in First sentence and happy संतुष्टः in sentence 10 b qualify the subject A crow काक: He सः in respective sentences. The subjects are masculine, first case, singular. So are the complements.
      3. Also in sentence  6, the phrase ‘little water’ किञ्चित् जलम् contains an adjective and a noun. The noun जलम् is neuter, first case, singular. So is किञ्चित्.

किञ्चित् is actually किम् + चित्. Here चित् is a suffix added to किम्. The suffix चित् can be added to every other declension of the pronoun किम् and would give a meaning of ‘some’. For example

  1. किञ्चित् = somewhat, because किम् = what and चित् = some.
  2. Likewise कश्चित् = कः + चित् = some-who i.e. someone, काचित् = someone (feminine)
  3. केनचित् = केन + चित् = by someone
  4. Likewise कस्यचित् = of someone; कस्माच्चित् = from someone, etc.

Note,

  • when चित् is added to किम् the resultant sound becomes किञ्चित् .
  • When चित् is added to कः the resultant sound becomes कश्चित्
  • When चित् is added to कस्मात् the resultant sound becomes कस्माच्चित्.

This concept of ‘resultant sound’ is called as संधि or संहिता. Whereas ‘resultant sound’ is substantially a matter of natural experience, these natural experiences have been formulated into rules ! That is what makes Sanskrit a ‘structured’ language !
देवनागरी script of Sanskrit is a phonetic script. The alphabets of the script write really the sounds. What you write is what you say. There is no problem of remembering the spellings. There is no problem of the spelling of a word in US being different from its spelling in UK. देवनागरी scripting and pronunciation of every Sanskrit word ought to be the same all around the world, eternally.

In previous lessons, I was giving a count of number of sentences one can make from given details. Now the data-base has become so wide, that number of sentences one can make is limitless. This will go on becoming more and more infinite, primarily by –

  • Getting to know Newer patterns and structures of declensions of words declining from प्रातिपदिक-s and words declining from धातु-s
  • Expanding our repertoire of glossary

Learning Sanskrit is basically learning just these things ! Isn’t that simple, especially when everything is so well-structured and rhythmic ?

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

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Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 4

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 4

सरलं संस्कृतम् – चतुर्थः पाठः ।

Carrying ahead from last lesson, given below are forms for किम् in feminine and neuter genders.

Table 4-1

Forms of Feminine किम्

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

का

के

काः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

काम्

के

काः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

कया

काभ्यां

काभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

कस्यै

काभ्याम्

काभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

कस्याः

काभ्याम्

काभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

कस्याः

कयोः

कासाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

कस्याम्

कयोः

कासु

Table 4-2

Forms of Neuter किम्

Gender लिङ्ग

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

किम्

के

कानि

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

किम्

के

कानि

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

केन

काभ्याम्

कैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

कस्मै

काभ्याम्

केभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

कस्मात्

काभ्याम्

केभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

कस्य

कयोः

केषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

कस्मिन्

कयोः

केषु

In lessons 1 and 2 together we made simple sentences with 24 pronoun-forms. They were all of First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा विभक्ति and hence were handy to make sentences using them as subjects. It is time to learn their forms in all विभक्ति-s. These are called as declensions.

An interesting observation – Across the 63 declensions in 3 genders, the word कयोः occurs 6 times and the word काभ्याम् occurs 9 times. We can say that there are as many meanings of these words ! काभ्याम् would mean “By which two men ?, For which two men ?, From which two men ?, By which two women ? For which two women ? From which two women ? By which two things ? For which two things ? or From which two things ?

Which meaning is appropriate will of course be decided by the context.

Table 4-3

Declensions of Pronoun of First Person – अस्मद्

(Note these are common in all genders)

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

अहम्

आवाम्

वयम्

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

माम्, मा

आवाम्, नौ

अस्मान्, नः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

मया

आवाभ्याम्

अस्माभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

मह्यम्, मे

आवाभ्याम्, नौ

अस्मभ्यम्, नः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

मत्

आवाभ्याम्

अस्मत्

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

मम, मे

आवयोः, नौ

अस्माकम्, नः

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

मयि

आवयोः

अस्मासु

Some interesting observations –

  • The declensions are common in all genders. This is so in English also. First person pronoun is ‘I’. Only for the Third Person, the pronouns are different – he, she, it – according to gender.
  • The name of the pronoun is अस्मद् . A form closest to this is at Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी बहुवचनम्
  • Optional forms are provided for Second द्वितीया, Fourth चतुर्थी and Sixth षष्ठी cases. This is so possibly because these are the cases which are in much more use than the other cases and hence optional forms come handy in composing poetry and making writing short and crisp.
  • Especially when thinking of the optional form मे in the sixth case, comes to mind a ‘good verse’ सुभाषितम्
    • अशनं मे वसनं मे जाया मे बन्धुवर्गो मे | इति मे मे कुर्वाणं हन्ति कालवृको पुरुषाजम् ||
    • Meaning – A person who keeps saying “my food, my dress, my wife, my relatives” is like a goat in human form, whom the wolf of ‘Time’ devours (for sure).
    • See how beautifully and smartly the word मे , the optional form is used to bring an onomatopoeia in the poetry and also to simulate the baying मे मे  of a goat, aptly calling the person a goat !
    • A good glimpse of Sanskrit poetry ?!
    • A detailed study of this सुभाषितम् is available at Lesson No. 26 at http://slabhyankar.wordpress.com/

Table 4-4

Declensions of Pronoun of Second Person – युष्मद्

(Note these are common in all genders)

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

त्वम्

युवाम्

यूयम्

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

त्वाम्, त्वा

युवाम् वाम्

युष्मान् वः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

त्वया

युवाभ्याम्

युष्माभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

तुभ्यम्, ते

युवाभ्याम्, वाम्

युष्मभ्यम्, वः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

त्वत्

युवाभ्याम्

युष्मत्

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

तव, ते

युवयोः, वाम्

युष्माकम्, वः

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

त्वयि

युवयोः

युष्मासु

The interesting observations noted for अस्मद् are valid here also –

  • The declensions are common in all genders. This is so in English also. Second person pronoun is ‘You’. Only for the Third Person, the pronouns are different – he, she, it – according to gender.
  • The name of the pronoun is युष्मद् . A declension closest to this is at Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी बहुवचनम्
  • Optional forms are provided for Second द्वितीया, Fourth चतुर्थी and Sixth षष्ठी cases. This is so possibly because these are the cases which are in much more use than the other cases and hence optional forms come handy in composing poetry and making writing short and crisp.
  • As noted in the beginning of Lesson 2, this second person pronoun is to be used, only when one is sure that one is not offending linguistic etiquette. Safer linguistic etiquette is to use the pronoun भवत् – the Respectful second person pronoun.
  • Even when speaking of Respectful second person pronoun, and knowing that God is respectful, comes to mind a famous prayer
    • त्वमेव माता च पिता त्वमेव ।  त्वमेव बन्धुश्च सखा त्वमेव । त्वमेव विद्या द्रविणं त्वमेव । त्वमेव सर्वं मम देव देव ॥
    • All across this prayer this pronoun युष्मद् only is used. Endorsement for such offence of etiquette is possibly obtained from use of the word सखा. सखा means friend.  When one is talking to a friend, one is not bound to follow the etiquettes. Rather, following etiquette becomes offensive to the concept of friendship.
    • In eleventh chapter in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता, on being blessed with the sight of imposing Universal form of भगवान् श्रीकृष्ण, अर्जुन gets a feeling of remorse and pleads pardon for having behaved with श्रीकृष्ण all along as a mere friend. सखेति मत्त्वा प्रसभं यदुक्तम् | हे कृष्ण हे यादव हे सखेति (११-४१)….. तत्क्षामये त्वामहमप्रमेयम्  (११-४२). Even when pleading for pardon, अर्जुन still uses this second person pronoun, saying  त्वाम्
    • Pronoun युष्मद् can very much be used, but always keeping judicious balance about when to use it.
    • Etiquette of speech is so much inherent in Sanskrit ! Marvellous !

Since we are at pronoun of second person, we should see declensions of the respectful second person pronoun  भवत्.

Table 4-5

Declensions of Pronoun भवत्  in masculine पुंल्लिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

भवान्

भवन्तौ

भवन्तः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

भवन्तम्

भवन्तौ

भवतः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

भवता

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

भवते

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

भवतः

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

भवतः

भवतोः

भवताम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

भवति

भवतोः

भवत्सु

Table 4-6

Declensions of Pronoun भवत्  in Feminine – स्त्रीलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

भवती

भवत्यौ

भवत्यः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

भवतीम्

भवत्यौ

भवतीः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

भवत्या

भवतीभ्याम्

भवतीभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

भवत्यै

भवतीभ्याम्

भवतीभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

भवत्याः

भवतीभ्याम्

भवतीभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

भवत्याः

भवत्योः

भवतीनाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

भवत्याम्

भवत्योः

भवतीषु

Table 4-7

Declensions of Pronoun भवत्  in Neuter – नपुंसकलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

भवत्

भवती

भवन्ति

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

भवत्

भवती

भवन्ति

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

भवता

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

भवते

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

भवतः

भवद्भ्याम्

भवद्भ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

भवतः

भवतोः

भवताम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

भवति

भवतोः

भवत्सु

It may be noted that except for First and Second cases, declensions in all other cases are identical for Masculine and Neuter.

On to pronouns of Third Person. First case declensions of the pronouns in Masculine (He), Feminine (She) and Neuter (It) in all three numbers have been already detailed. All the declensions in all cases and numbers are now in Tables 4-8, 4-9 and 4-10. The root name of the pronoun is तत्

Table 4-8

Masculine Declensions of Pronoun तत् – पुंल्लिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

सः

तौ

ते

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

तम्

तौ

तान्

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

तेन

ताभ्याम्

तैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

तस्मै

ताभ्याम्

तेभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

तस्मात्

ताभ्याम्

तेभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

तस्य

तयोः

तेषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

तस्मिन्

तयोः

तेषु

Table 4-9

Feminine Declensions of Pronoun तत् – स्त्रीलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

सा

ते

ताः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

ताम्

ते

ताः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

तया

ताभ्याम्

ताभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

तस्यै

ताभ्याम्

ताभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

तस्याः

ताभ्याम्

ताभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

तस्याः

तयोः

तासाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

तस्याम्

तयोः

तासु

Table 4-10

Neuter Declensions of Pronoun तत् – नपुंसकलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

तत्

ते

तानि

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

तत्

ते

तानि

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

तेन

ताभ्याम्

तैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

तस्मै

ताभ्याम्

तेभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

तस्मात्

ताभ्याम्

तेभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

तस्य

तयोः

तेषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

तस्मिन्

तयोः

तेषु

The Pronoun तत् is as much a pronoun of third person as it is also an indicative pronoun, equivalent of ‘that’ in English.

Another indicative pronoun in English is ‘this’. For this indicative pronoun, there are three options in Sanskrit – एतत्, इदम् and अदस्. Somehow in common usage, these seem to be popular in this order only – एतत् इदम् and अदस्. But a student should learn them without being concerned of the degree of popularity.

By the way अदस् has both shades of meaning – that of तत् (that) and also of एतत् (this). So it is the option for both.

Table 4-11

Masculine Declensions of Pronoun एतत् – पुंल्लिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

एषः

एतौ

एते

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

एतम्, एनम्

एतौ, एनौ

एतान्, एनान्

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

एतेन

एताभ्याम्

एतैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

एतस्मै

एताभ्याम्

एतेभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

एतस्मात्

एताभ्याम्

एतेभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

एतस्य

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतेषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

एतस्मिन्

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतेषु

Table 4-12

Feminine Declensions of Pronoun एतत् – स्त्रीलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

एषा

एते

एताः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

एताम्, एनाम्

एते, एने

एताः, एनाः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

एतया, एनया

एताभ्याम्

एताभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

एतस्यै

एताभ्याम्

एताभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

एतस्याः

एताभ्याम्

एताभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

एतस्याः

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतासाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

एतस्याम्

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतासु

Table 4-13

Neuter Declensions of Pronoun एतत् – नपुंसकलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

एतत्, एतद्

एते

एतानि

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

एतत्, एतद्, एनत्, एनद्

एते, एने

एतानि, एनानि

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

एतेन, एनेन

एताभ्याम्

एतैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

एतस्मै

एताभ्याम्

एतेभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

एतस्मात्

एताभ्याम्

एतेभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

एतस्य

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतेषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

एतस्मिन्

एतयोः, एनयोः

एतेषु

This is the pronoun with maximum number of optional declensions.

Table 4-14

Masculine Declensions of Pronoun इदम् – पुंल्लिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

अयम्

इमौ

इमे

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

इमम्, एनम्

इमौ, एनौ

इमान्, एनान्

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अनेन, एनेन

आभ्याम्

एभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अस्मै

आभ्याम्

एभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अस्मात्

आभ्याम्

एभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अस्य

अनयोः, एनयोः

एषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अस्मिन्

अनयोः, एनयोः

एषु

Table 4-15

Feminine Declensions of Pronoun इदम् – स्त्रीलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

इयम्

इमे

इमाः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

इमाम्, एनाम्

इमे, एने

इमाः, एनाः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अनया, एनया

आभ्याम्

आभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अस्यै

आभ्याम्

आभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अस्याः

आभ्याम्

आभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अस्याः

अनयोः, एनयोः

आसाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अस्याम्

अनयोः, एनयोः

आसु

Table 4-16

Neuter Declensions of Pronoun इदम् – नपुंसकलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

इदम्

इमे

इमानि

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

इदम्, एनत्

इमे, एने

इमानि, एनानि

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अनेन, एनेन

आभ्याम्

एभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अस्मै

आभ्याम्

एभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अस्मात्

आभ्याम्

एभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अस्य

अनयोः, एनयोः

एषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अस्मिन्

अनयोः, एनयोः

एषु

Table 4-17

Masculine Declensions of Pronoun अदस् – पुंल्लिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

असौ

अमू

अमी

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

अमूम्

अमू

अमून्

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अमुना

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अमुष्मै

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अमुष्मात्

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अमुष्य

अमुयोः

अमीषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अमुष्मिन्

अमुयोः

अमीषु

Table 4-18

Feminine Declensions of Pronoun अदस् – स्त्रीलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

असौ

अमू

अमूः

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

अमूम्

अमू

अमूः

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अमुया

अमूभ्याम्

अमूभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अमुष्यै

अमूभ्याम्

अमूभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अमुष्याः

अमूभ्याम्

अमूभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अमुष्याः

अमुयोः

अमूषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अमुष्याम्

अमुयोः

अमूषु

Table 4-19

Neuter Declensions of Pronoun अदस् – नपुंसकलिङ्ग-रूपाणि

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

अमु

अमुनी

अमूनि

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

अमु

अमुनी

अमूनि

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

अमुना

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभिः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

अमुष्मै

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभ्यः

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

अमुष्मात्

अमूभ्याम्

अमीभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

अमुष्य

अमुयोः

अमीषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अमुष्मिन्

अमुयोः

अमीषु

With as many as 19 tabulations above, this lesson may sound to be drab. But details provided here are possibly the most useful. Most of conversations take place using pronouns.

For example, on meeting a stranger, first question one would ask would be “What is your name ?” There are two pronouns here – what and your. In Sanskrit and to ask the question respectfully, one would ask भवतः नाम किम् ? If a stranger were to ask this question to me, I would reply, “My name is Shreepaada.” In Sanskrit मम नाम श्रीपाद-इति.

If two friends are talking between them and one of them knows me, and the other person wants to know my name from his friend, he would ask his friend “What is his name ?” In Sanskrit तस्य नाम किम् ? His friend would reply तस्य नाम श्रीपाद-इति.

But consider another situation. Ramesh accompanies Suresh to Suresh’s school. Ramesh is new to the school. When looking around, he spots a respectable person. He wants to enquire with Suresh, who the person is. In English he would ask, “Who is he ?” सः कः ? But asking of a respectable person this way would not be good etiquette. He could rather enquire भवान् कः ? Suresh may reply भवान् आचार्यः “Sir is a Professor”. This becomes a good example to illustrate why the pronoun भवत् should have verbs of Third Person.

Consider yet another situation. I am accompanying my friend Ashok. We meet Ashok’s friend Deepak. Somehow Ashok forgets introducing me to Deepak. Deepak himself enquires with Ashok, “Who is this ?” How do we translate this in Sanskrit. For the pronoun ‘this’ in Sanskrit we have options. कः एषः ? or कः अयम् ? or कः असौ ? I would think that कः अयम् ? is more informal, smoother, more intimate and softer than कः एषः ? It may be noted that the vowel अ consonant य in अयम् are softer than vowel ए and consonant ष in एषः Naturally कः अयम् ? would make a softer and more decent speech than कः एषः ?

With minimum 21 declensions detailed for अस्मद् and युष्मद् and with minimum 63 declensions detailed for each of भवत् तत् एतत् इदम् अदस् किम् we have such a vast (2×21 + 6×63 = 420) repertoire of diction learnt. But we can consider all this repertoire really acquired only when we can use with ease. There is a ‘good verse’ सुभाषितम् which says –

पुस्तकस्था तु या विद्या परहस्तगतं धनम् |

कार्यकाले समुत्पन्ने न सा विद्या न तद्धनम् ||

meaning, “The knowledge which stays in the book, is like wealth in some else’s hands. When occasion demands prompt usage, that knowledge in the book and the wealth in some else’s hands, both are meaningless.” (A study of this सुभाषितम् is detailed in lesson No. 14 at http://slabhyankar.wordpress.com/)

People do not like the ‘rote learning’ method. I do not know whether there is any other method to get ease in the use of so many declensions.

One impressive thing of the structuring of so many declensions of each pronoun is that they can be recited with a beautiful rhythm. I guess, the Dual number द्विवचन also has a significance in facilitating that rhythm.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 3

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 3

सरलं संस्कृतम् – तृतीयः पाठः ।

All the 600 sentences in present tense from Lessons 1 and 2 can be transformed into interrogatives by just adding an interrogative किम्  For example,

Table 3-1

Interrogatives using किम्

Sentence in Present tense

English

Interrogative

English

भवत्यः गच्छन्ति

(see Table 2-2)

You (ladies) go

भवत्यः गच्छन्ति किम् ?

Do you ladies go ?

(Note Table 2-2 means in Lesson 2 Table 2. All tables in both previous lessons have been renumbered in this pattern.)

Now किम् is a pronoun, an interrogative pronoun, equivalent to the English interrogatives who, what, which.

Although किम् is equivalent to ‘who’, a question in English “Who goes ?”  should not be translated as किम् गच्छति ?

In Sanskrit we have to be conscious of the gender.

  • If the question “Who goes ?” is about a person, whose gender is not known, the most common gender by convention in Sanskrit should be masculine. Then the question should be कः गच्छति ?
  • But if the gender is known then the question should be with appropriate form of the pronoun किम् . Among a group of girls they would ask का गच्छति ?
  • But suppose two friends are sitting together chatting. Suddenly one of them is disturbed by something, some insect having crept away somewhere. Then the other friend would anxiously ask किम् गच्छति ? “What goes ?”.

As was done for the pronouns in Table 1-4 (Note, Table 1-4 stands for Table 4 in Lesson 1) and was done also for the pronoun भवत् in Table 2-1 it would be good to tabulate forms of this pronoun किम् .

Table 3-2

Forms of Pronoun किम्

Gender लिङ्ग

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

Masculine पुंल्लिङ्ग

कः

कौ

के

Feminine स्त्रीलिङ्ग

का

के

का:

Neuter नपुंसकलिङ्ग

किम्

के

कानि

When the sentence सः गच्छति is transformed into interrogative सः गच्छति किम् ? the meaning is “Does he go ?”

  • But सः गच्छति could be an answer to a question “Who goes ?” The question could as well be कः गच्छति ?
  • There could as well be a situation when a Captain is wanting any one of his cadets to volunteer and would ask, कः गच्छति ? And one, who would volunteer, would say अहं गच्छामि. Or many would together volunteer saying वयं गच्छामः If two would volunteer together they would say आवां गच्छावः

By the way, it should be interesting to note that it is very much permissible in most languages, at least colloquially to use Present Tense in place of Future.

Coming back to interrogatives, in transforming the sentence सः गच्छति into interrogative सः गच्छति किम् ? the two-word sentence has become a 3-word sentence. That arouses a curiosity about the role of each word in the sentence.

About the role of a word in a sentence, in English grammar there is the concept of eight Parts of Speech –

  • Preposition, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective,
  • Verb, Adverb,
  • Conjunction,
  • Exclamatory.

In Sanskrit grammar, prepositions are merged into the noun, pronoun adjectives by making word-formations in seven cases.

For example

  • “a book” in Sanskrit is पुस्तकम्
  • “in the book” would be पुस्तके.

Note, both preposition ‘in’ and article ‘the’ are merged along with the noun ‘book’ and all together become one single word पुस्तके – just one word for three. That is brevity.

(I understand that microprocessor designers are impressed by this brevity, because this can help signals in the microprocessor to travel and be processed faster. That may help microprocessors to do large number of tasks, also much faster.)

There is another angle to the formation of a word such as पुस्तके. Suppose we want to translate the English sentence “There are pictures in the book.”, the translation would be पुस्तके चित्राणि सन्ति. Now, rules of syntax of English would not permit any word to be sprewn around anywhere. You cannot say “Pictures there in are book the.” But in Sanskrit it is perfectly permissible to put the words in any order.

  1. पुस्तके चित्राणि सन्ति
  2. पुस्तके सन्ति चित्राणि
  3. चित्राणि पुस्तके सन्ति
  4. चित्राणि सन्ति पुस्तके
  5. सन्ति पुस्तके चित्राणि
  6. सन्ति चित्राणि पुस्तके

If there are ‘n’ number of words in a sentence, there can be nPn number of permutations of syntax of the sentence ! Isn’t that awesome flexibility ? This is possible because every word is given a formation, which gives it the strength to stand by itself anywhere in the sentence. This facilitated much of Sanskrit literature to be poetry.

Possibly this aspect of flexibility is also important and beneficial for microprocessor-design. The designer can select that order, which is most suitable for fastest processing of the signal. Or the microprocessor can be given ‘artificial intelligence’ for the signal to select by itself the path of least resistance.

Having said that the English phrase ‘in the book’ becomes पुस्तके in Sanskrit, it should be interesting to learn which ‘case’ denotes which preposition.

Table 3-3

correspondence between ‘case’ विभक्ति and English Prepositions

‘case’ विभक्ति

when used or English Preposition

Forms of word पुस्तकम् when singular

Example

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

for ‘subject’ words in a sentence

पुस्तकम्

पुस्तकम् अस्ति

(There) is a book

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

for direct objects in a sentence

पुस्तकम्

पुस्तकम् गृहाण

Take the book

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

with, by

पुस्तकेन

पुस्तकेन ज्ञानम् भवति

Knowledge happens by a book

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

for, to

पुस्तकाय

पुस्तकाय वेष्टणम्

Cover for the book

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

from

पुस्तकात्

पुस्तकात् गीतम्

song from the book

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

of

पुस्तकस्य

पुस्तकस्य लेखकः

writer (or author) of the book

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

in, at, on, upon

पुस्तके

पुस्तके चित्राणि

pictures in the book

Pronouns will have word-formations (declensions of a root word) for all three genders लिङ्ग-s in all cases विभक्ति-s and all three numbers – Singular एकवचनम्, Dual द्विवचनम् and Plural बहुवचनम्. Totally 3x3x7 = 63 declensions

Declensions of the pronoun किम् will be very handy to frame and ask a large number of questions.

Table 3-4

Masculine declensions of Pronoun किम् – पुंल्लिङ्ग

‘case’ विभक्ति

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

कः

कौ

के

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

कम्

कौ

कान्

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

केन

काभ्याम्

कैः

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

कस्मै

काभ्याम्

केभ्य:

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

कस्मात्

काभ्याम्

केभ्यः

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

कस्य

कयोः

केषाम्

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

कस्मिन्

कयोः

केषु

Let us try and frame sets of questions and answers to understand the usefulness of these word-forms.

Table 3-5

sets of questions and answers – in masculine Singular पुंल्लिङ्गि एकवचनम्

‘case’ विभक्ति

Question प्रश्नः

Answer  उत्तरम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

कः प्रत्यागच्छति ?

Who returns ?

त्वं प्रत्यागच्छसि

You return

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

कम्  पृच्छसि ?

To whom do you ask ?

शिक्षकं पृच्छामि

(I) ask the teacher

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

केन सिद्धिः ?

By what attainment ?

अभ्यासेन सिद्धिः

Attainment by persistence

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

कस्मै नमः

To whom the obeisances ?

श्रीगणेशाय नमः

Obeisances to Shri-GaNesha !!

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

कस्मात् भयम् ?

Fear from whom ?

चोरात् भयम्

Fear from a thief

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

कस्य शौर्यम् ?

Whose bravery ?

सैनिकस्य शौर्यम्

Bravery of soldier

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

कस्मिन् जलम् ?

Wherein the water ?

घटे जलम्

Water in a jar

It ought to be noted that in framing the questions and answers, the answer-word had to match पुंल्लिङ्ग, एकवचनम् and the विभक्ति. For example कम् – शिक्षकम्, केन – अभ्यासेन, कस्मै – श्रीगणेशाय, कस्मात् – चोरात्, कस्य – सैनिकस्य, कस्मिन् – घटे
It should be noted that

  • all the words शिक्षक, अभ्यास, श्रीगणेश, चोर, सैनिक, घट are masculine singular पुंल्लिङ्ग, एकवचनम् .
  • The other words are of different genders –
    • सिद्धिः is feminine,
    • नमः is masculine,
    • भयम्, शौर्यम् and जलम् are neuter.

Point to be noted is that every noun has a gender of its own.

In English we are not worried about the gender of nouns. For example when we say “water in a jar” we are not concerned about the genders of ‘water’ and ‘jar’. In English, the concern for gender is only for pronouns, that too for third person, singular pronouns – he or she or it.

In Sanskrit, we have to be conscious of gender of all pronouns and of nouns also. The gender, number and case of the pronoun has to match the gender, number and case of the noun, it stands for. The pronoun कम् in the question corresponds to the noun शिक्षकम् in the answer. Both are masculine, second case, singular. Such correspondence between gender, number and case of both noun and pronoun is observed in all the other pairs केन – अभ्यासेन, कस्मै – श्रीगणेशाय, कस्मात् – चोरात्, कस्य – सैनिकस्य, कस्मिन् – घटे

By the way, in the process of framing questions and answers, many new words also have got introduced. They are not difficult. But they have their own forms. We shall get to discuss them in due course.

Table 3-6

7 sets of questions and answers – in Masculine Dual पुंल्लिङ्गि द्विवचनम्

‘case’ विभक्ति

Question प्रश्नः

Answer  उत्तरम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

अत्र कौ स्तः ?

Who (two) are here ?

अत्र आवां स्वः

We (two) are here

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

नमनाय कौ मिलसि ?

What (two) do you join for bowing ?

नमनाय हस्तौ मिलामि

I join hands for bowing

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

सः काभ्याम् शृणोति ?

By what (two) does he hear ?

सः कर्णाभ्यां शृणोति

He hears with (his two) ears.

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

काभ्याम् माता अन्नं ददाति ?

To whom (two) does mother give food ?

माता बालकाभ्यां अन्नं ददाति

Mother gives food to (two) children

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

काभ्याम् जलं पतति ?

From which two does water drop ?

हस्ताभ्यां जलं पतति

Water drops from (two) hands

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

कयोः पिता ?

Father of who (two) ?

पुत्रयोः पिता

Father of two sons

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

कयोः पादत्राणे ?

On which (two) the (two) footwears ?

पादयोः पादत्राणे

(Two) Footwears on (two) feet

Note, in the last question and answer, footwear पादत्राणे and feet both are in dual द्विवचनम्.
Note also that

  • काभ्याम् is in third, fourth and fifth cases.
  • कयोः is both in sixth case and seventh case.

In a given sentence whether the case of काभ्याम् is third, or fourth or fifth or whether case of कयोः is sixth or seventh, is to be understood by keeping in mind the context.

Table 3-7

7 sets of questions and answers – in Masculine Plural पुंल्लिङ्गि बहुवचनम्

‘case’ विभक्ति

Question प्रश्नः

Answer  उत्तरम्

First (or Nominative case) प्रथमा

के ते ?

Who (are) they ?

ते वाचकाः

They (are) readers

Second (or Accusative case) द्वितीया

कान् पश्यसि खे ?

Whom do you see in the sky ?

खे खगान् पश्यामि

I see birds in the sky

Third (or instrumental case) तृतीया

कैः राक्षसाः हताः ?

By whom were demons killed ?

वानरैः राक्षसाः हताः

Demons were killed by monkeys.

Fourth (or Dative case) चतुर्थी

केभ्यः प्रशस्तिः ?

Praise for whom ?

चतुरेभ्यः प्रशस्तिः

Praise for the smart-ones

Fifth (or Ablative case) पञ्चमी

केभ्यः ज्ञानम् ?

Knowledge from whom ?

आचार्येभ्यः ज्ञानम् ?

Knowledge from precepts

Sixth (or genitive case) षष्ठी

केषाम् विजयः ?

Victory of whom ?

वीराणां विजयः

Victory of the mighty

Seventh (or Locative case) सप्तमी

अश्वत्थः केषु श्रेष्ठः ?

Among whom is Ashwattha tree most superior

अश्वत्थः वृक्षेषु श्रेष्ठः

Ashwattha tree is superiormost among trees

In the question and answer for third case the word हताः stands for “were killed”. In the question and answer phrases हताः is not the verb, हताः is adjectival but serves the function of a verb. We shall come to such formations in due course.

In the question and answer for the seventh case, अश्वत्थः is explained as holy fig tree in Apte’s dictionary.

Eight more Tables of questions and answers as in 3-4, 3-5, 3-6, 3-7 can be compiled and need to be compiled for feminine and neuter forms of pronoun किम् . We shall continue with these in the next lesson.

Before closing, it comes to mind that whereas all 600 sentences can be transformed into their interrogatives by using the pronoun किम् negatives of them all can be obtained by using an indeclinable न. Sanskrit term for ‘indeclinable’ is अव्यय. We have seen above various masculine forms obtaining for the pronoun किम् and we shall see more with feminine and neuter genders. But an indeclinable such as न has no more derivations of it. ‘No change’ is exactly the meaning of अव्यय.

Interestingly, making interrogatives and negatives of all the 600 sentences will happen in the following manner.

Table 3-8

Basic sentence, Interrogative, Affirmative answer, Negative answer

Basic sentence Interrogative Affirmative answer Negative answer
सः गच्छति |
He goes
सः गच्छति किम् ?
Does he go ?
सः गच्छति |
He goes
सः गच्छति न |
He does not go

(Note – The vertical ‘|’ at the end of the sentence सः गच्छति | is Sanskrit ‘full stop’, end of a sentence or end of a line in poetry)

This pattern would give the opportunity to utter every sentence 4 times. So, 2400 utterances from the 600 sentences !! Let your tongue and voice box get exercised with all these many utterances. That will get so much Sanskrit into your blood. You may realize that Sanskrit has the definite quality of purifying the tongue and the pronunciation !!

If you want, you can utter सः गच्छति किम् ? and सः गच्छति न  in 6 syntax options each !!

-o-O-o-

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 2

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 2

सरलं संस्कृतम् – द्वितीयः पाठः ।

Sentences in the first lesson were simple. Yet simplest sentence in any language is a single-word sentence, which is often in imperative mood. For example ‘Go’. Although it is a sentence with single word, which is a verb, the subject is implicit. “Go” means “(You) go”.

In Sanskrit also, it would be a single-word sentence, गच्छ. But if one is addressing two people to go, one would say गच्छतम् and if one is addressing more than two persons, then गच्छत.

Addressing anybody in the second person is not considered good linguistic etiquette. In Sanskrit there is a respectful pronoun of the second person and it takes verbs in third person ! The pronoun is भवत्. This pronoun also has structuring according to gender and number. So the pronoun-forms become as in Table 1 below.

Table 2-1

Gender लिङ्ग

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

Masculine पुंल्लिङ्ग

भवान्

भवन्तौ

भवन्तः

Feminine स्त्रीलिङ्ग

भवती

भवत्यौ

भवत्यः

Neuter नपुंसकलिङ्ग

भवत्

भवती

भवन्ति

With this we have now 9 more pronoun-subjects available to make 9 more sentences for the 16 धातु-s detailed in Lesson 1 !! So, 144 more sentences !!!
All the pronouns in Table 1 will, as mentioned above take verbs in third person. So, for the धातु, गम् the 9 sentences in present tense will be as in Table 2.

Table 2-2

Present tense of गम् for pronouns in Table 1

Gender लिङ्ग

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

Masculine पुंल्लिङ्ग

भवान् गच्छति

भवन्तौ गच्छतः

भवन्तः गच्छन्ति

Feminine स्त्रीलिङ्ग

भवती गच्छति

भवत्यौ गच्छतः

भवत्यः गच्छन्ति

Neuter नपुंसकलिङ्ग

भवत् गच्छति

भवती गच्छतः

भवन्ति गच्छन्ति

These are the sentences in present tense. Coming back to the imperative mood called as आज्ञार्थ the verbal forms in third person for the धातु, गम् are गच्छतु गच्छताम् गच्छन्तु
Having mentioned the verbal forms in imperative mood both for second person and also in third person, in Sanskrit the structure is made complete by providing forms also for first person ! This may not be needed. But poetic justice may need addressing even oneself in the imperative mood ! Sanskrit provides for that !! So the verbal forms in imperative mood for the धातु, गम् are tabulated in Table 3.

Table 2-3

Forms in Imperative mood आज्ञार्थ-रूपाणि for verbal-root गम्-धातु

Person

Singular एकवचनम्

Dual द्विवचनम्

Plural बहुवचनम्

First

गच्छानि

गच्छाव

गच्छाम

Second

गच्छ

गच्छतम्

गच्छत

Third

गच्छतु

गच्छताम्

गच्छन्तु

In Sanskrit the imperative mood also has the shade of blessing or that shade of meaning, which is implicit in the English auxiliary verb ‘may’. Elders would often bless youngsters saying शुभं भवतु. (शुभं = good, happy, pleasant, blissful भवतु = may it be) As can be appreciated, the subject here is ‘it’. Hence the Imperative, third person, singular form of धातु भू is भवतु (= may it be)

Imperative mood is also used for the meaning as of the English auxiliary verb ‘let’. To say, “Let it be” in Sanskrit we would say it in a single word अस्तु. That is imperative third person singular of the धातु अस् (= to be).

Scriptures of all religions advocate “Speak the truth, be with righteous behaviour” सत्यं वद धर्मं चर. Here वद and चर are imperative, second person, singular forms for the धातु-s वद् and चर्. The implicit subject is ‘you’ त्वम्.

It is very important and useful to learn the imperative mood.
We can add a few more new धातु-s into our diction.

 Table 2-4

Forms in Imperative mood आज्ञार्थ-रूपाणि for few more new धातु-s

No. Verbal Root Meaning Forms in Imperative mood आज्ञार्थ-रूपाणि
17 चर् to move about, to go about, to conduct oneself चराणि चराव चराम
चर चरतम् चरत
चरतु चरताम् चरन्तु
18 मिल् to meet मिलानि मिलाव मिलाम
मिल मिलतम्  मिलत
मिलतु मिलताम् मिलन्तु
19 पठ् to read पठानि पठाव पठाम
पठ पठतम् पठत
पठतु पठताम् पठन्तु
20 पत् to fall पतानि पताव पताम
पत पततम् पतत
पततु पतताम् पतन्तु
21 दृश् to see पश्यानि पश्याव पश्याम
पश्य पश्यतम् पश्यत
पश्यतु पश्यताम् पश्यन्तु
22 त्यज् to leave, to forsake, to cast off त्यजानि त्यजाव त्यजाम
त्यज त्यजतम् त्यजत
त्यजतु त्यजताम् त्यजन्तु
23 लिख् to write लिखानि लिखाव लिखाम
लिख लिखतम् लिखत
लिखतु लिखताम् लिखन्तु
24 पृच्छ to ask पृच्छानि पृच्छाव पृच्छाम
पृच्छ पृच्छतम् पृच्छत
पृच्छतु पृच्छताम् पृच्छन्तु
25 श्रु / शृ to hear, to listen to श्रुणवानि श्रुणवाव शृणवाम
शृणु शृणुतम् शृणुत
शृणोतु शृणुताम् शृण्वन्तु

With 15 pronoun-forms noted in Lesson 1 and 9 more in Table 1 here, we now have 24 pronoun-forms सर्वनाम-रूपाणि. Taking these as subjects we can make 24 sentences in imperative mood for each of the 25 धातु-s. That gives scope to practise 600 sentences in imperative mood and of course 600 sentences in present tense – total 1200 sentences !!

Of course among the 16 धातु-s in Lesson 1, there were some with peculiar forms. It should be appropriate to have their forms in imperative mood also. Forms in imperative mood for all 16 धातु-s of Lesson 1 are provided in Table 5 below.

Table 2-5

Forms in imperative mood for all 16 धातु-s of Lesson 1

No.

धातु:

Meaning

Forms in Imperative mood आज्ञार्थ-रूपाणि

1

गम् to go गच्छानि गच्छाव गच्छाम
गच्छ गच्छतम्  गच्छत
गच्छतु गच्छताम् गच्छन्तु

2

वद् to say, to speak वदानि वदाव वदाम
वद वदतम् वदत
वदतु वदताम् वदन्तु

3

आ + गम् to come आगच्छानि आगच्छाव आगच्छाम
आगच्छ आगच्छतम्  आगच्छत
आगच्छतु आगच्छताम् आगच्छन्तु

4

प्रति + गम् to go towards, to go unto प्रतिगच्छानि प्रतिगच्छाव प्रतिगच्छाम
प्रतिगच्छ प्रतिगच्छतम्  प्रतिगच्छत
प्रतिगच्छतु प्रतिगच्छताम् प्रतिगच्छन्तु

5

प्रति + आ + गम् to return प्रत्यागच्छानि प्रत्यागच्छाव प्रत्यागच्छाम
प्रत्यागच्छ प्रत्यागच्छतम्  प्रत्यागच्छत
प्रत्यागच्छतु प्रत्यागच्छताम् प्रत्यागच्छन्तु

6

कृ to do करवाणि करवाव करवाम
कुरु कुरुतम् कुरुत
करोतु कुरुताम् कुर्वन्तु

7

खाद् to eat खादानि खादाव खादाम खाद खादतम् खादत खादतु खादताम् खादन्तु

8

पा to drink पिबानि पिबाव पिबाम पिब पिबतम् पिबत पिबतु पिबताम् पिबन्तु

9

अस् to be असानि असाव असाम
एधि स्तम् स्त
अस्तु स्ताम् सन्तु

10

भू to be, to become, to be present भवानि भवाव भवाम भव भवतम् भवत भवतु भवताम् भवन्तु

11

उप + विश् to sit उपविशानि उपविशाव उपविशाम
उपविश उपविशतम् उपविशत
उपविशतु उपविशताम् उपविशन्तु

12

स्था to stand, to halt, to stop तिष्ठानि तिष्ठाव तिष्ठाम
तिष्ठ तिष्ठतम् तिष्ठत
तिष्ठतु तिष्ठताम् तिष्ठन्तु

13

उत् + स्था to stand up उत्तिष्ठानि उत्तिष्ठाव उत्तिष्ठाम
उत्तिष्ठ उत्तिष्ठतम् उत्तिष्ठत
उत्तिष्ठतु उत्तिष्ठताम् उत्तिष्ठन्तु

14

दा to give ददानि ददाव ददाम
देहि दत्तम् दत्त
ददातु दत्ताम् ददतु

15

ग्रह् or गृह् to take, to receive, to accommodate गृह्णानि गृह्णाव गृह्णाम
गृहाण गृह्णीतम् गृह्णीत
गृह्णातु गृह्णीताम् गृह्णन्तु

16

ज्ञा to know, to become aware जानानि जानाव जानाम
जानीहि जानीतम् जानीत
जानातु जानीताम् जानन्तु

I am very happy that having studied Present Tense in Lesson 1 it occurred to me so good to take up Imperative mood आज्ञार्थ in the Lesson 2. There is such a close correspondence in the forms of Present Tense and आज्ञार्थ as can be seen in Table 6 below.

Table 2-6

correspondence in the forms of Present Tense and आज्ञार्थ

धातु:

forms of Present Tense

forms of आज्ञार्थ

गम्

गच्छामि गच्छावः गच्छामः
गच्छसि गच्छथः गच्छथ
गच्छति गच्छतः गच्छन्ति
गच्छानि गच्छाव गच्छाम
गच्छ गच्छतम्  गच्छत
गच्छतु गच्छताम् गच्छन्तु

This observation should help anyone to have by oneself the forms in Present Tense for the new 9 धातु-s introduced in Table 4 in this Lesson.

The exercise of building all the 1200 sentences can be done only when the forms in Present Tense for the new 9 धातु-s introduced in Table 4 in this Lesson are also done.

My remark for what this blog is about is “An easy-paced approach to learn Sanskrit”. Even when saying “easy-paced approach” the exercises for lesson 1 were for 240 sentences. And now the number for lessons 1 and 2 together becomes 1200 sentences ! But they are all just two-word sentences – a pronoun-form as the subject and the corresponding verb-form. That is not difficult. It is easy-paced !! Just do it !!!

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

Go to Lesson 3 =>

Simple Sanskrit – Lesson 1

Simple Sanskrit Lesson 1
सरलं संस्कृतम् प्रथमः पाठः |

Simplest way to start learning Sanskrit is to learn to make simple sentences. Below are some simple sentences.

Table 1-1

1 I go अहं गच्छामि
2 We go वयं गच्छामः
3 You (Singular) go त्वं गच्छसि
4 You (plural) go यूयं गच्छथ
5 He goes सः गच्छति
6 She goes सा गच्छति
7 It goes तत् गच्छति
8 They (masculine) go ते गच्छन्ति
9 They (feminine) go ताः गच्छन्ति
10 They (neuter) go तानि गच्छन्ति

Following glossary in Table 2 is clear from the above.

Table 1-2

No. English Sanskrit What this is
1 I अहं Pronoun – First person, singular
2 We वयं Pronoun – First person, plural
3 You (Singular) त्वं Pronoun – Second person, singular
4 You (plural) यूयं Pronoun – Second person, plural
5 He सः Pronoun – Third person, masculine, singular
6 She सा Pronoun – Third person, feminine, singular
7 It तत् Pronoun – Third person, neuter, singular
8 They (masculine) ते Pronoun – Third person, masculine, plural
9 They (feminine) ताः Pronoun – Third person, feminine, plural
10 They (neuter) तानि Pronoun – Third person, neuter, plural

As is known the pronouns of the third person, singular, viz. He, She, It, are different according to the gender. This is so in Sanskrit also.

In English, the pronoun of third person plural is ‘they’. It is common for all three genders. In Sanskrit it is not common.

Coming to the verb, in English the verb has only two forms – ‘go’ and ‘goes’.
In Sanskrit, they are different according to the person (first, second or third) and number (singular or plural)

Table 1-3

No. Person Number Verb
1 First Singular गच्छामि
2 – First – Plural गच्छामः
3 Second Singular गच्छसि
4 – Second – Plural गच्छथ
5 Third Singular गच्छति
6 – Third – Plural गच्छन्ति

As can be seen, in Sanskrit there is a good, very distinct correspondence between the pronoun and the verb. When we would say गच्छामि it is clear that the subject is pronoun of first person, singular, i.e. अहं So, in Sanskrit if we say गच्छामि it is not at all necessary to say अहं !! The verb-form गच्छामि is structured to be the form for first person singular and hence structured for the subject to be अहं . That is why Sanskrit is called as a “structured” language. One can readily appreciate the usefulness of such ‘structured’-ness of the language. It lends brevity and crispness. If it is not necessary to say अहं गच्छामि and if it is adequate to say just गच्छामि – saying only one word instead of two is fifty percent shorter !

But in the structuring process, the Rishi’s thought it good and important to have the ‘number’-concept to be not just singular and plural, but singular, dual and plural. That applies both to pronouns and the verb-forms.

Table 1-4 – Pronouns

Person Gender Singular Dual Plural
First All अहम् आवाम् वयम्
Second All त्वम् युवाम् यूयम्
Third Masculine सः तौ ते
Third Feminine सा ते ताः
Third Neuter तत् ते तानि

Table 1-5 – Verb-forms

Person Singular Dual Plural
First गच्छामि गच्छावः गच्छामः
Second गच्छसि गच्छथः गच्छथ

Third

गच्छति

गच्छतः

गच्छन्ति

By using appropriate verb-form from Table 5 with the 15 pronoun-forms in Table 4, it is now possible to make 15 sentences.

Table 1-6

15 sentences

1 अहम् गच्छामि | I go
2 आवां गच्छावः We two go
3 वयं गच्छामः We go
4 त्वं गच्छसि You go
5 युवां गच्छथः You two go
6 यूयं गच्छथ You go
7 सः गच्छति He goes
8 तौ गच्छतः They two go
9 ते गच्छन्ति They go
10 सा गच्छति She goes
11 ते गच्छतः They two go
12 ताः गच्छन्ति They go
13 तत् गच्छति It goes
14 ते गच्छतः They two go
15 तानि गच्छन्ति They go

Given this basic structure of 15 sentences, we can take 9 verb-forms of any verbal root and make 15 sentences for each verbal root.

For the Verbal root वद्  (= to say, to speak) the verbal forms are

Table 1-7

Verbal forms for वद्

Person Singular Dual Plural
First वदामि वदावः वदामः
Second वदसि वदथः वदथ
Third वदति वदतः वदन्ति

By the way, one would not find in dictionary the words
गच्छामि गच्छावः गच्छामः गच्छसि गच्छथः गच्छथ  गच्छति गच्छतः गच्छन्ति
वदामि वदावः वदामः वदसि वदथः वदथ वदति वदतः वदन्ति
अहम् आवाम् वयम्
त्वम् युवाम् यूयम्
सः तौ ते
सा ते ताः
तत् ते तानि
These are all derived forms, derived from root words. For example,
वदामि वदावः वदामः वदसि वदथः वदथ वदति वदतः वदन्ति are derived from the verbal root वद्. We can find वद् in the dictionary. This is a huge difference between dictionary of Sanskrit from dictionary of other languages. Of course in English also we do not look for words like me, my, us, our, your, him, his, her, its, them, their, etc. Yet there is a difference and the difference is huge, because number of words which can be derived from a root word is very large. We have just seen 9 words derived from the verbal root वद्. This is not even the tip of an iceberg. These 9 words are of present tense. There will be more words in past and future tenses and in imperative mood and in other moods as obtained in English by using auxiliaries such as shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, might, must. In Sanskrit the emphasis is on deriving a word so that it can stand by itself. That is the basic logic of ‘structuring’.

By the way, the verbal forms गच्छामि गच्छावः गच्छामः गच्छसि गच्छथः गच्छथ  गच्छति गच्छतः गच्छन्ति are derived from the verbal root गम् (= to go). Technical term for verbal root is धातु

It is also to be noted that the words अहं आवां वयं त्वं युवां यूयं are better written as अहम् आवाम् वयम् त्वम् युवाम् यूयम् with the ending म् clearly visible, when the words are stand-alone or at the end of a line of a poem or at the end of a sentence. This in fact is the rule.

Compiled below are verbal forms of some commonplace verbal roots धातु-s.

Table 1-8

verbal forms of some commonplace verbal roots धातु-s

No. Verbal root धातु Meaning Verbal forms
1 गम् to go गच्छामि गच्छावः गच्छामः
गच्छसि गच्छथः गच्छथ
गच्छति गच्छतः गच्छन्ति
2 वद् to say, to speak वदामि वदावः वदामः
वदसि वदथः वदथ
वदति वदतः वदन्ति
3 आ + गम् to come आगच्छामि आगच्छावः आगच्छामः
आगच्छसि आगच्छथः आगच्छथ
आगच्छति आगच्छतः आगच्छन्ति
4 प्रति  + गम् to go towards, to go unto प्रतिगच्छामि प्रतिगच्छावः प्रतिगच्छामः
प्रतिगच्छसि प्रतिगच्छथः प्रतिगच्छथ
प्रतिगच्छति प्रतिगच्छतः प्रतिगच्छन्ति
5 प्रति + आ + गम् to return प्रत्यागच्छामि प्रत्यागच्छावः प्रत्यागच्छामः
प्रत्यागच्छसि प्रत्यागच्छथः प्रत्यागच्छथ
प्रत्यागच्छति प्रत्यागच्छतः प्रत्यागच्छन्ति
6 कृ to do करोमि कुर्वः कुर्मः
करोषि कुरुथः कुरुथ
करोति कुरुतः कुर्वन्ति
7 खाद् to eat खादामि खादावः खादामः
खादसि खादथः खादथ
खादति खादतः खादन्ति
8 पा to drink पिबामि पिबावः पिबामः
पिबसि पिबथः पिबथ
पिबति पिबतः पिबन्ति
9 अस् to be अस्मि स्वः स्मः
असि स्थः स्थ
अस्ति स्तः सन्ति
10 भू to be, to become, to be present भवामि भवावः भवामः
भवसि भवथः भवथ
भवति भवतः भवन्ति
11 उप + विश् to sit उपविशामि उपविशावः उपविशामः
उपविशसि उपविशथः उपविशथ
उपविशति उपविशतः उपविशन्ति
12 स्था to stand, to halt, to stop तिष्ठामि तिष्ठावः तिष्ठामः
तिष्ठसि तिष्ठथः तिष्ठथ
तिष्ठति तिष्ठतः तिष्ठन्ति
13 उत् + स्था to stand up उत्तिष्ठामि उत्तिष्ठावः उत्तिष्ठामः
उत्तिष्ठसि उत्तिष्ठथः उत्तिष्ठथ
उत्तिष्ठति उत्तिष्ठतः उत्तिष्ठन्ति
14 दा to give ददामि दद्वः दद्मः
ददासि दत्थः दत्थ
ददाति दत्तः ददति
15 ग्रह् or गृह् to take, to receive, to accommodate गृह्णामि गृह्णीवः गृह्णीमः
गृह्णासि गृह्णीथः गृह्णीथ
गृह्णाति गृह्णीतः गृह्णन्ति
16 ज्ञा to know, to become aware जानामि जानीवः जानीमः
जानासि जानीथः जानीथ
जानाति जानीतः जानन्ति

All the above verbal forms are of धातु-s which are of a type or class known as परस्मैपदी.

Other type or class of धातु-s is आत्मनेपदी.

There are also धातु-s which can have verbal forms both of परस्मैपदी and आत्मनेपदी types. Such धातु-s are called as उभयपदी.

In above Table 8, it can be seen that the verbal root धातु for ‘to go’ is गम्. The verbal root धातु for ‘to come’ is आ + गम् and that for ‘to return’ is प्रति + आ + गम्. We can say that the basic verbal root is गम्. Then verbal roots आ + गम् and प्रति + आ + गम् are secondary or tertiary verbal roots, derived using prefixes such as आ and प्रति + आ. The prefixes are called as उपसर्ग. Prefixes are common in English also, e.g. inscribe, describe, subscribe, prescribe, circumscribe. Interestingly the prefixes cause the meaning to undergo a radical change. There is a good verse which summarises such radical change in meaning caused by उपसर्ग-s. Will it be good to know that verse ! The verse, श्लोक is –

उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते |

विहाराहार-संहार-प्रहार-प्रतिहारवत् ||

Prefixes cause the meaning of the verbal root to undergo a radical change as it happens in विहार-आहार-संहार-प्रहार-प्रतिहार.

It should be also noted that though all धातु-s in Table 8 are of परस्मैपदी type and have some similarity in the pattern of formation of verb-forms, for some धातु-s, in the formation of verb-forms, there are peculiarities e.g.

  • गम् takes the form गच्छामि,
  • कृ takes the forms करोमि कुर्वः कुर्मः
  • पा takes the forms पिबामि पिबावः पिबामः
  • अस् takes the forms अस्मि स्वः स्मः
  • स्था takes the forms तिष्ठामि तिष्ठावः तिष्ठामः
  • दा takes the forms ददामि दद्वः दद्मः
  • ग्रह् or गृह् takes the forms गृह्णामि गृह्णीवः गृह्णीमः
  • ज्ञा takes the forms जानामि जानीवः जानीमः

These peculiarities also have rules and quite often “Exceptions prove the rule” is also an accepted rule ! It is good to be curious but not good to be over-inquisitive. For the beginning, it would be good to accept the things as given and practice with them. More the practice, even the peculiarities will become natural.

When a child learns its mother tongue, it acquires the tongue by being engulfed in that environment 24×7. If such 24×7 environment is not available for learning a language such as Sanskrit, the option then is to make devoted intense exercise. Luckily, There is a beautiful easy rhythm with everything in Sanskrit. In Table 8, all the nine forms of each verb are set in three lines of three forms in each line. They can be memorized and should be memorized, so intensely that they would come natural when one has to use them and make sentences. With 15 sentences illustrated for the verb गम्, it is possible to practice making 240 sentences from the 16 verbs !!! Why not do that as self-study exercises स्वाध्याय-s to practice this lesson ?

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